Bird Fact Friday — Flamingos

Adapted from page 116 of Birds of Chile:

Flamingos are unmistakable, social wading birds. They are often associated with hot climates, but 3 species breed in the North Andes, where lakes often freeze at night. Juveniles are typically dirty whitish and brownish, with dark streaking. 1st-years are whitish overall with little pink, but attain fully pink adult plumage in 2–3 years. Within mixed-species flocks, each species tends to group together. They nest colonially in remote areas, building raised mud cup nests on ground.

An adult Chilean flamingo.

More specifically, the Chilean Flamingo is widespread throughout the country, but fairly common in the North Andes, south of Atacama. They wade in shallow, saline lakes, with non-breeders also at fresh lakes, sheltered inshore waters. Their calls suggest geese, and is made while in flight,  sounding like a honking 3-syllable ah ah-ah. The first note is quieter, last note more emphatic. Feeding birds typically give quieter bleating and honking calls. While immature Chilean flamingos soon develop pale eyes, adults are distinctive: they are pale pink with reddish-pink bustle, have red ‘knees’ on grayish legs, and pale eyes. First years are appreciably smaller than adults. 

To see what an juvenile flamingo looks like, head to our Instagram.

Birds of Chile
A Photo Guide
By Steve N. G. Howell & Fabrice Schmitt

This is the first modern-style photographic field guide to the birds of Chile, an increasingly popular destination with birders and naturalists. Compact and easy to carry, pack, and use, Birds of Chile is ideal for curious naturalists and experienced birders alike, providing everything anyone needs to identify the birds they see. Clear photographs and brief, facing-page species accounts highlight what to look for and how to quickly identify species. The photos include both close-ups and birds-in-habitat images to further aid real-life identification. An introduction and maps provide an overview of Chile’s geographic regions and their distinctive birdlife. Birds of Chile is also a great resource for birding in nearby countries, especially Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru.

  • The first field-friendly photographic guide to the birds of Chile
  • More than 1,000 real-life photos and brief, facing-page text make bird identification easy
  • Overview and maps describe the distinct bird regions of Chile
  • Perfect for curious naturalists and experienced birders alike
  • Compact and easy to carry and pack
  • Also a great resource for birding in Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru

Bird Fact Friday — The Owls of Chile

Adapted from pages 142-143 of Birds of Chile:

The Magellanic (Lesser) Horned Owl is a very large owl with barred underparts; there are no similar species to it in Chile. They are widespread and common throughout virtually all of Chile, from the Patagonian steppe to city parks. They are mainly nocturnal, but in Patagonia can be seen in daytime, as on roadside fence posts. Their songs are two deep hoots, followed by, or run into, a quavering purr (hoo-hoo’urr-rr-rr). But, at a distance, only the hoo-hoo is audible. 

Meanwhile, the Rufous-legged Owl is mainly found in central or southern Chile, typically seen in old growth forests. They hunt at clearings and edges from low to mid-level perches, making roots and calls mainly at upper-to-mid levels. Its song is a varied series of pulsating barks run into low hoots, intensifying and then fading abruptly. These calls have a slightly maniacal quality; they’re a short series of resonant hoots (wuh-wuh wuh-wuh) followed by a rasping shriek. They are distinctive due to their rounded head, dark eyes, and voice.

A perched Magellanic Horned Owl.

The Peruvian (Pacific) Pygmy-Owl is the only pygmy-owl in northern Chile. These owls live on oasis valleys and farmland, in villages, and usually with some taller trees. They hunt from perches, low to high, including roadside wires, but are often mobbed noisily by smaller birds. They fly fast and are slightly undulating. Their song is a rapid tooting noise, almost too fast to whistle, with 10 notes/1.6-2.2 seconds (huihuihui). Their call is a high, chipping twitter. Their plumage is gray to brown overall.

Finally, the Austral Pygmy-Owl is native to central and southern Chile, commonly seen in the Tierra del Fuego, but some withdraw to the north and downslope in winter. These birds live in the woodland and forest, but can be seen in town parks, farmland, and semi-open country (at least in winter). Behaviorally, they are very similar to the Peruvian Pygmy-Owl. Their songs are fairly rapid, ringing toots, easily whistled at 10 notes/2.4-2.8 seconds, often with occasional changes in pitch and tempo (whih’whih’whih…). Their calls are high, chipping twitters. Their plumage is typically brown to rusty brown. 

To see photos of all these owls, head to our Instagram.

Birds of Chile
A Photo Guide
By Steve N. G. Howell & Fabrice Schmitt

This is the first modern-style photographic field guide to the birds of Chile, an increasingly popular destination with birders and naturalists. Compact and easy to carry, pack, and use, Birds of Chile is ideal for curious naturalists and experienced birders alike, providing everything anyone needs to identify the birds they see. Clear photographs and brief, facing-page species accounts highlight what to look for and how to quickly identify species. The photos include both close-ups and birds-in-habitat images to further aid real-life identification. An introduction and maps provide an overview of Chile’s geographic regions and their distinctive birdlife. Birds of Chile is also a great resource for birding in nearby countries, especially Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru.

  • The first field-friendly photographic guide to the birds of Chile
  • More than 1,000 real-life photos and brief, facing-page text make bird identification easy
  • Overview and maps describe the distinct bird regions of Chile
  • Perfect for curious naturalists and experienced birders alike
  • Compact and easy to carry and pack
  • Also a great resource for birding in Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru

 

Bird Fact Friday — Hummingbirds

Adapted from pages 158-159 of Birds of Chile:

The Oasis Hummingbird is identifiable by its distinctive small hummer, long, slightly arched bill, and rusty rump. Males have long forked tail, and a messy gorget. These hummingbirds are found in North Chile, mainly in oasis valleys. They are also vagrant south of Santiago. While these birds can often be spotted perched on phone wires, they can also be seen in gardens, desert scrubs, and orchards. They are larger than most hummingbirds. Their call sounds like a tickling chip, that’s somewhat lower and harder than other hummingbirds. 

A male Oasis Hummingbird (Rhodopis vesper).

 

An adult Sparkling Violet-ear (Colibri coruscans).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Meanwhile, the Sparkling Violet-ear is a rather large and green hummingbird, with no similar species in Chile. Immature birds are duller with reduced violet heads, while adults can be identified by their broad, dark tail band. These birds are frequently seen North of the Andes, but are scarce in Arica. They are typically seen near agricultural areas with flowering Eucalyptus and gardens. Their songs, which they sing from mid-upper level perches, are metallic, rhythmic chirping (tchi-chin tchi-chin) which is repeated tirelessly. Their sexes are indistinguishable. 

Birds of Chile
A Photo Guide
By Steve N. G. Howell & Fabrice Schmitt

This is the first modern-style photographic field guide to the birds of Chile, an increasingly popular destination with birders and naturalists. Compact and easy to carry, pack, and use, Birds of Chile is ideal for curious naturalists and experienced birders alike, providing everything anyone needs to identify the birds they see. Clear photographs and brief, facing-page species accounts highlight what to look for and how to quickly identify species. The photos include both close-ups and birds-in-habitat images to further aid real-life identification. An introduction and maps provide an overview of Chile’s geographic regions and their distinctive birdlife. Birds of Chile is also a great resource for birding in nearby countries, especially Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru.

  • The first field-friendly photographic guide to the birds of Chile
  • More than 1,000 real-life photos and brief, facing-page text make bird identification easy
  • Overview and maps describe the distinct bird regions of Chile
  • Perfect for curious naturalists and experienced birders alike
  • Compact and easy to carry and pack
  • Also a great resource for birding in Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru

 

Bird Fact Friday – the Parakeets of Chile

Adapted from pages 152-153 of Birds of Chile:

The Slender-billed Parakeet is endemic to the Lake District, from Araucanía to Chiloé. It is fairly common in farmland, other semi-open areas with forest patches and scattered tall trees. They frequently travel in scattered pairs or flocks, often numbering in the 100s, even 1000s. The feed in trees and on the ground, digging with its bills for seeds. They typically fly at a treetop level, but are also known for going high overhead, especially when in large flocks. Varied raucous and shrieky calls at times suggest lapwings. They are identifiable by their long, slender bill hook, and bright red face patch.

The Austral Parakeet resembles the Slender-billed Parakeet, though the latter has brighter blue wings. These birds are typically found in South or Central Chile, and are fairly common north of Maule. They are native to forests and woodland, and live adjacently to farmland with forest patches. They typically live in pairs or small flocks, rarely exceeding 100 birds. They do not mix with the Slender-billed Parakeet. These parakeets typically feed in trees or on the ground, and fly mostly near treetop height. Their calls are varied, raucous screeches. 

Monk Parakeets are found in central Chile, where they are local but increasingly escaped cage birds, mainly in Santiago and Valparaíso. They are found in parks, urban and rural areas with taller trees, and they frequently feed in trees and on the ground. They nest colonially in bulky stick nests at mid-upper levels in trees. They can be identified by their are rasping shrieks, or lower, more gravelly calls. These birds have a distinct look due to their ashy-gray faces and chests; no other species in Chile look like this.

Finally, the Burrowing Parakeet is native to Central Chile, often found in the Andean foothills from south Atacama to Male. These birds are typically seen in open woodland and farmland with nearby bluffs or cliffs, where they nest colonially in burrows. They typically roam in pairs or small flocks, on the ground or in trees. They are known for their laughing calls, singly or in a series. These parakeets also have a distinct, unmistakable look, with a dark green face, white chest, yellow-red underparts, and dark wings.

Fly over to our Instagram to see photos of these four birds.

 

 

Birds of Chile
A Photo Guide
By Steve N. G. Howell & Fabrice Schmitt

This is the first modern-style photographic field guide to the birds of Chile, an increasingly popular destination with birders and naturalists. Compact and easy to carry, pack, and use, Birds of Chile is ideal for curious naturalists and experienced birders alike, providing everything anyone needs to identify the birds they see. Clear photographs and brief, facing-page species accounts highlight what to look for and how to quickly identify species. The photos include both close-ups and birds-in-habitat images to further aid real-life identification. An introduction and maps provide an overview of Chile’s geographic regions and their distinctive birdlife. Birds of Chile is also a great resource for birding in nearby countries, especially Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru.

  • The first field-friendly photographic guide to the birds of Chile
  • More than 1,000 real-life photos and brief, facing-page text make bird identification easy
  • Overview and maps describe the distinct bird regions of Chile
  • Perfect for curious naturalists and experienced birders alike
  • Compact and easy to carry and pack
  • Also a great resource for birding in Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru

Bird Fact Friday: Seedeaters

Adapted from pages 220-221 of Birds of Chile:

The Chestnut-throated Seedeater is fairly common in the oasis valleys of Arica, as well as Northern lowlands. These birds – which are typically 10.5-11cm in length – flock in agricultural areas with brushy hedgerows and weedy fields. They can often be found singing on phone wires, with a song that is squeaky and slightly tinny. This song’s tempo varies from leisurely to rapid and bubbly; at times it’s prolonged. Their call is either a nasal cheh or a slightly smacking tchip. Males can be identified with their gray head and back in breeding plumage; females have faint streaking on their breast and a big, pinkish bill. Male juveniles resemble females, but are buffer.

A female Chestnut-throated Seedeater (Sporophila telasco).

A male Band-tailed Seedeater (Catamenia analis).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Band-tailed Seedeater is found in the North Andes, and is fairly common in the precordillera of Arica. They can be seen in shrubby slopes and agricultural areas or villages, while they frequently feed in bushes and on the ground, often with other seed-eating birds in recently cut alfalfa fields. Their song is varied short buzzes and buzzy, ringing trills; at times it becomes a high, chipping twitter. Their call is a high, slightly buzzy tzzip or tzzip-zzip. Both sexes have stubby, yellowish bills, a rusty vent, and a white band at the base of their tail best seen in flight.

Birds of Chile
A Photo Guide
By Steve N. G. Howell & Fabrice Schmitt

This is the first modern-style photographic field guide to the birds of Chile, an increasingly popular destination with birders and naturalists. Compact and easy to carry, pack, and use, Birds of Chile is ideal for curious naturalists and experienced birders alike, providing everything anyone needs to identify the birds they see. Clear photographs and brief, facing-page species accounts highlight what to look for and how to quickly identify species. The photos include both close-ups and birds-in-habitat images to further aid real-life identification. An introduction and maps provide an overview of Chile’s geographic regions and their distinctive birdlife. Birds of Chile is also a great resource for birding in nearby countries, especially Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru.

  • The first field-friendly photographic guide to the birds of Chile
  • More than 1,000 real-life photos and brief, facing-page text make bird identification easy
  • Overview and maps describe the distinct bird regions of Chile
  • Perfect for curious naturalists and experienced birders alike
  • Compact and easy to carry and pack
  • Also a great resource for birding in Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru

 

Bird Fact Friday– Screaming & Shiny Cowbirds

Adapted from page 228 of Birds of Chile:

Shiny cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis) are fairly common in Central Chile, north of Atacama and south of Los Lagos; they are uncommon in Arica, and rare in east Aysén. They inhabit farmland, matorral, open woodland, villages, towns, and are often near livestock. They mainly live in small groups; in winter, locally in flocks of 100s. They feed on ground and lay eggs in nests of other species. Their song is a high, slightly sweet to tinny and buzzy warble, made from perch or in short flight around female. The male call has high thin seeíh, the female call is a bubbling rattle. Juveniles have a variable streaking on underparts.

Young cowbirds are raised by ‘host’ species; in this case a male Yellow-winged Blackbird feeds a juvenile Shiny Cowbird.

The Screaming Cowbird (Molothrus rufoaxillaris) was recently discovered (2010) in Central Chile. They are uncommon but apparently spreading in O’Higgins, with sightings also in Santiago. They are frequently found in farmland and matorral with hedges and trees, often in rural areas, gardens. Juvenile cowbirds travel with Austral Blackbirds, which appear to be their ‘host’ species in Chile. Their songs are variably disyllabic, and sound like an abrupt, whistled seeih! Calls are a low clucking chk and varied wet buzzes. Juvenile birds are buffy gray overall and have bright rusty wings. Immature birds have messy black patches.

Birds of Chile
A Photo Guide
By Steve N. G. Howell & Fabrice Schmitt

This is the first modern-style photographic field guide to the birds of Chile, an increasingly popular destination with birders and naturalists. Compact and easy to carry, pack, and use, Birds of Chile is ideal for curious naturalists and experienced birders alike, providing everything anyone needs to identify the birds they see. Clear photographs and brief, facing-page species accounts highlight what to look for and how to quickly identify species. The photos include both close-ups and birds-in-habitat images to further aid real-life identification. An introduction and maps provide an overview of Chile’s geographic regions and their distinctive birdlife. Birds of Chile is also a great resource for birding in nearby countries, especially Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru.

 

  • The first field-friendly photographic guide to the birds of Chile
  • More than 1,000 real-life photos and brief, facing-page text make bird identification easy
  • Overview and maps describe the distinct bird regions of Chile
  • Perfect for curious naturalists and experienced birders alike
  • Compact and easy to carry and pack
  • Also a great resource for birding in Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru

 

Fabrice Schmitt on Birds of Chile

This is the first modern-style photographic field guide to the birds of Chile, an increasingly popular destination with birders and naturalists. Compact and easy to carry, pack, and use, Birds of Chile is ideal for curious naturalists and experienced birders alike, providing everything anyone needs to identify the birds they see. Clear photographs and brief, facing-page species accounts highlight what to look for and how to quickly identify species. The photos include both close-ups and birds-in-habitat images to further aid real-life identification. An introduction and maps provide an overview of Chile’s geographic regions and their distinctive birdlife. Birds of Chile is also a great resource for birding in nearby countries, especially Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru.

Who is this book intended for – seasoned bird watchers, novices, or both?
Both! The idea is to have a book that’s useful to anyone interested in the identification of Chilean birds, regardless of skill level. To help beginners, there is a pictorial table of contents, which will help them quickly find the group of birds that they’re looking for. We also group together species with similar behaviours or that are found in similar habitats (for ex. swallows together with swifts) in order to help readers find the birds in the book. Finally, we did not cover rare species that are unlikely to be seen in Chile. Meanwhile, experienced birders will enjoy the book because of the images of species in their habitats, which are helpful when seeking them out, along with key ID features highlighted in pale yellow text boxes.

Can you offer some tips for identifying different kinds of birds?
Perhaps the two key questions to ask are, “What is the bird doing?” and, “Where is its  habitat?” That’s why, in our book, we decided not to present the birds in an arbitrary taxonomic order. Instead, we chose to present them in groups such as, “Walking Waterbirds” and “Aerial Landbirds.” Once you find the right group, just scan the photos for the closest match to what you have seen.

Why do you think Chile is becoming a popular destination for birders?
Chile is a beautiful and incredibly diverse country, with stunning mountains and volcanos, extensive desert and a sublime, temperate forest— the landscapes alone justify a trip! And obviously, you can find some fantastic bird species. If you want to see the charismatic Moustached Turca running between cacti, the beautiful Magellanic Woodpecker in the Patagonian forest, the sublime Diademed Sandpiper-Plover breeding in high Andean bogs, or the endangered and superb Chilean Woodstar in an oasis of the Atacama Desert, then you should plan a trip to Chile! Also, since their bird habitats are mostly open or semi-open, birding is easy there, making it a wonderful destination for birders traveling to South America for the first time.

How have your experiences as a bird tour leader with WINGS prepared you to write a field guide like this?
Bird identification is a challenging hobby, and leading birding groups helped me to realize how field guides could make it easier. For example, most field guides still present the birds following the taxonomic order, which is generally useless in the field. In our guide we preferred to place the grebes together with the ducks and coots because they are all “Swimming Waterbirds,” and not between flamingos and pigeons according to the actual (and ever-changing) taxonomy. Also, we really wanted to present the birds in their habitat so readers realize what they must look for. Leading tours to Chile for many years has also given me a good sense of the most common miss-identified species; hopefully this guide will help to make it easier!

What is your favorite bird in all of Chile, and why do you like it?
Mmm, that’s a hard one! I really like all the large tapaculos found in Chile, so let’s choose one of them: the Black-throated Huet-huet. That species lives in the beautiful Nothofagusforest in the South of Chile. As they are found in dense understory especially with bamboo, they are usually hard to see but fairly common by voice. When agitated, they call their name ‘huet-huet’ (pronounce wet-wet), and another of their vocalisation is a loud Wook! wook wook wook, wook, wook, … it sounds like they are laughing at you because you can’t see them! But with some patience (or luck), you can cross path with one of these fantastic birds!

Fabrice Schmitt is an international bird tour leader with WINGS and a lecturer on Ponant Antarctic cruises. He lived in Chile from 2005 to 2015, founded the online birding magazine La Chiricoca, and helped develop the eBird online birding tool for Chile and the rest of South America. His co-writer, Steve N. G. Howell, is an international bird tour leader with WINGS and a research associate at the California Academy of Sciences and Point Blue Conservation Science. 

Bird Fact Friday– the American robin, a wood thrush & their song

Adapted from pages 2-4 of Listening to a Continent Sing:

Use this QR code to hear the American robin’s song.

A robin begins to sing, 5:34 a.m., about half an hour before sunrise. His low, sweet carols drop from above one by one, cheerily, cheer- up, cheerio, cheerily. He accelerates now, adding a single high screechy note, a hisselly, after each caroled series, but soon there will be two or more such high, exclamatory notes. He combines sequences of different caroled and hisselly notes to express all that is on his mind, sometimes even singing the two contrasting notes simultaneously with a low carol from his left voice box and a high hisselly from his right, but for now the effort of deep listening is too much like work. 

A wood thrush joins in. He awakes with sharp whit whit calls, as if a bit peeved, then gradually calms to softer bup bup notes, and soon he’s in full song. Emerging are five different half- second masterpieces of rising and falling, rich, pure notes. And the flourishes— what a pity that I cannot slow them down now and hear the pure magic in the way the thrush must hear it, with his precision breathing  through his two voice boxes producing the most extraordinary harmonies imaginable.

Use this QR code to listen to the wood thrush’s song.

The robin and thrush now travel back in time together in search of their roots, meeting up with me some hundreds of millions of years ago, when we all had the same ancestor, when we were one. We belong to an extended family, each of us an extraordinary success story, each of us with an unbroken string of successful ancestors dating back to the beginning of time. The robin, the thrush, and I are equals: “Mitakuye oyasin,” the Sioux would say as they end a prayer, “all my relations.”

The robin, the wood thrush . . . Yes, I know why I’m here. Disjointed thoughts surface with jumbled words that do no justice to the certainty of purpose . . . to celebrate life, and the lives of other creatures along the way . . . to hear this continent sing, not only the birds but also the people, flowers and trees, rocks and rivers, mountains and prairies, clouds and sky, all that is . . . to discover America all over again, from the seat of a bicycle . . .to embrace reality, leaving behind the insanity of a workplace gone amuck . . . to simply be, to strip life to its bare essentials and discover what emerges . . . and in the process, perhaps find my future . . . by listening to birds!

KroodsmaListening to a Continent Sing
Birdsong by Bicycle from the Atlantic to the Pacific
By Donald Kroodsma

Join birdsong expert Donald Kroodsma on a ten-week, ten-state bicycle journey as he travels with his son from the Atlantic to the Pacific, lingering and listening to our continent sing as no one has before. On remote country roads, over terrain vast and spectacular, from dawn to dusk and sometimes through the night, you will gain a deep appreciation for the natural symphony of birdsong many of us take for granted. Come along and marvel at how expressive these creatures are as Kroodsma leads you west across nearly five thousand miles—at a leisurely pace that enables a deep listen.

Listening to a Continent Sing is also a guided tour through the history of a young nation and the geology of an ancient landscape, and an invitation to set aside the bustle of everyday life to follow one’s dreams. It is a celebration of flowers and trees, rocks and rivers, mountains and prairies, clouds and sky, headwinds and calm, and of local voices and the people you will meet along the way. It is also the story of a father and son deepening their bond as they travel the slow road together from coast to coast.

Beautifully illustrated throughout with drawings of birds and scenes and featuring QR codes that link to audio birdsong, this poignant and insightful book takes you on a travel adventure unlike any other—accompanied on every leg of your journey by birdsong.

 

Bird Fact Friday— “Tropical Chickens”

Adapted from pages 264-265 of The New Neotropical Companion:

The 56 species of chachalacas, guans, and curassows are similar in appearance to chickens and turkeys, and are in the same order, Galliformes, but are in their own family, Cracidae. They are found in dense jungle, mature forest, montane forest, and cloud forest. Though individuals and sometimes pairs or small flocks are often observed on the forest floor, small flocks are often seen perched in trees.

The 15 chachalaca species are all slender, brownish olive in color, and have long tails. Each species is about 51 cm (20 in) from beak to tail tip. A chachalaca has a chicken-like head, with a bare red throat, usually visible only at close range. Most species form flocks of up to 20 or more birds. Chachalacas are highly vocal. The Plain Chachalaca (Ortalis vetula) is among the noisiest of tropical birds. Dawn along a rain forest edge is often greeted by a host of chachalaca males, each enthusiastically calling its harsh and monotonous cha-cha- lac! The birds often remain in thick cover, even when vocalizing, but an individual may call from a bare limb, affording easy views.

A female Bare-faced Curassow (Crax fasciolata) perched in a tree. This is an example of a “Tropical Chicken.” Photo credit: John Kricher.

Twenty-five species of guans and 16 species of curassows occur in Neotropical lowland and montane forests. Larger than chachalacas—most are the size of a small, slender turkey—they have glossy, black plumage set off by varying amounts of white or rufous. Some, like the Horned Guan (Oreophasis derbianus) and the Helmeted Curassow (Pauxi pauxi), have bright red “horns” or wattles on the head and/or beak. The Blue-throated Piping-Guan (Pipile cumanensis) and the Red-throated Piping-Guan (P. cujubi) have much white about the head and wings and a patch of colorful skin on the throat. 

Guans and curassows, though quite large, can be difficult to observe well. Small flocks move within the canopy, defying you to get a satisfactory binocular view of them. Like chachalacas, guans and curassows are often vocal, especially in the early morning hours.

There are 23 species of New World quail (family Odontophoridae) in the Neotropics, but seeing them requires a lot of searching and good luck. They are generally a secretive, cryptic group, rarely giving observers a good close look, as they scurry quietly along the shaded forest interior. Most of these species have narrow ranges but a few are more widely ranging.

New Neotropical Companion CoverThe New Neotropical Companion
John Kricher
Chapter One

The New Neotropical Companion is the completely revised and expanded edition of a book that has helped thousands of people to understand the complex ecology and natural history of the most species-rich area on Earth, the American tropics. Featuring stunning color photos throughout, it is a sweeping and cutting-edge account of tropical ecology that includes not only tropical rain forests but also other ecosystems such as cloud forests, rivers, savannas, and mountains. This is the only guide to the American tropics that is all-inclusive, encompassing the entire region’s ecology and the amazing relationships among species rather than focusing just on species identification.

The New Neotropical Companion is a book unlike any other. Here, you will learn how to recognize distinctive ecological patterns of rain forests and other habitats and to interpret how these remarkable ecosystems function—everything is explained in clear and engaging prose free of jargon. You will also be introduced to the region’s astonishing plant and animal life.

 

Bird Fact Friday: Gulpers & Mashers

Adapted from page 163 of The New Neotropical Companion:

Birds are selective about the size of the fruits they eat and how they consume them. Species such as toucans, aracaris, and toucanets pluck fruit, juggle it in the bill, and then often reject it by dropping it. Large fruits are particularly at risk of rejection and may be found scarred by bill marks. Nathaniel Wheelwright hypothesized that plants are under strong selection pressure to produce small to medium-size fruits, as larger ones are rejected by most bird species except those with the widest gapes. Thus large fruits will tend to be selected by large birds such as curassows and guans. Large fruits permit more energy to be stored in the seeds, an advantage once dispersal and germination have occurred.

This Grayish Saltator (Saltator coerulescens) is an obvious example of a masher. Photo by John Kricher.

Studies by various researchers in Costa Rica indicated two basic methods by which birds devour fruit. Anyone can observe these methods in the field. Some birds (mashers) mash up the fruit, dropping the seeds as they do, while others (gulpers) gulp the fruit whole, subsequently either regurgitating or defecating seeds. Mashers are mostly finches and tanagers, and gulpers are toucans, trogons, and manakins. Mashers appear more sensitive to taste than gulpers, showing a distinct preference for fruits rich in sugars. Gulpers swallow fruit whole and appear taste insensitive.

New Neotropical Companion CoverThe New Neotropical Companion
John Kricher
Chapter One

The New Neotropical Companion is the completely revised and expanded edition of a book that has helped thousands of people to understand the complex ecology and natural history of the most species-rich area on Earth, the American tropics. Featuring stunning color photos throughout, it is a sweeping and cutting-edge account of tropical ecology that includes not only tropical rain forests but also other ecosystems such as cloud forests, rivers, savannas, and mountains. This is the only guide to the American tropics that is all-inclusive, encompassing the entire region’s ecology and the amazing relationships among species rather than focusing just on species identification.

The New Neotropical Companion is a book unlike any other. Here, you will learn how to recognize distinctive ecological patterns of rain forests and other habitats and to interpret how these remarkable ecosystems function—everything is explained in clear and engaging prose free of jargon. You will also be introduced to the region’s astonishing plant and animal life.

 

 

 

Bird Fact Friday – The Short-eared Owl

Adapted from pages 184-185 of Wildlife of the Arctic:

While breeding, male Short-eared owls have buff and white facial discs, with a black bill and yellow eyes. Their underparts are pale buff, paler still on the belly, the whole streaked with dark brown, the streaking heavier on the breast and throat. Their upperparts are tawny-buff, heavily streaked dark brown. Breeding females are similar, but deeper buff and, in general, are more heavily marked.  

In studies of the owl’s diet mammals constituted around 95% of the biomass, with rodents and shrews providing the bulk of that percentage, though the owls also take stoats and weasels. Birds, amphibians, reptiles and insects provide the remaining 5%. Arctic breeding Short-eareds are invariably ground nesters, Short-eareds being one of few owls that makes a ‘proper’ nest. In it the female lays 2-13 eggs, the species reacting in a similar fashion to Snowy Owls in lemming years.

This photo illustrates how the Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus) can turn its head through 180° to look directly over its back.

Short-eared Owl breeds on Iceland, in northern Fennoscandia and across Russia to Kamchatka, though rarely to the north coast. Breeds in Alaska, the Yukon and North-West Territories, around Hudson Bay, in Labrador and on southern Baffin Island. At all times the actual distribution of the owls is dependent on prey density, but northern owls do move south to north-west Europe, central Asia and continental United States.

Wildlife of the Arctic
By Richard Sale & Per Michelsen

Wildlife of the Arctic is an accessible and richly illustrated pocket-sized photographic field guide to the birds, land and sea mammals, and plants and lichens of the northern polar region–including Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia, and Russia. Written and illustrated by naturalists with extensive Arctic experience, this handy book features detailed facing-page descriptions of each species, including information about identification, range, distribution, and breeding and wintering grounds. A substantial introduction explains the area covered, with information on the poles, geology, snow and ice, auroras, and the influence of global warming. This portable, user-friendly guide is the perfect companion for birders, ecotourists, and cruise-line passengers visiting the Arctic Circle and other areas of the far north.

  • An accessible and richly illustrated pocket-sized photographic field guide to Artic wildlife
  • Features more than 800 color photos illustrating more than 250 bird species, 60 land mammals, and 30 seals and whales
  • Includes extensive facing-page species descriptions and identification information
  • Provides an overview of the Arctic region, with information on the poles, geology, snow and ice, auroras, and the influence of global warming
  • Explores each family of birds and mammals, and has sections covering fish, insects, plants, and lichens

 

Bird Fact Friday – the Bald Eagle

Adapted from pages 94-95 of Wildlife of the Arctic

The Bald Eagle is a magnificent bird, the Nearctic equivalent of the White-tailed Eagle. Adults have a white head (the origin of the name) and white tail, but are otherwise dark brown, with a pattern of scalloping from pale feather tips. Sexes are similar. Juvenile eagles do not acquire the adult coloring until they are 3-5 years old. In early young immatures there is a significant amount of white in the plumage which aids distinguishing the birds from adult Golden Eagles. Northern birds are larger than their cousins of the souther US states, the two being considered sub-species.

This bird is piscivorous but an opportunistic feeder, taking both terrestrial and aquatic mammals (e.g. hares and muskrats) as well as birds (primarily waterfowl and gulls). They also feed on carrion and are not infrequent visitors to garbage dumps in Alaska. They hunt both by flying slowly over probable prey sites and from perches, and will pirate food from other Bald Eagles, as well as from Osprey and herons, both of which are, in general, better at fishing but cannot defend themselves against the eagles. They also makes piratical attacks on Peregrines and even on Sea Otters and Coyotes.

Bald eagles nest primarily in trees, and often re-uses nests which may actually be refurbished prior to the birds migrating as well as when they return to the breeding site. One nest known to have been used continuously over several decades grew to be almost 3m in diameter and over 3m high and weighed an estimated 2t: the tree then blew down in a storm. In areas where trees are absent, they will nest on cliffs or even on the ground provided the site is elevated to give the incubating bird good visibility. 1-3, but usually 2, eggs are laid. Asynchronous hatching means first chick hatched usually outcompetes later hatchlings which may die of starvation. 

An adult Bald Eagle at nest. Photo credit: Richard Sale & Per Michelsen.

The Bald Eagle is the emblem of the United States, which made it even sadder when numbers declined sharply as a result of subsidised shooting and the widespread use of organochlorines in the continental US. In Alaska the use of pesticides was minimal, but a bounty on eagles set in 1917 – the result of lobbying by fishermen and fox trappers – was not lifted until 1953. Although the bounty led to ill-advised slaughter, the state remained a stronghold of the species and continues to do so. Once hunting and DDT were banned the population recovered quickly: in Alaska the population increased by about 70% between the late 1960s and the late 1990s. Alaska and the Canadian province of British Columbia are the strongholds of the species with the population now probably close to the carrying capacity of the environment.

Bald Eagles breed in central and southern Alaska, including the Aleutians, and across North America, but rarely north of the timberline. In winter the birds move to the continental United States, though birds in southern Alaska are resident.

Wildlife of the Arctic
By Richard Sale & Per Michelsen

Wildlife of the Arctic is an accessible and richly illustrated pocket-sized photographic field guide to the birds, land and sea mammals, and plants and lichens of the northern polar region–including Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia, and Russia. Written and illustrated by naturalists with extensive Arctic experience, this handy book features detailed facing-page descriptions of each species, including information about identification, range, distribution, and breeding and wintering grounds. A substantial introduction explains the area covered, with information on the poles, geology, snow and ice, auroras, and the influence of global warming. This portable, user-friendly guide is the perfect companion for birders, ecotourists, and cruise-line passengers visiting the Arctic Circle and other areas of the far north.

  • An accessible and richly illustrated pocket-sized photographic field guide to Artic wildlife
  • Features more than 800 color photos illustrating more than 250 bird species, 60 land mammals, and 30 seals and whales
  • Includes extensive facing-page species descriptions and identification information
  • Provides an overview of the Arctic region, with information on the poles, geology, snow and ice, auroras, and the influence of global warming
  • Explores each family of birds and mammals, and has sections covering fish, insects, plants, and lichens