Plants That Kill: Capsaicin

Adapted from pages 122-123 of Plants That Kill:

The fruit and seeds of species of chilli peppers (Capsicum spp.) in the potato family (Solanaceae) contain a pungent compound, capsaicin, that makes food ‘hot’. As well as being used by humans as a spice for thousands of years, capsaicin also has medicinal applications, and the burning discomfort and pain it causes have found roles in riot-control and self-defence. 

The chilli or chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a small shrub from Mexico and Guatemala, with simple leaves and pendant, star-shaped flowers that appear singly and are followed by elongated, brightly coloured fruit. Numerous cultivars have been bred that vary in the size, shape and pungency of these fruit. They include the large, sweet bell peppers, as well as mild to hot chilli peppers. The taxonomy of chillies is complicated, however, with some cultivars of C. annuum having characteristics that overlap with those of two other species, the Tabasco pepper (C. frutescens) from Bolivia and western Brazil, and the very hot bonnet pepper (C. chinense), which despite its specific epithet is from Bolivia, northern Brazil and Peru. Some prefer to treat these three species and their cultivars as the ‘annuum–chinense– frutescens complex’. 

To alleviate the ‘heat sensation’ from chilli, try eating a yogurt raita containing chopped mint (Mentha spp.) leaves, as the menthol from the mint stimulates ‘cold sensation’ neurons. Photo credit: one photo, Shutterstock

Some culinary traditions use more chilli pepper than others, with the highest number being eaten in the species’ native Mexico (one chilli per person per day). Chilli has also been embraced in many of the countries to which it has been introduced, particularly India, where it is a key ingredient in curries, and Thailand. Either the fresh fruit and seeds, or the powdered or flaked dried fruit, are used for seasoning during cooking or as a condiment. 

The pungent compounds in chilli peppers, including capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanilloyl-6-nonenamide), are capsaicinoid alkaloids, which bind to vanilloid receptors on sensory neurons (known as transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels). These same receptors can also be stimulated by heat and pain, so the binding of the capsaicin results in the sensation of heat. The degree of burning and reddening is related to the concentration of capsaicinoids (see box) and duration of exposure (a dose-related response). TRPV channels are common to all mammals, and thereby deter rodents and other mammalian pests from eating chilli crops. Birds lack the capsaicin-binding site of these channels, however, so eat the ripe red fruit and disperse the seeds without harm. 

In addition to the sensation of heat and burning in the mouth, eating large amounts of hot chillies can cause irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. It is the burning discomfort and pain that chillies or concentrated chilli extracts cause to the eyes and nose that can be most distressing. Pepper sprays have proved to be effective weapons since they were first employed by Mayan Indians, and police forces in a number of countries now use them in the control of unruly individuals and crowds. However, the legality of using pepper sprays for self-defence varies around the world. 

Plants That Kill: A Natural History of the World’s Most Poisonous Plants
By Elizabeth A. Dauncey & Sonny Larsson

This richly illustrated book provides an in-depth natural history of the most poisonous plants on earth, covering everything from the lethal effects of hemlock and deadly nightshade to the uses of such plants in medicine, ritual, and chemical warfare.

Featuring hundreds of color photos and diagrams throughout, Plants That Kill explains how certain plants evolved toxicity to deter herbivores and other threats and sheds light on their physiology and the biochemistry involved in the production of their toxins. It discusses the interactions of poisonous plants with other organisms–particularly humans—and explores the various ways plant toxins can target the normal functioning of bodily systems in mammals, from the effects of wolfsbane on the heart to toxins that cause a skin reaction when combined with the sun’s rays. This intriguing book also looks at plants that can harm you only if your exposure to them is prolonged, the ethnobotany of poisons throughout human history, and much more.

A must for experts and armchair botanists alike, Plants That Kill is the essential illustrated compendium to these deadly and intriguing plants.

  • Provides an authoritative natural history of the most poisonous plants on earth
  • Features hundreds of color illustrations throughout
  • Looks at how and why plants produce toxins
  • Describes the effects of numerous poisonous plants, from hemlock and deadly nightshade to poppies and tobacco
  • Explains poisonous plants’ evolution, survival strategies, physiology, and biochemistry
  • Discusses the uses of poisonous plants in medicine, rituals, warfare, and more

 

Plants That Kill: The Little Apple of Death

Adapted from page 118 of Plants That Kill:

The manchineel tree is found from the coast of Mexico south through Central America to Colombia and Venezuela, as well as in the West Indies and Florida. Its caustic properties soon became known to European explorers of the New World, who encountered the tree on beaches. In the sixteenth century, Oviedo noted its danger in his book on the natural history of the West Indies (which incidentally also included the first illustration of a pineapple): 

It has been proved many times that if men carelessly lie down to sleep under the trees, when they rise after a short nap there is a great pain in the head and swelling of the eyes and cheeks. And if by chance the dew from the tree falls on the face, it is like fire, blistering and burning the skin wherever it touches; and if it falls in the eye it blinds or burns them, and the sight is endangered. If the wood is burned no one can endure it long, for it causes much heaviness, and such headaches that all stand away from it, be they man or any other animal.

Leafy branches and immature fruit of the manchineel (Hippomane mancinella), also known as manzanita de la muerte, literally ‘little apple of death’, are a risk for unwary visitors to tropical beaches. Photo Credit: Rob Matthews, Alamy Stock Photo

Since then, numerous graphic accounts of the symptoms that result from skin or eye contact with the latex of the manchineel tree have been published, so we can be left in no doubt of the harm the species can cause. In addition, it produces deceptively apple-like fruit, which are 3–5 cm (1–2 in) in diameter, and when ripe are yellowish green with flushed red cheeks and an aromatic, pleasant-tasting yellow flesh. These, too, can cause contact reactions, and eating the fruit is even more disastrous, as doing so irritates the mouth, throat and digestive tract; deaths have occurred.

Plants That Kill: A Natural History of the World’s Most Poisonous Plants
By Elizabeth A. Dauncey & Sonny Larsson

This richly illustrated book provides an in-depth natural history of the most poisonous plants on earth, covering everything from the lethal effects of hemlock and deadly nightshade to the uses of such plants in medicine, ritual, and chemical warfare.

Featuring hundreds of color photos and diagrams throughout, Plants That Kill explains how certain plants evolved toxicity to deter herbivores and other threats and sheds light on their physiology and the biochemistry involved in the production of their toxins. It discusses the interactions of poisonous plants with other organisms–particularly humans—and explores the various ways plant toxins can target the normal functioning of bodily systems in mammals, from the effects of wolfsbane on the heart to toxins that cause a skin reaction when combined with the sun’s rays. This intriguing book also looks at plants that can harm you only if your exposure to them is prolonged, the ethnobotany of poisons throughout human history, and much more.

A must for experts and armchair botanists alike, Plants That Kill is the essential illustrated compendium to these deadly and intriguing plants.

  • Provides an authoritative natural history of the most poisonous plants on earth
  • Features hundreds of color illustrations throughout
  • Looks at how and why plants produce toxins
  • Describes the effects of numerous poisonous plants, from hemlock and deadly nightshade to poppies and tobacco
  • Explains poisonous plants’ evolution, survival strategies, physiology, and biochemistry
  • Discusses the uses of poisonous plants in medicine, rituals, warfare, and more

Plants That Kill: Deadly nightshade, black henbane & witchcraft

Adapted from page 81 of Plants That Kill:

Deadly nightshade (Atropa bella-donna) is a herbaceous perennial that dies back to a rootstock every year but can grow into a substantial plant during the summer. Attractive, juicy black berries follow its solitary bell-shaped purplish flowers, and conspicuous green sepals form a star at the base. Deadly nightshade grows naturally in Europe, west Asia and north Africa. In northern Europe it is particularly found on chalky soils and close to former abbeys and monasteries, where it was grown as a medicinal plant during the Middle Ages.

Black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) is native to much of Eurasia and is now widely distributed in temperate regions. Photo credit: A_lya, Shutterstock.

Deadly nightshade is just one of the tropane alkaloid-containing plants that are inextricably linked to tales of witchcraft. Together with mandrakes (Mandragora spp.) and henbane (Hyoscyamus spp.), it is said to have been an ingredient of an ointment used by witches to give them the sensation of flying, and is why witches are often depicted on broomsticks. 

One of the most recent deaths from deadly nightshade, of which there are actually very few, was of a modern-day witch who went by the name of Robert Cochrane. He lived in Slough, United Kingdom, where he started a coven known as the Clan of Tubal Cain, based on a combination of Celtic mysticism and village witchcraft philosophy (American branches are known as the ‘1734 tradition’). Cochrane died nine days after the eve of the summer solstice in 1966, seemingly after having ingested deadly nightshade leaves and sleeping tablets. The inquest into his death returned a verdict of suicide with deadly nightshade. In some witchcraft circles it is believed that Cochrane had appointed himself as a male sacrifice.

Plants That Kill: A Natural History of the World’s Most Poisonous Plants
By Elizabeth A. Dauncey & Sonny Larsson

This richly illustrated book provides an in-depth natural history of the most poisonous plants on earth, covering everything from the lethal effects of hemlock and deadly nightshade to the uses of such plants in medicine, ritual, and chemical warfare.

Featuring hundreds of color photos and diagrams throughout, Plants That Kill explains how certain plants evolved toxicity to deter herbivores and other threats and sheds light on their physiology and the biochemistry involved in the production of their toxins. It discusses the interactions of poisonous plants with other organisms–particularly humans—and explores the various ways plant toxins can target the normal functioning of bodily systems in mammals, from the effects of wolfsbane on the heart to toxins that cause a skin reaction when combined with the sun’s rays. This intriguing book also looks at plants that can harm you only if your exposure to them is prolonged, the ethnobotany of poisons throughout human history, and much more.

A must for experts and armchair botanists alike, Plants That Kill is the essential illustrated compendium to these deadly and intriguing plants.

  • Provides an authoritative natural history of the most poisonous plants on earth
  • Features hundreds of color illustrations throughout
  • Looks at how and why plants produce toxins
  • Describes the effects of numerous poisonous plants, from hemlock and deadly nightshade to poppies and tobacco
  • Explains poisonous plants’ evolution, survival strategies, physiology, and biochemistry
  • Discusses the uses of poisonous plants in medicine, rituals, warfare, and more

 

Plants That Kill: Apocynaceae

Adapted from page 52 of Plants That Kill:

The dogbane family is one of the larger families of flowering plants, and is today considered to contain more than 5,000 species in 366 recognized genera, including those that have, at times, been placed in their own family, Asclepiadaceae. The almost globally distributed Apocynaceae (only northern regions lack native species) has adapted to almost all environments and contains a large diversity of plant forms. 

Species grow as herbs, climbers and lianas, succulents or trees. The flowers are often showy or conspicuous in form or smell, and many species have evolved special structures for pollen dispersal, such as pollinia, coherent masses of pollen grains that are transferred to the next plant by sticking to insect pollinators. These structures are especially elaborate in milkweeds (Asclepias spp.), waxflowers (Hoya spp.) and their relatives, constituting a feature that allows easy placement of these plants within the family (although deciding on the actual genus and species can be quite difficult).

Elephant vine (Strophanthus amboensis) is found from Zaire to Namibia and contains cardioactive steroids. The petals are fused to form a cup at the base and there are five spreading, elongated lobes.

The large number of species and wide geographical distribution of the dogbane family makes it easy to understand why so many plants are used by humans. The showy, waxy flowers of frangipani (Plumeria spp.) have found a place as a constituent in Polynesian lei garlands, the fibres from dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) have been used to make cloth and string, some species are used in religious rituals, and some genera, such as Landolphia, were briefly important as sources of rubber in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Several plants in the family have been used as arrow poisons or in traditional medicinal systems, and the Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) is the source of an important cancer drug. 

It seems that most plants in the dogbane family are toxic to some degree, but the reason for this differs between groups of species. Some groups produce cardioactive steroids as the toxic principle, while others produce monoterpene indole alkaloids. Accordingly, the family presents several toxidromes, the combined picture of symptoms in poisonings, with some presenting as acute heart failure with arrhythmias and others giving signs of detrimental effects on the nervous system – for example, seizures, paralysis and hallucinations. As members of the dogbane family are widely distributed and many produce fatal intoxications, the use of these plants in suicides and poisonings is not uncommon in certain regions of the world.

Plants That Kill: A Natural History of the World’s Most Poisonous Plants
By Elizabeth A. Dauncey & Sonny Larsson

This richly illustrated book provides an in-depth natural history of the most poisonous plants on earth, covering everything from the lethal effects of hemlock and deadly nightshade to the uses of such plants in medicine, ritual, and chemical warfare.

Featuring hundreds of color photos and diagrams throughout, Plants That Kill explains how certain plants evolved toxicity to deter herbivores and other threats and sheds light on their physiology and the biochemistry involved in the production of their toxins. It discusses the interactions of poisonous plants with other organisms–particularly humans—and explores the various ways plant toxins can target the normal functioning of bodily systems in mammals, from the effects of wolfsbane on the heart to toxins that cause a skin reaction when combined with the sun’s rays. This intriguing book also looks at plants that can harm you only if your exposure to them is prolonged, the ethnobotany of poisons throughout human history, and much more.

A must for experts and armchair botanists alike, Plants That Kill is the essential illustrated compendium to these deadly and intriguing plants.

  • Provides an authoritative natural history of the most poisonous plants on earth
  • Features hundreds of color illustrations throughout
  • Looks at how and why plants produce toxins
  • Describes the effects of numerous poisonous plants, from hemlock and deadly nightshade to poppies and tobacco
  • Explains poisonous plants’ evolution, survival strategies, physiology, and biochemistry
  • Discusses the uses of poisonous plants in medicine, rituals, warfare, and more

Plants That Kill: Aconite alkaloids

From hemlock and deadly nightshade to poppies and tobacco, poisonous plants have long been used in medicine, rituals, and even warfare. For the next few months, Princeton Nature will be taking a closer look at the evolution, survival strategies, physiology, and biochemistry of the most toxic plants on Earth. Pulling from Elizabeth A. Dauncey & Sonny Larsson’s new book, Plants That Kill, we hope to provide you with just a sample of the deadly and intriguing plants that can be found in this gorgeously illustrated book.

Adapted from page 48-49 of Plants That Kill:

Aconite alkaloids are mostly restricted to a small number of genera in the buttercup family, particularly the aconites (Aconitum spp.) and their close relatives the larkspurs (Delphinium spp.). The presence of the compounds seems to give these plants a strong evolutionary advantage, as the group constitutes about a third of all species within the family. Aconites and larkspurs produce these highly toxic compounds from a substance called geranylgeranyl diphosphate, which is an essential part of the chlorophyll needed for photosynthesis. They can be grouped into three different ‘flavors’, called veatchine, atisine and aconitine alkaloids. The compounds in the last of these groups are the most toxic, which is thought to be due to their ability to pass through fat-containing barriers such as cell membranes and also the skin. This explains why gardeners and florists who, with bare hands, handle the cut stems or crushed material of aconite and larkspur plants in large amounts or for extended periods of time may experience mild symptoms of tingling or numbness.

There are around 250 species of aconite (Aconitum spp.) found in the wild in the northern hemisphere, but they are also widely grown in temperate gardens and sold as cut flowers.                              Photo credit: Alex Polo, Shutterstock

Species of aconite are used to treat joint pain in traditional Chinese herbal medicine in the form of bath additives, rubs and ointments. Their alkaloids can be absorbed through the skin, where they act as local anaesthetics. They may also be taken orally to treat asthma, gastroenteritis and various tumours, or as a supportive and revitalizing tonic. How is this possible, when these plants are very poisonous and small amounts can cause dangerous, or even lethal, effects on the heart and respiratory muscles? 

Before use, the raw material must be subjected to pao zhi (a detoxifying measure), which might include heating and/or soaking with the intention of ensuring maximal therapeutic efficacy with minimal adverse effects. During such processes, the toxic alkaloids are transformed into less harmful compounds, explaining why aconite use has persisted in spite of its high risk of poisoning. However, even though pao zhi is usually performed, a number of patients who take traditional Chinese aconite medicines are hospitalized each year due to poisoning. 

Plants That Kill: A Natural History of the World’s Most Poisonous Plants
By Elizabeth A. Dauncey & Sonny Larsson

This richly illustrated book provides an in-depth natural history of the most poisonous plants on earth, covering everything from the lethal effects of hemlock and deadly nightshade to the uses of such plants in medicine, ritual, and chemical warfare.

Featuring hundreds of color photos and diagrams throughout, Plants That Kill explains how certain plants evolved toxicity to deter herbivores and other threats and sheds light on their physiology and the biochemistry involved in the production of their toxins. It discusses the interactions of poisonous plants with other organisms–particularly humans—and explores the various ways plant toxins can target the normal functioning of bodily systems in mammals, from the effects of wolfsbane on the heart to toxins that cause a skin reaction when combined with the sun’s rays. This intriguing book also looks at plants that can harm you only if your exposure to them is prolonged, the ethnobotany of poisons throughout human history, and much more.

A must for experts and armchair botanists alike, Plants That Kill is the essential illustrated compendium to these deadly and intriguing plants.

  • Provides an authoritative natural history of the most poisonous plants on earth
  • Features hundreds of color illustrations throughout
  • Looks at how and why plants produce toxins
  • Describes the effects of numerous poisonous plants, from hemlock and deadly nightshade to poppies and tobacco
  • Explains poisonous plants’ evolution, survival strategies, physiology, and biochemistry
  • Discusses the uses of poisonous plants in medicine, rituals, warfare, and more

 

Elizabeth A. Dauncey & Sonny Larsson on Plants That Kill

Have you ever wondered which are the most poisonous plants in the world, why they produce toxins, and what those toxins are? Are you interested in the ingenious ways that humans have found to exploit these plants for good or evil? Plants That Kill, a new, beautifully illustrated, popular science book provides the answers.

Authors Elizabeth A. Dauncey and Sonny Larsson met when they were both working as scientists at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, in London, and have now combined their experience and expertise in the botany and chemistry of poisonous plants and their toxicity to animals to write an informative and engaging book that gives you the facts.

Why did you write the book?

ED: When the chance arose to introduce this fascinating aspect of plants to a worldwide popular science audience, I just couldn’t resist. Plants are essential to the survival and wellbeing of humans and animal life in general and this book is a way of engaging with the public and showing them that plants are interesting. Also, poisonous plants always make a good news story (not a good-news story) and this book was an opportunity to present more fact-based information that is still entertaining. It might dispel a few myths and definitely includes more than a few surprises.

SL: How could I say no to an opportunity to explain how and why plants produce compounds that are poisonous? Its just a great subject! I never cease to be amazed by the sheer variety of chemicals that plants produce and the numerous mechanisms by which they can cause harm. I also think the book provides an opportunity to get people curious about new aspects of the subject regardless of whether one’s particular interest is in plants, poisons or ecology.

Who is this book aimed at?

ED: Anyone interested in how plants or nature works, such as people with an academic or general interest in biology or chemistry, the natural world more broadly or man’s interaction with it. We couldn’t avoid including some rather long names of chemicals and the scientific names of plants, but people shouldn’t be put off by these as the rest of the text has been written to be accessible.

SL: The plants are the focus and center of attention in this book, so it is for anyone curious about how poisonous they can be, or their natural history more widely. I actually think everyone will get something out of reading this book — in the end the subject is a mix of science and human-interest stories.

What makes this book special or different?

ED: Plants That Kill really is one of a kind. Its uniqueness is to bring together in one package a global survey of the most harmful plants (particularly those that have killed humans and other large animals), describing the toxins that they produce and exploring their effects illustrated by interesting cases of poisoning. We’ve chosen to organise the plant toxins, and the plants that contain them, according to the part of the body that they affect most, which is an unusual but useful way of approaching the subject.

SL: I think what sets the book apart is our handling of the chemistry of poisonous plants within a biological framework — you’ll not only learn about the toxin and how it works on the animal body, but for many substances we also give examples of its role within the plant.

How did you decide which plants to include in the book?

SL: The book is intended to present the most poisonous plants from around the world, but there are so many plants that are potentially deadly that finding a fitting selection of actual killers took some deliberation. We didn’t want to restrict the book to only those plants that have killed humans, but broadened the scope to include other animals whose death might evoke at least some sympathy — very few people would miss a mould or a microscopic worm, but they would notice the demise of an elephant.

ED: To draw up our list of potential plant candidates, we consulted books about poisonous plants from around the world and research papers on particular topics such as arrow poisons. From each we picked out the most poisonous ones and then grouped them by the toxins that they produce. The final selection of plants was easy for some, such as the castor oil plant whose seeds contain ricin, a highly toxic plant protein. For others, the toxin group was clearly important but the particular plant or plants to feature was less obvious. Those took more research looking for the deadliest examples and weighing up the evidence to decide which one should be highlighted rather than another.

You’ve included a chapter on medicinal plants, why?

SL: I think it is important to put the concepts of “poisonous plant” and “toxin” into perspective, and giving examples of plants containing really dangerous compounds that we are now using as drugs fighting disease is a very good way of doing that.

ED: In addition to the chapter, we’ve actually included medicinal uses of plant toxins throughout the book. It provides balance to the description of a plant’s toxicity and illustrates how humans have adapted this for their own benefit. Many killer plants really are far more useful to man than dangerous and that’s an important thing to mention.

Did you learn anything new while you were writing Plants That Kill?

SL: So much! Even though I used to teach pharmacognosy and now work at a poison information center, the emphasis has been on local plants and in Sweden we have very few representatives of the really dangerous ones growing in the wild. Reading up on poisonous plants from all over the globe introduced new hazardous substances, species of exotic (at least to me) plant families and stories from cultures far away.

ED: Yes, taking time out to review the latest literature across the board meant that there were plants, toxins and circumstances of poisoning that were completely new to me too. We treated such novelties with the same evidence-based scientific approach to researching that we used for the more familiar plants and toxins, so I’ve learnt a lot during the process of writing, particularly around the chemistry and the mechanisms of toxicity. It was absolutely fascinating and absorbing, which I hope is reflected in the finished book.

Do you have a favorite plant or toxin?

ED: I’d choose a plant family, the carrot family — also known as the Apiaceae or Umbelliferae. Most members of the carrot family can be easily recognised by the structure of their heads of flowers, which form umbels (imagine an umbrella with the canopy formed from clusters of small, usually white, flowers). It gives us root vegetables such as carrots and parsnips, and we happily eat the green parts and seeds of celery and herbs like fennel and coriander. But amongst these wonderful food species lurk some of the most poisonous plants in the world. Examples include dead man’s fingers and hemlock that can kill if a root or leaves are eaten, whilst giant hogweed can cause severe skin reactions if physical contact is combined with bright UV light, such as you might experience on a sunny day.

SL: I am rather partial to colchicine, which is restricted to the autumn crocus family, the Colchicaceae. It has been used as a medicine for gout and a poison since antiquity, and is an important tool in the study of chromosomes and cell division. The fact that it has a very peculiar chemical structure that took over a century to discover also adds to my fascination.

 

Elizabeth Dauncey is a botanist and taxonomist who for the past 25 years has specialised in poisonous and more recently also medicinal plants. She has also written Poisonous Plants: A guide for parents and childcare providers, which provides the information and tools to assess the risk posed by plants in homes, gardens and the countryside.

Sonny Larsson is a pharmacist and pharmacognosist who for almost two decades has studied the connection between plant chemistry and evolution, trying to figure out why and how we can use plants to develop drugs. At the Swedish Poison Information Centre he works as a specialist consultant on plants, herbal drugs and dietary supplements.

Browse Our 2018 Birds & Natural History Catalog

Our new Birds & Natural History catalog includes the most comprehensive field guides to North American birds of prey ever published, an in-depth look at the most poisonous plants on earth, and a book that follows birds around the globe to reveal where they actually go when they roam the sea.

If you’re attending the Space Coast Birding and Wildlife Festival in Titusville, FL, stop by Booth #59 for our full range of Birds & Natural History titles and more.

Written and lavishly illustrated with stunning, lifelike paintings by leading field-guide illustrator, photographer, and author Brian Wheeler, Birds of Prey of the East and Birds of Prey of the West depict an enormous range of variations of age, sex, color, and plumage, and feature a significant amount of plumage data that has never been published before. The painted figures illustrate plumage and species comparisons in a classic field-guide layout. Each species is shown in the same posture and from the same viewpoint, which further assists comparisons. Facing-page text includes quick-reference identification points and brief natural history accounts that incorporate the latest information. The range maps are exceptionally accurate and much larger than those in other guides. They plot the most up-to-date distribution information for each species and include the location of cities for more accurate reference. Finally, the guides feature color habitat photographs next to the maps. The result sets a new standard for guides to North America’s birds of prey.

Featuring hundreds of color photos and diagrams throughout, Plants That Kill explains how certain plants evolved toxicity to deter herbivores and other threats and sheds light on their physiology and the biochemistry involved in the production of their toxins. It discusses the interactions of poisonous plants with other organisms–particularly humans—and explores the various ways plant toxins can target the normal functioning of bodily systems in mammals, from the effects of wolfsbane on the heart to toxins that cause a skin reaction when combined with the sun’s rays. This intriguing book also looks at plants that can harm you only if your exposure to them is prolonged, the ethnobotany of poisons throughout human history, and much more.

Michael Brooke has visited every corner of the world in his lifelong pursuit of seabirds. Here, he draws on his own experiences and insights as well as the latest cutting-edge science to shed light on the elusive seafaring lives of albatrosses, frigatebirds, cormorants, and other ocean wanderers. Where do puffins go in the winter? How deep do penguins dive? From how far away can an albatross spot a fishing vessel worth following for its next meal? Brooke addresses these and other questions in this delightful book. Along the way, he reveals that seabirds are not the aimless wind-tossed creatures they may appear to be and explains the observational innovations that are driving this exciting area of research.

Featuring illustrations by renowned artist Bruce Pearson and packed with intriguing facts, Far from Land provides an extraordinary up-close look at the activities of seabirds.