Galápagos: The Islands’ Environment

Our newest blog series takes a look at the Galápagos Islands, as seen in Galápagos: Life in Motion, the lavish new photographic celebration that captures the fascinating behaviors of land and sea animals that call the islands home. Each week, Princeton Nature will highlight three gorgeous photos of the Galápagos wildlife. 

Adapted from pages 8-18 of the text:

Male Galápagos Land Iguana feeding on vegetation, Santa Cruz Island

In The Voyage of the Beagle, Charles Darwin called the Galápagos archipelago “a little world within itself.” But it would be more accurate to see it as many worlds—a large set of unique habitats, or environmental niches, located together in a small place. This chapter presents a journey through them, beginning with the occasionally lush, but mostly inhospitable, terrain of these volcanic islands. These inland areas give way to the coastal zone, with its own complement of animals eking out an existence, which in turn transition down the water column to the shallow parts of the Pacific Ocean’s floor.

Galápagos Dove nesting on a prickly pear cactus, North Seymour Island

On the surface, the Galápagos Islands look very different from the tropical paradise most visitors expect. These islands are volcanic in origin and relatively young, qualities that lead to many of their otherworldly features. Land-dwelling animals need to find a niche among the costal rocks, the scrubby plants just inland, or, on some islands, in the semitropical highlands.

The Pacific Green Turtle heading back to the water after building her nest, Santiago Island

Giant Tortoises may be the most easily recognized land-dwelling animals in the Galápagos, but they are far from the only ones. Lava lizards are widespread; there are nine species found throughout the islands. These lizards are an example of adaptive radiation, through which closely related but distinct species have evolved on different islands. The Galápagos is also home to three species of land iguanas, who live in the scrubby inland forests.

Galápagos: Life in Motion
by Walter Perez & Michael Weisberg

The Galápagos Islands are home to an amazing variety of iconic creatures, from Giant Tortoises, Galápagos Sea Lions, Galápagos Penguins, and Ghost Crabs to Darwin’s finches, the Blue-footed Booby, and Hummingbird Moths. But how precisely do these animals manage to survive on—and in the waters around—their desert-like volcanic islands, where fresh water is always scarce, food is often hard to come by, and finding a good mate is a challenge because animal populations are so small? In this stunning large-format book, Galápagos experts Walter Perez and Michael Weisberg present an unprecedented photographic account of the remarkable survival behaviors of these beautiful and unique animals. With more than 200 detailed, close-up photographs, the book captures Galápagos animals in action as they feed, play, fight, court, mate, build nests, give birth, raise their young, and cooperate and clash with other species.

Watch male Marine Iguanas fight over territory and females; see frigatebirds steal food and nesting materials from other birds; witness the courtship dance of a pair of Blue-footed Boobies; go underwater to glimpse a Galápagos Sea Lion pup playing with its mother; and observe a baby Pacific Green Turtle enter the water for the first time. These and dozens of other unforgettable scenes are all vividly captured here—including many moments that even experienced Galápagos observers may never be lucky enough to see in person.

Complete with a brief text that provides essential context, this book will be cherished by Galápagos visitors and anyone else who wants to see incredible animals on the move.

The Dog Days of Summer: Hybrid Dogs

Adapted from pages 180-181 of The Dog:

Data suggest that, on average, mixed breeds and crossbreeds have some health advantages over purebreds, probably because they are less inbred. As they have much higher genetic variation, they are less likely to suffer from inherited genetic diseases and more likely to live longer than purebreds.

Behavioral studies detected differences between mixed breeds and purebred dogs. Mixed-breed dogs were generally reported to be more disobedient, more nervous, more excitable, and more fearful. Excessive barking was also more frequent in their case.

They were also reported to be more aggressive toward unfamiliar people, more sensitive to touch, and had an increased risk of developing behavior problems (such as noise phobia) than purebreds. One may assume that most differences emerge because mixed-breed dogs experience less optimal early socialization and their genetic constitution also differs.

A whippet mix with a strong resemblance to the small greyhound is always ready to run. Photo credit: Grigorita Ko, Shutterstock

It is possible that a large proportion of present-day mixed breeds with unknown genetic histories originate from populations that have been under continuous selection for independent survival skills, making them more independent, assertive and more nervous/ alert. In contrast, dog breeders generally selectively breed dogs that make good human companions, focusing on favorable (calmer) behavior characteristics. Despite the different selective forces, numerous mixed-breed individuals obviously do make ideal companion dogs, as the magnitude of the differences between mixed breeds and purebreds are small.

Hybrid vigor is also known as heterosis or enhancement of outbreeding. The first generation of crossing dogs from two different breeds (or lines within a breed) produces hybrids with usually positive overall effects on health and biological functions. The explanation is that these individuals more likely inherit different gene variants (heterozygosity) that make them more resistant to environmental challenges, including pathogens.

Heterozygosity may be advantageous in other cases as well. Whippets with a single copy of a mutated gene that affects muscle composition are more muscular, and are among the fastest dogs in racing. However, whippets with two copies of the same mutation (homozygosity) develop too much muscle, which makes them rather slower.

The Dog: A Natural History
By Ádám Miklósi

As one of the oldest domesticated species, selectively bred over millennia to possess specific behaviors and physical characteristics, the dog enjoys a unique relationship with humans. More than any other animal, dogs are attuned to human behavior and emotions, and accordingly play a range of roles in society, from police and military work to sensory and emotional support. Selective breeding has led to the development of more than three hundred breeds that, despite vast differences, still belong to a single species, Canis familiaris.

The Dog is an accessible, richly illustrated, and comprehensive introduction to the fascinating natural history and scientific understanding of this beloved species. Ádám Miklósi, a leading authority on dogs, provides an appealing overview of dogs’ evolution and ecology; anatomy and biology; behavior and society; sensing, thinking, and personality; and connections to humans.

Illustrated with some 250 color photographs, The Dog begins with an introductory overview followed by an exploration of the dog’s prehistoric origins, including current research about where and when canine domestication first began. The book proceeds to examine dogs’ biology and behavior, paying particular attention to the physiological and psychological aspects of the ways dogs see, hear, and smell, and how they communicate with other dogs and with humans. The book also describes how dogs learn about their physical and social environments and the ways they form attachments to humans. The book ends with a section showcasing a select number of dog breeds to illustrate their amazing physical variety.

Beautifully designed and filled with surprising facts and insights, this book will delight anyone who loves dogs and wants to understand them better.

Dave Smallshire and Andy Swash on Britain’s Dragonflies

Britain’s Dragonflies is the only comprehensive photographic field guide to the damselflies and dragonflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Written by two of Britain’s foremost Dragonfly experts, this fully revised and updated fourth edition features hundreds of stunning images and identification charts covering all 57 resident, migrant and former breeding species, and six potential vagrants. The book focuses on the identification of both adults and larvae, highlighting the key features. Detailed species profiles provide concise information on identification, distribution, flight periods, behavior, habitat, status and conservation.

What does the book cover?

This is a practical field guide covering every species of dragonfly and damselfly recorded in Britain and Ireland up to the end of 2017. It also includes a few species that might occur in the future. Dragonfly biology and preferred habitats are covered in the introductory sections. Detailed accounts describe and illustrate each species, and give details of status and distribution, along with helpful identification tips. Although the book focuses on the identification of adults, there is also a unique guide to the identification in the field of larvae and exuviae (larval ‘skins’ left behind when adults emerge from water). The concluding chapters give tips on photography, conservation and recording.

Who is the book aimed at?

The target readership includes both beginners and experts alike. The book is written in an accessible style and has a user-friendly design, making it easy to understand for beginners, but with the level of detail needed occasionally by experts. Scientific jargon is avoided as much as possible and the book follows a sequence that leads the reader to likely species in a logical order. An e-version gives enthusiasts the chance to carry this wealth of information, as well as other WILDGuidesbooks, in their pocket during excursions into the field.

How is the book illustrated?

Britain’s Dragonflies is lavishly illustrated with over 500 superb color photographs. Photographic guides are often preferred over those with painted illustrations because of their better reflection of reality. We have carefully selected photographs that were taken specifically for this book by ourselves, as well as many by some of the world’s foremost dragonfly photographers. We have used these in combination with graphics specially produced by WILDGuides’ Chief Designer, Rob Still, to summarize the finer identification details.

This is the fourth edition, so what has changed since the first?

As with many other insect groups, Dragonflies are taking advantage of warmer conditions around the globe. Populations have spread generally northwards in Europe, including in Britain and Ireland, and we have seen rapid extensions in the ranges of many species in recent years. Indeed, we have experienced colonizations by species previously unknown in these isles, as populations have built up in continental Europe. For example, the Small Red-eyed Damselfly has spread rapidly across southern Britain following its discovery in 1999. At the same time, powerful fliers such as Emperor Dragonfly and Migrant Hawker have spread north and west within Britain and Ireland. The quality of images available has improved tremendously since the advent of digital photography, allowing us to incorporate even better examples. Our close links with the British Dragonfly Society have enabled us to build on the experience of others to produce what we, and many of the reviewers of previous editions, consider to be the ultimate field guide.

Why did you write this book?

As keen all-round naturalists we built up many years’ experience in running field courses for both professional and amateur naturalists, and felt it was time to put this wealth of experience on paper. Our key driver, as keen conservationists, was in encouraging others to take an interest in this amazing and enigmatic group of insects. The WILDGuides Britain’s Wildlife series has set new standards in the development of photographic field guides,  and provided us with an ideal platform to give Dragonflies the coverage they warrant.