Bird Fact Friday – the Black Scoter

Adapted from pages 84-85 of Wildlife of the Arctic:

Formerly considered conspecific with the Common Scoter, the American Ornithologists’ Union divided the two into separate species on the basis of the drake’s bill pattern and shape, and also on differences in the mating calls (each produces a single note, that of the Black Scoter being longer). The plumage of male Black Scoters is essentially identical to that of male Commons, but the bill differs markedly. The base protuberance of breeding adults is entirely yellow-orange and is much less knob-like, being significantly flatter. The coloration of the remaining bill is similar in extent. The bill of Black Scoters (male and female) is slightly more hooked than that of Common Scoters. Female plumage is essentially identical to that of female Common Scoters.

A male Black Scoter (Melanitta americana). Photo credit: Richard Sale & Per Michelsen.

Black Scoters breed in Asiatic Russia east of the Lena delta (but not to the north coast) and on Kamchatka. They also breed in west and south Alaska, and in southern Quebec and Labrador. Both species are found in the lower Lena valley but there appears to be no overlap of ranges and no evidence of hybridisation. In winter the birds move to the Bering Sea and coasts of Japan. According to the IUCN, their status is nearly threatened, due to a decline in their population. 

Wildlife of the Arctic
By Richard Sale & Per Michelsen

Wildlife of the Arctic is an accessible and richly illustrated pocket-sized photographic field guide to the birds, land and sea mammals, and plants and lichens of the northern polar region–including Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia, and Russia. Written and illustrated by naturalists with extensive Arctic experience, this handy book features detailed facing-page descriptions of each species, including information about identification, range, distribution, and breeding and wintering grounds. A substantial introduction explains the area covered, with information on the poles, geology, snow and ice, auroras, and the influence of global warming. This portable, user-friendly guide is the perfect companion for birders, ecotourists, and cruise-line passengers visiting the Arctic Circle and other areas of the far north.

  • An accessible and richly illustrated pocket-sized photographic field guide to Artic wildlife
  • Features more than 800 color photos illustrating more than 250 bird species, 60 land mammals, and 30 seals and whales
  • Includes extensive facing-page species descriptions and identification information
  • Provides an overview of the Arctic region, with information on the poles, geology, snow and ice, auroras, and the influence of global warming
  • Explores each family of birds and mammals, and has sections covering fish, insects, plants, and lichens

 

Bird Fact Friday: the Red-necked Grebe

Adapted from pages 42-43 of Wildlife of the Arctic

Though superficially similar to divers, grebes have some distinctly different characteristics, suggesting a very different evolutionary path.

Grebes are poor fliers in comparison to divers, the wings beating so fast the birds appear panic-stricken. As a a consequence, they are rarely seen in flight at their breeding territories. Nevertheless, the two Arctic breeding grebes are migratory, moving to southern coastal waters in winter. On migration they frequently fly at night. This has led to instances where in the early morning light, exhausted birds have mistaken wet roads for streams and landed. THey are then stranded, being unable to take off from the land.

A Red-necked grebe (Podiceps grisegena). Photo credit: Richard Sale & Per Michelsen.

The Red-necked Grebe is less handsome than their horned cousins, but attractive birds with black crowns, white or pale grey faces and a red neck in breeding plumage. The upperparts are grey-brown, while the underparts are paler, and both sexes are similar. In winter the birds lose the bright colouration, being dull brown and white. They are highly territorial and very aggressive during the breeding season. Red-necked Grebes have even been known to kill intruding ducks. If several chicks hatch, the parents may split the brood when carrying them around.

Wildlife of the Arctic
By Richard Sale & Per Michelsen

Wildlife of the Arctic is an accessible and richly illustrated pocket-sized photographic field guide to the birds, land and sea mammals, and plants and lichens of the northern polar region–including Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia, and Russia. Written and illustrated by naturalists with extensive Arctic experience, this handy book features detailed facing-page descriptions of each species, including information about identification, range, distribution, and breeding and wintering grounds. A substantial introduction explains the area covered, with information on the poles, geology, snow and ice, auroras, and the influence of global warming. This portable, user-friendly guide is the perfect companion for birders, ecotourists, and cruise-line passengers visiting the Arctic Circle and other areas of the far north.

  • An accessible and richly illustrated pocket-sized photographic field guide to Artic wildlife
  • Features more than 800 color photos illustrating more than 250 bird species, 60 land mammals, and 30 seals and whales
  • Includes extensive facing-page species descriptions and identification information
  • Provides an overview of the Arctic region, with information on the poles, geology, snow and ice, auroras, and the influence of global warming
  • Explores each family of birds and mammals, and has sections covering fish, insects, plants, and lichens