Bird Fact Friday: the Baltimore Oriole (as seen on BirdGenie!)

This week’s Bird Fact Friday highlights the Baltimore Oriole, as seen on BirdGenie. Here are some interesting facts about the bird:

  • This bird is melodious, canopy-dwelling, and strikingly plumaged.
  • They are often heard in the spring in Eastern parks and backyards, or high in deciduous trees in open woodlands and edges.
  • They are medium-sized songbirds, ranging from yellow-orange to a brilliant deep orange, with gray or black heads and backs, wing bars, and long curved bills.
  • These acrobatic feeders prefer fruit, flowers, and insects. They also may be attracted to feeders with cut oranges and bananas.
  • Baltimore Orioles live in sock-like hanging nests, which are woven over a period of a week or two by the female, often in an American Elm, maple, or cottonwood tree.
  • They have a lifespan of up to 12 years.
  • Population: 12 million and declining.

Have you seen (or heard) a Baltimore Oriole?

 

BirdGenie

BirdGenie™ is a breakthrough app that helps anyone with an Apple® or Android® smartphone or tablet accurately identify birds in the backyard, local park, or on the nature trail—all with the tap of a button! Just hold up your phone, record the bird singing, and BirdGenie™ helps you identify the species. The app’s highly developed sound identification ability and expert matching system enable bird enthusiasts to achieve an accuracy unheard of in the birding field. It’s perfect for anyone who wants to learn more about the birds around them.

BirdGenie™ includes up to two hundred vocalization types for one hundred species: literally all of the birds likely to be encountered in a backyard or local park, or on a hike, in North America at any time of the year. And the app is easy to use. Just point your smartphone or tablet at a bird, and tap the screen when the bird starts singing. The app’s automatic pre-record feature ensures that you won’t miss the beginning of the song and BirdGenie’s™ patented, highly accurate expert system matches the recording to the closest species. The app’s sophisticated noise-reduction feature means that even in noisy environments, where there is conversation or traffic, you can discover what bird you’re listening to.

Beyond specifying a bird species, BirdGenie™ provides sample songs and spectrograms to compare with your own recording and to guarantee a confident match. The app also includes pictures of all plumages, information about habitat and behavior, and links to further reading. It even has 3-D models for some of the species so you can match different views of a bird. You can share your recordings, photos, and matches with friends and other users, and if you’re so inclined, you can anonymously share recordings to a scientific database to help researchers learn about birdsong variations. No internet connection is required for anything but sharing, making the program accessible everywhere.

Perfect for anyone who wants to know what birds are singing around them, BirdGenie™ takes bird identification to a whole new awesome level.

With BirdGenie™ you can:

  • Quickly identify most birds just by recording their songs
  • Look at vivid images of the bird—some in 3-D!
  • Listen to samples of the bird’s various songs and compare them with your recording
  • Keep a log of all your recordings
  • Share your recordings, matches, and photos with friends and family
  • Browse the built-in catalog to learn about local species, their other songs, their habits and diet, and much more
  • Use the app anywhere, as no internet connection is required!

Important features of BirdGenie™:

  • The matching expert system beats anything in the market today
  • Easy-to-use guided user interface
  • Effective noise-reduction system helps users make identifications in less-than-ideal environments
  • Complete species accounts with multiple photos for all plumage types (some with 3-D models)
  • Comprehensive spectrograms (voiceprints of songs)

Technical Specifications:

  • Requires iOS 10 or later. Compatible with all iPhones after iPhone 6 including 7, 8, X and iPad, iPad Mini, and iPod Touch.
  • Requires Android 5.0 and above. Compatible with most common Android phones and tablets.

Insect of the Week: Pipiza

Adapted from page 308 of Field Guide to the Flower Flies of Northeastern North America:

Pipiza are small black syrphids that vary from having all black abdomens to having paired yellow spots on tergite 2 and sometimes also tergite 3. They can be mistaken for Heringia and Trichopsomyia and so should be checked for a bare anterior anepisternum and katepimeron. Th ere are 52 world species; 11 in the Nearctic and seven from the northeast.

A recent revision in Europe (Vujić et al. 2013) turned much of the original taxonomy on its head and illustrated how difficult this group is. Despite recent work by Coovert (1996) in the Nearctic, taxonomic concepts need to be reevaluated incorporating genetic data. Many problems with current concepts exist but cannot be solved without complete revision. We thus follow Coovert here with the caveat that changes are needed.

Pipiza species are often found flying through herbaceous vegetation or around shrubs. Known larvae are predators of aphids and phylloxera (mostly gall-making or leaf-rolling aphids that create waxy secretions). Characters illustrated below generally work, but male genitalia should be checked for confirmation.

Field Guide to the Flower Flies of Northeastern North America
By Jeffrey H. Skevington, Michelle M. Locke, Andrew D. Young, Kevin Moran, William J. Crins, and Stephen A. Marshall

This is the first comprehensive field guide to the flower flies (also known as hover flies) of northeastern North America. Flower flies are, along with bees, our most important pollinators. Found in a varied range of habitats, from backyard gardens to aquatic ecosystems, these flies are often overlooked because many of their species mimic bees or wasps. Despite this, many species are distinctive and even subtly differentiated species can be accurately identified. This handy and informative guide teaches you how.

With more than 3,000 color photographs and 400 maps, this guide covers all 416 species of flower flies that occur north of Tennessee and east of the Dakotas, including the high Arctic and Greenland. Each species account provides information on size, identification, abundance, and flight time, along with notes on behavior, classification, hybridization, habitats, larvae, and more.

Summarizing the current scientific understanding of our flower fly fauna, this is an indispensable resource for anyone, amateur naturalist or scientist, interested in discovering the beauty of these insect.

Bird Fact Friday – the Indigo Bunting (as seen on BirdGenie!)

This week’s Bird Fact Friday highlights the Indigo Bunting, as seen on BirdGenie. Here are some interesting facts about the bird:

  • This bird is vocal, edge-dwelling and active
  • They are common in summer in the East and the Southwest in brushy edges and fields
  • They are small, short-tailed, and sturdy.
  • Recognizable by their stout conical bill; males are bright blue, females brown.
  • These birds eat insects, seeds, and berries.
  • They are frequently found in concealed nest sites close to the ground.
  • They remain solitary in breeding season but may flock in migration.
  • They have a lifespan of up to 8 years.
  • Population: 28 million and decreasing.

Have you seen (or heard) a Barred Owl?

 

BirdGenie

BirdGenie™ is a breakthrough app that helps anyone with an Apple® or Android® smartphone or tablet accurately identify birds in the backyard, local park, or on the nature trail—all with the tap of a button! Just hold up your phone, record the bird singing, and BirdGenie™ helps you identify the species. The app’s highly developed sound identification ability and expert matching system enable bird enthusiasts to achieve an accuracy unheard of in the birding field. It’s perfect for anyone who wants to learn more about the birds around them.

BirdGenie™ includes up to two hundred vocalization types for one hundred species: literally all of the birds likely to be encountered in a backyard or local park, or on a hike, in North America at any time of the year. And the app is easy to use. Just point your smartphone or tablet at a bird, and tap the screen when the bird starts singing. The app’s automatic pre-record feature ensures that you won’t miss the beginning of the song and BirdGenie’s™ patented, highly accurate expert system matches the recording to the closest species. The app’s sophisticated noise-reduction feature means that even in noisy environments, where there is conversation or traffic, you can discover what bird you’re listening to.

Beyond specifying a bird species, BirdGenie™ provides sample songs and spectrograms to compare with your own recording and to guarantee a confident match. The app also includes pictures of all plumages, information about habitat and behavior, and links to further reading. It even has 3-D models for some of the species so you can match different views of a bird. You can share your recordings, photos, and matches with friends and other users, and if you’re so inclined, you can anonymously share recordings to a scientific database to help researchers learn about birdsong variations. No internet connection is required for anything but sharing, making the program accessible everywhere.

Perfect for anyone who wants to know what birds are singing around them, BirdGenie™ takes bird identification to a whole new awesome level.

With BirdGenie™ you can:

  • Quickly identify most birds just by recording their songs
  • Look at vivid images of the bird—some in 3-D!
  • Listen to samples of the bird’s various songs and compare them with your recording
  • Keep a log of all your recordings
  • Share your recordings, matches, and photos with friends and family
  • Browse the built-in catalog to learn about local species, their other songs, their habits and diet, and much more
  • Use the app anywhere, as no internet connection is required!

Important features of BirdGenie™:

  • The matching expert system beats anything in the market today
  • Easy-to-use guided user interface
  • Effective noise-reduction system helps users make identifications in less-than-ideal environments
  • Complete species accounts with multiple photos for all plumage types (some with 3-D models)
  • Comprehensive spectrograms (voiceprints of songs)

Technical Specifications:

  • Requires iOS 10 or later. Compatible with all iPhones after iPhone 6 including 7, 8, X and iPad, iPad Mini, and iPod Touch.
  • Requires Android 5.0 and above. Compatible with most common Android phones and tablets.

Insect of the Week: Palpadas

Adapted from pages 120-121 of Field Guide to the Flower Flies of Northeastern North America

Palpadas are a distinctive New World genus of flies, generally resembling Eristalis, but with a characteristic color pattern consistent throughout most of the species in the genus. The larvae are filter feeders in aquatic environments. There are 83 valid species, only four of which make it into our area.

The Palpada vinetorum is typically 10-13.5mm in length, with a pollinose face and a yellow medial stripe. Their wings are partly microtrichose apically. These flies are fairly common, with flight times in early June through mid-October. Like other Palpada species in our area, this species may be migratory. Flowers visited include Baccharis, Gymnosperma, Lobularia, Miconia, Serjania, and Solidago.

Field Guide to the Flower Flies of Northeastern North America
By Jeffrey H. Skevington, Michelle M. Locke, Andrew D. Young, Kevin Moran, William J. Crins, and Stephen A. Marshall

This is the first comprehensive field guide to the flower flies (also known as hover flies) of northeastern North America. Flower flies are, along with bees, our most important pollinators. Found in a varied range of habitats, from backyard gardens to aquatic ecosystems, these flies are often overlooked because many of their species mimic bees or wasps. Despite this, many species are distinctive and even subtly differentiated species can be accurately identified. This handy and informative guide teaches you how.

With more than 3,000 color photographs and 400 maps, this guide covers all 416 species of flower flies that occur north of Tennessee and east of the Dakotas, including the high Arctic and Greenland. Each species account provides information on size, identification, abundance, and flight time, along with notes on behavior, classification, hybridization, habitats, larvae, and more.

Summarizing the current scientific understanding of our flower fly fauna, this is an indispensable resource for anyone, amateur naturalist or scientist, interested in discovering the beauty of these insect.

Further Reading on Biodiversity & Extinction

This morning, the UN published an extensive report on the decline of biodiversity around the globe, and how this will impact humanity. The report, which was prepared by thousands of experts and included information from thousands of scientific studies, found that native plant and animal life has fallen by 20 percent or more, mainly over the past century. 

We’ve put together a reading list for anyone interested in better understanding biodiversity, extinction, and what needs to be done down to bring our planet back from the brink: 

The Last Butterflies: A Scientist’s Quest to Save a Rare and Vanishing Creature
By Nick Haddad

A first-hand account of studying and striving to save the world’s rarest butterflies that details how global changes threaten their existence, and how we can begin to bring them back from near-extinction. 

 

The Lives of Bees: The Untold Story of the Honey Bee in the Wild
By Thomas D. Seeley

A manifesto for studying the lives of wild honey bees as a means of saving one of the natural world’s most important pollinators. 

The Serengeti Rules: The Quest to Discover How Life Works and Why It Matters
By Sean Carroll

How does nature produce the right numbers of zebras and lions on the African savanna, or fish in the ocean? In The Serengeti Rules, Sean B. Carroll shows how answers to questions like these matter for our health and the health of the planet on which we depend.

How to Clone a Mammoth: The Science of De-Extinction
By Beth Shapiro

In How to Clone a Mammoth, evolutionary biologist Beth Shapiro investigates the technical, ethical, and ecological challenges in bringing extinct species back, and how advances in these areas will redefine conservation. 

 

The New Ecology: Rethinking a Science for the Anthropocene
By Oswald J. Schmitz

Our species is single-handedly transforming the entire planet to suit its own needs. Because of this, ecologists have begun to think differently about the interdependence of humans and the natural world. This concise and accessible book provides the best available introduction to what this new ecology is really all about. 

 

Ecological Forecasting 
By Michael C. Dietze 

In Ecological Forecasting, Michael C. Dietze presents a new way of doing ecology that uses a closer connection between data and models to help project our current understanding of ecological processes into new places and times. 

 

Bird Fact Friday: the Barred Owl (as seen on BirdGenie!)

This week’s Bird Fact Friday highlights the Barred Owl, as seen on BirdGenie. Here are some interesting facts about the bird:

  • This owl is large, sedentary, and dark-eyed. It is also loudly vocal.
  • Originally an Eastern bird, this owl has spread to the Pacific Northwest, sometimes competing with Spotted Owls.
  • They are mottled brown, without ear tufts, and have short, rounded tails.
  • Barred Owls are often found perched in large trees in mature mixed forests, often near water. These areas are more likely to have cavities for nesting and a diverse range of prey, especially small mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates.
  • Pairs likely mate for life, and use largely unmodified cavities for nesting.
  • They are sometimes predated by Great-horned Owls
  • They have a lifespan of up to 24 years.
  • Population: 3 million and increasing.

Have you seen (or heard) a Barred Owl?

 

BirdGenie

BirdGenie™ is a breakthrough app that helps anyone with an Apple® or Android® smartphone or tablet accurately identify birds in the backyard, local park, or on the nature trail—all with the tap of a button! Just hold up your phone, record the bird singing, and BirdGenie™ helps you identify the species. The app’s highly developed sound identification ability and expert matching system enable bird enthusiasts to achieve an accuracy unheard of in the birding field. It’s perfect for anyone who wants to learn more about the birds around them.

BirdGenie™ includes up to two hundred vocalization types for one hundred species: literally all of the birds likely to be encountered in a backyard or local park, or on a hike, in North America at any time of the year. And the app is easy to use. Just point your smartphone or tablet at a bird, and tap the screen when the bird starts singing. The app’s automatic pre-record feature ensures that you won’t miss the beginning of the song and BirdGenie’s™ patented, highly accurate expert system matches the recording to the closest species. The app’s sophisticated noise-reduction feature means that even in noisy environments, where there is conversation or traffic, you can discover what bird you’re listening to.

Beyond specifying a bird species, BirdGenie™ provides sample songs and spectrograms to compare with your own recording and to guarantee a confident match. The app also includes pictures of all plumages, information about habitat and behavior, and links to further reading. It even has 3-D models for some of the species so you can match different views of a bird. You can share your recordings, photos, and matches with friends and other users, and if you’re so inclined, you can anonymously share recordings to a scientific database to help researchers learn about birdsong variations. No internet connection is required for anything but sharing, making the program accessible everywhere.

Perfect for anyone who wants to know what birds are singing around them, BirdGenie™ takes bird identification to a whole new awesome level.

With BirdGenie™ you can:

  • Quickly identify most birds just by recording their songs
  • Look at vivid images of the bird—some in 3-D!
  • Listen to samples of the bird’s various songs and compare them with your recording
  • Keep a log of all your recordings
  • Share your recordings, matches, and photos with friends and family
  • Browse the built-in catalog to learn about local species, their other songs, their habits and diet, and much more
  • Use the app anywhere, as no internet connection is required!

Important features of BirdGenie™:

  • The matching expert system beats anything in the market today
  • Easy-to-use guided user interface
  • Effective noise-reduction system helps users make identifications in less-than-ideal environments
  • Complete species accounts with multiple photos for all plumage types (some with 3-D models)
  • Comprehensive spectrograms (voiceprints of songs)

Technical Specifications:

  • Requires iOS 10 or later. Compatible with all iPhones after iPhone 6 including 7, 8, X and iPad, iPad Mini, and iPod Touch.
  • Requires Android 5.0 and above. Compatible with most common Android phones and tablets.

Insect of the Week: Leafwalkers

Adapted from pages 172-173 of Field Guide to the Flower Flies of Northeastern North America:

The Yellow-haltered Leafwalker (Chalcosyrphus [Xylotomima] curvarius) is identified by its bright yellow halteres. It is the most distinctive of the orange-legged Chalcosyrphus species, with an entirely black metacoxa. These insects are common, and fly typically between mid-May to late August. Like the two preceding species, they can often be found on hilltops. On hilltops, the males more often land on the ground rather than on leaves or twigs. They are mostly found in hardwood forests but there are a few records from the tundra. There is no genetic variation between Arctic and eastern specimens. One specimen was collected on a large fallen Populus (aspen) log that had been on the ground for about one year.

Meanwhile, the Violet Leafwalker (Chalcosrphus [Xylotomima] chalybeus) is distinctive as it is all black, and has a metallic purple sheen to its body. Its legs are entirelyblack, and unlike the wings of other black Chalcosyrphus, the wings are largely dark brown. These bugs are between 12.4.-16.1 mm in length, and are fairly common, flying typically between mid-May and mid-August. These hardwood forest flies are often seen around fallen dead tree trunks. They are spectacular and glisten with purplish iridescence on a sunny day. They only occasionally visit hilltops. Flowers visited include Rubus and Spiraea. These flies
mimic solitary wasps such as Sphex pensylvanicus and Chalybion californicum.

Field Guide to the Flower Flies of Northeastern North America
By Jeffrey H. Skevington, Michelle M. Locke, Andrew D. Young, Kevin Moran, William J. Crins, and Stephen A. Marshall

This is the first comprehensive field guide to the flower flies (also known as hover flies) of northeastern North America. Flower flies are, along with bees, our most important pollinators. Found in a varied range of habitats, from backyard gardens to aquatic ecosystems, these flies are often overlooked because many of their species mimic bees or wasps. Despite this, many species are distinctive and even subtly differentiated species can be accurately identified. This handy and informative guide teaches you how.

With more than 3,000 color photographs and 400 maps, this guide covers all 416 species of flower flies that occur north of Tennessee and east of the Dakotas, including the high Arctic and Greenland. Each species account provides information on size, identification, abundance, and flight time, along with notes on behavior, classification, hybridization, habitats, larvae, and more.

Summarizing the current scientific understanding of our flower fly fauna, this is an indispensable resource for anyone, amateur naturalist or scientist, interested in discovering the beauty of these insect.

Math, Games, and Pizza: Responses from SUMIT 2019

On April 6th and 7th, girls between 6th and 11th grade with a love of math took part in SUMIT 2019, which Princeton University Press proudly sponsors. The event offers one of the most memorable opportunities to do math while forming lasting friendships with like-minded peers. Together, girls build mathematical momentum and frequently surprise themselves with what they’re able to solve. All previous SUMITs have garnered overall ratings of 10 out of 10 by participants.

After the event, organizers spoke with some of the participants about what their role models, experiences at SUMIT, and what they love about math. Take a look at what these girls had to say…

Do you believe you made meaningful connections with other girls and/or staff who share your interest in math?

  • “Yes, I was able to meet some really cool people in a great environment.”
  • “Yes, this was a wonderful experience and I loved meeting new people who shared the same interest as me.”
  • “Yes. I didn’t realize how many girls love math. I actually made friends.”
 

What was your favorite thing about SUMIT?

  • “I really enjoy how everything fits together to solve the bigger picture. It is so cool! I also really enjoy being in an environment in which it is all girls who are enthusiastic about math.”
  • “I liked solving challenging math problems and working together as a team!!”
  • “The challenging problems and being able to work on them with others.”
  • “Meeting other girls who are enthusiastic about math and collaborating with them or problems…also, the pizza was really good”

What do you love about math?

  • “The satisfaction of solving a problem.”
  • “It’s like solving the world’s greatest puzzle”
  • “Everything except proofs.”
  • “I love how there can be challenging and hard problems that make you think and work harder.”
  • “I love that there are usually multiple ways to solve a problem and that different areas of math connect to one another.”  

Who inspires you to be a mathematician?

  • “Ada Lovelace”
  • “My family”
  • “I usually see other people persevering through math problems and that inspires me.”
  • “Math teachers I have had”
  • “I am pretty self-inspired; my interests in math inspire me. But, seeing other mathematicians around me, especially women, inspires me even more.”  

 

Princeton University Press has been a major sponsor of SUMIT since its inception in 2012, and is always proud to promote this magical escape-the-room-esque event where girls join forces to overcome challenges and become the heroines of an elaborate mathematical saga. The event offers one of the most memorable opportunities to do math while forming lasting friendships with like-minded peers. Together, girls build mathematical momentum and frequently surprise themselves with what they’re able to solve. All previous SUMITs have garnered overall ratings of 10 out of 10 by participants.

Created by Girls’ Angle, a nonprofit math club for girls, together with a team of college students, graduate students, and mathematicians, SUMIT 2019 takes place in Cambridge, MA.

Bird Fact Friday: The Eastern Phoebe (as seen on BirdGenie)!

This week’s Bird Fact Friday highlights the Eastern Phoebe, as seen on BirdGenie. Here are some interesting facts about the bird:

  • These birds are tail-wagging, solitary, active flycatchers.
  • They’re common in the East in warmer months, and are early spring migrants.
  • The Eastern Phoebe’s are medium-sized and large-headed, with gray-brown back and buffy or white underparts.
  • They nearly always wag their tails when perched.
  • Typically, they perch low and fly out to catch insects, which are its primary food source (along with occasional seeds and berries).
  • Their nests are typically made of mud and vegetation, often on human structures with ledges, niches, walls, or other solid bases.
  • They have a lifespan of up t o 10 years.
  • Population: 32 million and stable.

Have you seen (or heard) an Eastern Phoebe?

 

BirdGenie

BirdGenie™ is a breakthrough app that helps anyone with an Apple® or Android® smartphone or tablet accurately identify birds in the backyard, local park, or on the nature trail—all with the tap of a button! Just hold up your phone, record the bird singing, and BirdGenie™ helps you identify the species. The app’s highly developed sound identification ability and expert matching system enable bird enthusiasts to achieve an accuracy unheard of in the birding field. It’s perfect for anyone who wants to learn more about the birds around them.

BirdGenie™ includes up to two hundred vocalization types for one hundred species: literally all of the birds likely to be encountered in a backyard or local park, or on a hike, in North America at any time of the year. And the app is easy to use. Just point your smartphone or tablet at a bird, and tap the screen when the bird starts singing. The app’s automatic pre-record feature ensures that you won’t miss the beginning of the song and BirdGenie’s™ patented, highly accurate expert system matches the recording to the closest species. The app’s sophisticated noise-reduction feature means that even in noisy environments, where there is conversation or traffic, you can discover what bird you’re listening to.

Beyond specifying a bird species, BirdGenie™ provides sample songs and spectrograms to compare with your own recording and to guarantee a confident match. The app also includes pictures of all plumages, information about habitat and behavior, and links to further reading. It even has 3-D models for some of the species so you can match different views of a bird. You can share your recordings, photos, and matches with friends and other users, and if you’re so inclined, you can anonymously share recordings to a scientific database to help researchers learn about birdsong variations. No internet connection is required for anything but sharing, making the program accessible everywhere.

Perfect for anyone who wants to know what birds are singing around them, BirdGenie™ takes bird identification to a whole new awesome level.

With BirdGenie™ you can:

  • Quickly identify most birds just by recording their songs
  • Look at vivid images of the bird—some in 3-D!
  • Listen to samples of the bird’s various songs and compare them with your recording
  • Keep a log of all your recordings
  • Share your recordings, matches, and photos with friends and family
  • Browse the built-in catalog to learn about local species, their other songs, their habits and diet, and much more
  • Use the app anywhere, as no internet connection is required!

Important features of BirdGenie™:

  • The matching expert system beats anything in the market today
  • Easy-to-use guided user interface
  • Effective noise-reduction system helps users make identifications in less-than-ideal environments
  • Complete species accounts with multiple photos for all plumage types (some with 3-D models)
  • Comprehensive spectrograms (voiceprints of songs)

Technical Specifications:

  • Requires iOS 10 or later. Compatible with all iPhones after iPhone 6 including 7, 8, X and iPad, iPad Mini, and iPod Touch.
  • Requires Android 5.0 and above. Compatible with most common Android phones and tablets.

Insect of the Week: Laetodon

Adapted from page 38-39 of Field Guide to the Flower Flies of Northeastern North America

Laetodon species are small metallic ant flies (Microdontinae) with a posterior appendix on wing vein R4+5. This genus used to be included within Microdon and was described in 2013 by Menno Reemer. The genus Laetodon includes five species, four of them Nearctic and one Neotropical. Only one species occurs within the area of the field guide. Larvae are presumed to be predators in ant nests but have not been described. 

More specifically, the Laetodon laetus is a small metallic ant fly ranging from 6.0-9.7mm in size. These are small, strongly metallic flies that are green, blue, or purple. The tibiae are orange and the flagellum has a short sensory pit on the outside edge. The eye is sparsely pilose. These insects are rare and local, with a flight time ranging from late March (in Florida) to early October (in Arizona), or late May to late September within the area of the field guide. In Maryland, the records are all from mid-to-late July. Larvae are unknown.

Field Guide to the Flower Flies of Northeastern North America
By Jeffrey H. Skevington, Michelle M. Locke, Andrew D. Young, Kevin Moran, William J. Crins, and Stephen A. Marshall

This is the first comprehensive field guide to the flower flies (also known as hover flies) of northeastern North America. Flower flies are, along with bees, our most important pollinators. Found in a varied range of habitats, from backyard gardens to aquatic ecosystems, these flies are often overlooked because many of their species mimic bees or wasps. Despite this, many species are distinctive and even subtly differentiated species can be accurately identified. This handy and informative guide teaches you how.

With more than 3,000 color photographs and 400 maps, this guide covers all 416 species of flower flies that occur north of Tennessee and east of the Dakotas, including the high Arctic and Greenland. Each species account provides information on size, identification, abundance, and flight time, along with notes on behavior, classification, hybridization, habitats, larvae, and more.

Summarizing the current scientific understanding of our flower fly fauna, this is an indispensable resource for anyone, amateur naturalist or scientist, interested in discovering the beauty of these insect.

 

Dana Johnson on Will This Be on the Test?

Getting into college takes plenty of hard work, but knowing what your professors expect of you once you get there can be even more challenging. Will This Be on the Test? is the essential survival guide for high-school students making the transition to college academics. In this entertaining and informative book, Dana Johnson shares wisdom and wit gleaned from her decades of experience as an award-winning teacher in the freshman classroom—lessons that will continue to serve you long after college graduation.

What inspired you to write this book?

I’ve taught college freshmen for decades and have seen the trouble they have because they don’t realize how high school and college are different. Some don’t figure out how to be successful in their coursework and end up doing poorly or even dropping out. This book is my best advice to students based on my experiences and other professors I’ve known and worked with. I’ve wanted to write the book for many years, but finally made time to do it because I realized how much it could help.

How have students changed since you started teaching?

Students are less self-reliant and have more expectations of reminders, extensions, re-do’s on assignments, and extra credit. They want to be told information, rather than take charge of their own learning. They are more likely to blame someone or something else than take responsibility. With the advent of email, students prefer to send electronic messages rather than call or come to the offices of their professors, which means they have less of an academic relationship. Students seem less likely to meet many of their classmates as they are primarily connected via their phones and social media to friends they know through other contexts.

When should students (and parents) read this book?

Students should read it before going to college and again at the end of the first semester or two. The re-reading will help them pick up some tips that are more meaningful after they have experienced some college courses. Parents should read the book before their students are in high school so they understand what high school and the family should be preparing them for.

High school teachers and counselors could benefit from reading it too, so they’re aware of habits, skills, and a mindset that will help students make the transition successfully from high school to college.

What is the biggest mistake students make in college academics?

I’ll give you two:

  1. Skipping class. Since no one is calling their parents when they don’t go to class, it seems easy to sleep in or give preference to other activities.
  2. Procrastinating. There are fewer intermediate deadlines, reminders, reviews, prompts, and safety nets in college than in high school. At first, the assignment deadlines and exams seem so far away, and students wait too long before starting the work or studying.

An example of the comics found in Will This Be on the Test?. Art by Jeremy Tamburello.

Are the cartoons featured throughout the book based on real events?

The ideas all originated in something I experienced or was told to me. Every professor tells stories about bizarre, rude, amusing, or naïve behavior on the part of students, and students have told me their stories also. Some of them seem a little unbelievable – but they are all based on true stories!

What should students know about professors that they generally don’t?

Professors are experts in a special slice of their fields. They love their content, and they love their work. This is not just a job for them, it is their intellectual life. You can learn a lot by talking with them outside of class. Professors enjoy having their students visit office hours, and they want to pass on what they know. Students can think of this as a form of networking, which is a skill that will pay off after college too.

 

Dana Johnson taught for many years at the College of William and Mary, where she twice won the Simon Prize for Excellence in the Teaching of Mathematics, and has three decades of experience teaching college freshmen. She lives in Williamsburg, Virginia.

Earth Day 2019: Protecting whales and dolphins through citizen science

Whales and dolphins are icons of the sea that are instantly recognisable, and few animals inspire such excitement and passion. The intelligence of these animals relative to humans means that they speak to something deep within our psyche and connect us with the ocean like no other species.

However, despite this level of interest, there’s still so much we don’t know about cetaceans, the collective name for whales, dolphins and porpoises. According to the IUCN, over half the species of cetacean found globally are considered data deficient, which means we can’t even say whether they are thriving or on the verge of extinction.

This lack of knowledge and understanding means that it’s impossible to put in place effective protections for whales and dolphins – after all, how can you keep safe something safe if you don’t understand it?

ORCA trains members of the public to help shed light on the world of these amazing animals and to volunteer as “citizen scientists” –people from all walks of life, who have decided to take an active role in safeguarding the future of the ocean.

We teach these committed volunteers to identify and record animals from different ships traveling across the world, from ferries to cruise ships. We place them aboard in teams of four to conduct regular scientific surveys, then analyse their sightings to build a long term data set.

Having this type of insight means that we can highlight changes or trends in the behaviour, distribution and population of the different species we encounter, which is crucial in creating impactful and effective marine conservation policy. We share our data with government agencies and leading researchers to help them create protected areas, keeping whales and dolphins safe for future generations.

For more than fifteen years we’ve been collecting data across Europe and the North Atlantic, and we have been able to share this insight with WILDGuides to help create the upcoming Europe’s Sea Mammals. As well as being able to give the most comprehensive and accurate possible picture of where species can be found, we’ve also been able to help give insight into the threats that these animals face, and show how easy it is for people to get involved in marine conservation.

This includes showcasing some of the most endangered species on the planet and shining a light on the challenges they face in the 21st century, ranging from ship strike to by catch. We are hoping that highlighting these challenges in this stunning new field guide will inspire more people to get involved and play their part in protecting the ocean.

Europe’s Sea Mammals will be in the back pack of every single one of our volunteers from later this year, and it is truly the most detailed and accurate guide to Europe’s cetaceans. We’re proud to have been involved in producing this book, and know it will play a leading role in helping our citizen scientists monitor some of the most vulnerable marine mammals on the planet for many years to come.

Steve Jones is the Head of Partnerships at ORCA, a charity that’s entirely dedicated to studying and protecting whales, dolphins and porpoises in the UK and European waters.

Europe’s Sea Mammals Including the Azores, Madeira, the Canary Islands and Cape Verde
A field guide to the whales, dolphins, porpoises and seals

This cutting-edge photographic identification guide to Europe’s sea mammals—the only such guide of its kind—covers the 39 species of whales, dolphins and porpoises and 9 species of seals found in the region, which spans the eastern Atlantic from Iceland to Macaronesia, and the Mediterranean, Caspian and Baltic seas. Written and illustrated by a team of professional tour guides with extensive experience presenting the region’s sea mammals, the guide features more than 180 color photographs, maps and graphics, highlights key identification features and includes information on the range, ecology, behaviour and conservation status of each species. Produced with the marine conservation charity ORCA, the book presents mapping data from a decade of surveys, which shows both current distribution and changes over time.

Europe’s Sea Mammals is an essential companion for whale watchers and anyone else who is interested in this enigmatic group of mammals.

  • The only photographic guide dedicated to this popular whale-watching region
  • Features more than 180 color photos, maps and graphics
  • Highlights key identification features and provides essential information on the range, ecology, behaviour and conservation status of each species