David Vogel on California Greenin’

VogelOver the course of its 150-year history, California has successfully protected its scenic wilderness areas, restricted coastal oil drilling, regulated automobile emissions, preserved coastal access, improved energy efficiency, and, most recently, addressed global climate change. How has this state, more than any other, enacted so many innovative and stringent environmental regulations over such a long period of time? The first comprehensive look at California’s history of environmental leadership, California Greenin’ shows why the Golden State has been at the forefront in setting new environmental standards, often leading the rest of the nation. As environmental policy debates continue to grow more heated, California Greenin’ demonstrates that the Golden State’s impressive record of environmental accomplishments holds lessons not just for the country but for the world.

Why did you decide to focus your book on California?

Much has been written on every aspect of California’s environmental history. Books have been written on the state’s forests and wilderness areas, cars and air pollution in Los Angeles, oil drilling in southern California, the protection of the coast and the San Francisco Bay Area and, most recently, the state’s regulations to improve energy efficiency and stem the risks of global climate change. But no one had ever sought to answer what struck me as a central question, namely why has California long been the nation’s “greenest” state? I wrote this book to answer that question.

What are some important examples of California’s environmental leadership?

California enacted the world’s first emissions controls on automobiles and established the nation’s first coastal protection authority. Yosemite was the first protected wilderness in the United States and by 1890 three of nation’s four national parks were located in the state. California issued the nation’s first energy efficiency standards for appliances and buildings. Its greenhouse gas reduction targets are the most ambitious in the United States. Half of the nation’s rooftop solar installations are in California.

How do you account for the state’s long record of environmental innovation?

It traces back to California’s geography. The “Golden State” has an unusually beautiful natural environment. Its coastal area encompasses the best weather in the United States. It has a long and scenic coastline, miles of sand beaches, and inland there are the granite formations, rivers, lakes and valleys of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The state’s forests contain the spectacular redwoods and sequoias, the largest and oldest living species on the planet. But every aspect of this attractive environment has been continually threatened by rapid economic development and population growth. It is in response to these threats that Californians have mobilized to protect the environmental amenities that they valued.

What is the “California effect?”

The “California effect” refers to the impact California has had in strengthening environmental protection outside its borders. The most important example is automotive emissions standards These were first introduced in California and then subsequently adopted by the federal government. Virtually all of the important innovations in emissions controls, such unleaded gasoline and the two-way catalytic convertor, originated in California and were then nationally mandated. California’s innovative greenhouse gas emission standards for vehicles were subsequently adopted by the Obama Administration. Significantly, California is the only state permitted by the federal government to issue its own automotive regulations. Other states then have the option of adapting California’s more stringent standards and several states have chosen to do so.

What most surprised you in writing this book?

I was most struck by the role business has played in supporting environmental protection. Business has been traditionally viewed as the main opponent of stronger environmental standards. But in the case of California influential business interests have often actively backed stronger regulations  For example, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries the Southern Pacific Railroad lobbied to protect the sequoias in the Sierra Nevada mountains, while during the mid 20th century, the Los Angeles real estate community led the political struggle to reduce air pollution. Southern California’s shoreline property developers were the main opponents of coastal oil drilling. California’s renewable energy industry and clean tech investors have benefited from and been strong supporters of the state’s climate change initiatives. In sum, many business interests have recognized the economic benefits of placing the state on a greener growth trajectory.   

What practical lessons can other states learn from California?

The United States is a federal system in which states can play important policy roles. They have enormous potential to improve environmental quality. What other states can also learn from California is that regulations are more likely to be supported if they directly improve the quality of life of local communities, provide economic as well as environmental benefits, receive some business 6backing, and are administrated by competent public authorities. California’s example of regulatory leadership can and hopefully should be followed by other states.

What do you hope readers will take away from the book? 

That protecting the environment and growing economically can go hand in hand. Since the 1860s California has consistently enacted the nation’s most stringent, comprehensive and innovative environmental standards and its economy is now the sixth largest in the worlds. Had it not made such vigorous efforts to protect its fragile natural environment, California would now be a much less desirable place to visit, to live to work, and to invest. California’s economy has benefited substantially from its environmental regulations. This can be true for all states as well.

David Vogel is professor emeritus in the Haas School of Business and the Department of Political Science at the University of California, Berkeley. His many books include The Politics of Precaution and The Market for Virtue.

Presenting the trailer for “The Serengeti Rules”— a new documentary based on the book

We’re pleased to share the trailer for The Serengeti Rules, a new documentary premiering at the Tribeca Film Festival this weekend. The film is based on the book of the same name by Sean B. Carroll, and has been adapted by Emmy and BAFTA winning filmmaker Nicolas Brown. 

The Serengeti Rules – Full Trailer from Howard Hughes Medical Institute on Vimeo.

The film will premiere on Saturday, April 21st at the Cinepolis Chelsea, with additional screenings on April 22nd, 24th, and 27th. To purchase tickets or read more about the film, you can visit the Tribeca Film Festival’s official website

Plants That Kill: Apocynaceae

Adapted from page 52 of Plants That Kill:

The dogbane family is one of the larger families of flowering plants, and is today considered to contain more than 5,000 species in 366 recognized genera, including those that have, at times, been placed in their own family, Asclepiadaceae. The almost globally distributed Apocynaceae (only northern regions lack native species) has adapted to almost all environments and contains a large diversity of plant forms. 

Species grow as herbs, climbers and lianas, succulents or trees. The flowers are often showy or conspicuous in form or smell, and many species have evolved special structures for pollen dispersal, such as pollinia, coherent masses of pollen grains that are transferred to the next plant by sticking to insect pollinators. These structures are especially elaborate in milkweeds (Asclepias spp.), waxflowers (Hoya spp.) and their relatives, constituting a feature that allows easy placement of these plants within the family (although deciding on the actual genus and species can be quite difficult).

Elephant vine (Strophanthus amboensis) is found from Zaire to Namibia and contains cardioactive steroids. The petals are fused to form a cup at the base and there are five spreading, elongated lobes.

The large number of species and wide geographical distribution of the dogbane family makes it easy to understand why so many plants are used by humans. The showy, waxy flowers of frangipani (Plumeria spp.) have found a place as a constituent in Polynesian lei garlands, the fibres from dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) have been used to make cloth and string, some species are used in religious rituals, and some genera, such as Landolphia, were briefly important as sources of rubber in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Several plants in the family have been used as arrow poisons or in traditional medicinal systems, and the Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) is the source of an important cancer drug. 

It seems that most plants in the dogbane family are toxic to some degree, but the reason for this differs between groups of species. Some groups produce cardioactive steroids as the toxic principle, while others produce monoterpene indole alkaloids. Accordingly, the family presents several toxidromes, the combined picture of symptoms in poisonings, with some presenting as acute heart failure with arrhythmias and others giving signs of detrimental effects on the nervous system – for example, seizures, paralysis and hallucinations. As members of the dogbane family are widely distributed and many produce fatal intoxications, the use of these plants in suicides and poisonings is not uncommon in certain regions of the world.

Plants That Kill: A Natural History of the World’s Most Poisonous Plants
By Elizabeth A. Dauncey & Sonny Larsson

This richly illustrated book provides an in-depth natural history of the most poisonous plants on earth, covering everything from the lethal effects of hemlock and deadly nightshade to the uses of such plants in medicine, ritual, and chemical warfare.

Featuring hundreds of color photos and diagrams throughout, Plants That Kill explains how certain plants evolved toxicity to deter herbivores and other threats and sheds light on their physiology and the biochemistry involved in the production of their toxins. It discusses the interactions of poisonous plants with other organisms–particularly humans—and explores the various ways plant toxins can target the normal functioning of bodily systems in mammals, from the effects of wolfsbane on the heart to toxins that cause a skin reaction when combined with the sun’s rays. This intriguing book also looks at plants that can harm you only if your exposure to them is prolonged, the ethnobotany of poisons throughout human history, and much more.

A must for experts and armchair botanists alike, Plants That Kill is the essential illustrated compendium to these deadly and intriguing plants.

  • Provides an authoritative natural history of the most poisonous plants on earth
  • Features hundreds of color illustrations throughout
  • Looks at how and why plants produce toxins
  • Describes the effects of numerous poisonous plants, from hemlock and deadly nightshade to poppies and tobacco
  • Explains poisonous plants’ evolution, survival strategies, physiology, and biochemistry
  • Discusses the uses of poisonous plants in medicine, rituals, warfare, and more

Plants That Kill: Aconite alkaloids

From hemlock and deadly nightshade to poppies and tobacco, poisonous plants have long been used in medicine, rituals, and even warfare. For the next few months, Princeton Nature will be taking a closer look at the evolution, survival strategies, physiology, and biochemistry of the most toxic plants on Earth. Pulling from Elizabeth A. Dauncey & Sonny Larsson’s new book, Plants That Kill, we hope to provide you with just a sample of the deadly and intriguing plants that can be found in this gorgeously illustrated book.

Adapted from page 48-49 of Plants That Kill:

Aconite alkaloids are mostly restricted to a small number of genera in the buttercup family, particularly the aconites (Aconitum spp.) and their close relatives the larkspurs (Delphinium spp.). The presence of the compounds seems to give these plants a strong evolutionary advantage, as the group constitutes about a third of all species within the family. Aconites and larkspurs produce these highly toxic compounds from a substance called geranylgeranyl diphosphate, which is an essential part of the chlorophyll needed for photosynthesis. They can be grouped into three different ‘flavors’, called veatchine, atisine and aconitine alkaloids. The compounds in the last of these groups are the most toxic, which is thought to be due to their ability to pass through fat-containing barriers such as cell membranes and also the skin. This explains why gardeners and florists who, with bare hands, handle the cut stems or crushed material of aconite and larkspur plants in large amounts or for extended periods of time may experience mild symptoms of tingling or numbness.

There are around 250 species of aconite (Aconitum spp.) found in the wild in the northern hemisphere, but they are also widely grown in temperate gardens and sold as cut flowers.                              Photo credit: Alex Polo, Shutterstock

Species of aconite are used to treat joint pain in traditional Chinese herbal medicine in the form of bath additives, rubs and ointments. Their alkaloids can be absorbed through the skin, where they act as local anaesthetics. They may also be taken orally to treat asthma, gastroenteritis and various tumours, or as a supportive and revitalizing tonic. How is this possible, when these plants are very poisonous and small amounts can cause dangerous, or even lethal, effects on the heart and respiratory muscles? 

Before use, the raw material must be subjected to pao zhi (a detoxifying measure), which might include heating and/or soaking with the intention of ensuring maximal therapeutic efficacy with minimal adverse effects. During such processes, the toxic alkaloids are transformed into less harmful compounds, explaining why aconite use has persisted in spite of its high risk of poisoning. However, even though pao zhi is usually performed, a number of patients who take traditional Chinese aconite medicines are hospitalized each year due to poisoning. 

Plants That Kill: A Natural History of the World’s Most Poisonous Plants
By Elizabeth A. Dauncey & Sonny Larsson

This richly illustrated book provides an in-depth natural history of the most poisonous plants on earth, covering everything from the lethal effects of hemlock and deadly nightshade to the uses of such plants in medicine, ritual, and chemical warfare.

Featuring hundreds of color photos and diagrams throughout, Plants That Kill explains how certain plants evolved toxicity to deter herbivores and other threats and sheds light on their physiology and the biochemistry involved in the production of their toxins. It discusses the interactions of poisonous plants with other organisms–particularly humans—and explores the various ways plant toxins can target the normal functioning of bodily systems in mammals, from the effects of wolfsbane on the heart to toxins that cause a skin reaction when combined with the sun’s rays. This intriguing book also looks at plants that can harm you only if your exposure to them is prolonged, the ethnobotany of poisons throughout human history, and much more.

A must for experts and armchair botanists alike, Plants That Kill is the essential illustrated compendium to these deadly and intriguing plants.

  • Provides an authoritative natural history of the most poisonous plants on earth
  • Features hundreds of color illustrations throughout
  • Looks at how and why plants produce toxins
  • Describes the effects of numerous poisonous plants, from hemlock and deadly nightshade to poppies and tobacco
  • Explains poisonous plants’ evolution, survival strategies, physiology, and biochemistry
  • Discusses the uses of poisonous plants in medicine, rituals, warfare, and more

 

Bird Fact Friday – the Black Scoter

Adapted from pages 84-85 of Wildlife of the Arctic:

Formerly considered conspecific with the Common Scoter, the American Ornithologists’ Union divided the two into separate species on the basis of the drake’s bill pattern and shape, and also on differences in the mating calls (each produces a single note, that of the Black Scoter being longer). The plumage of male Black Scoters is essentially identical to that of male Commons, but the bill differs markedly. The base protuberance of breeding adults is entirely yellow-orange and is much less knob-like, being significantly flatter. The coloration of the remaining bill is similar in extent. The bill of Black Scoters (male and female) is slightly more hooked than that of Common Scoters. Female plumage is essentially identical to that of female Common Scoters.

A male Black Scoter (Melanitta americana). Photo credit: Richard Sale & Per Michelsen.

Black Scoters breed in Asiatic Russia east of the Lena delta (but not to the north coast) and on Kamchatka. They also breed in west and south Alaska, and in southern Quebec and Labrador. Both species are found in the lower Lena valley but there appears to be no overlap of ranges and no evidence of hybridisation. In winter the birds move to the Bering Sea and coasts of Japan. According to the IUCN, their status is nearly threatened, due to a decline in their population. 

Wildlife of the Arctic
By Richard Sale & Per Michelsen

Wildlife of the Arctic is an accessible and richly illustrated pocket-sized photographic field guide to the birds, land and sea mammals, and plants and lichens of the northern polar region–including Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia, and Russia. Written and illustrated by naturalists with extensive Arctic experience, this handy book features detailed facing-page descriptions of each species, including information about identification, range, distribution, and breeding and wintering grounds. A substantial introduction explains the area covered, with information on the poles, geology, snow and ice, auroras, and the influence of global warming. This portable, user-friendly guide is the perfect companion for birders, ecotourists, and cruise-line passengers visiting the Arctic Circle and other areas of the far north.

  • An accessible and richly illustrated pocket-sized photographic field guide to Artic wildlife
  • Features more than 800 color photos illustrating more than 250 bird species, 60 land mammals, and 30 seals and whales
  • Includes extensive facing-page species descriptions and identification information
  • Provides an overview of the Arctic region, with information on the poles, geology, snow and ice, auroras, and the influence of global warming
  • Explores each family of birds and mammals, and has sections covering fish, insects, plants, and lichens

 

Insect of the Week: the Bumble Bee

Adapted from pages 674-675 of Garden Insects of North America

Bumble bees are large, fuzzy bees brightly colored black with yellow and/or orange. Like honey bees, they are social insects that produce a colony, usually in an abandoned rodent or bird nest where there is insulating material they use to surround the nest. Bumble bee colonies are abandoned at the end of the year, however, and only new, large, fertilized queens survive the winter. The queen establishes a new colony in spring, conducting all chores of foraging, hive construction, and rearing. The first workers produced are usually quite small, but they assist the queen as the colony develops. As the colony grows, worker size tends to increase and some reproductive forms (queens, males) are produced toward the end of the season. 

A bumble bee (Bombus vosnesenskii). Photo credit: Whitney Cranshaw.

Bumble bees are native insects, with close to 50 species in North America. Many are important pollinators, and they have a unique method of acquiring pollen from some plants, known as buzz pollination, which shakes pollen from some kinds of flowers. The collected pollen is then packed into pollen baskets on the hind legs, in a manner similar to honey bees and others in the family Apidae. Bumble bees are used extensively to pollinate greenhouse-grown tomatoes, and many native plants are dependent on buzz pollination for seed set. Bumble bees sting readily in defense of their hive but are nonaggressive while foraging. The sting is painful, but the stinger is not left behind.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North America continues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause

 

Insect of the Week: The Common Northern Walkingstick

Adapted from pages 50-51 of Garden Insects of North America:

There are 29 species of walkingsticks in North America, but most are rarely observed. For the common Northern walkingstick, it favors oak, black cherry, elm, basswood, and black locust for hosts. Paper birch, aspen, dogwood, and hickory are occasional hosts. On these plants, nymphs and adults chew leaves, with typically minor damage, but occasional outbreaks in forests cause significant defoliation. These walkingsticks are distributed over much of the area east of the Great Plains except the most southern states. They are most numerous around the Great Lakes.

A walkingstick (Diapheromera femorata). Photo credit: James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, bugwood.org

Full-grown adults reach a length of about 3 inches. They are highly variable in color and may be
nearly pure green, gray, brown, or mottled. Eggs of the common walkingstick hatch in late spring from eggs resting on soil. In forests, the young nymphs usually feed first on the leaves of low-growing plants, then move to trees as they get older. Adults are present by midsummer, and the females drop their seedlike black eggs indiscriminately until frost. In southern areas of the range, these eggs usually hatch the following spring, but in the northern states and Canada they remain dormant until the second season.

Head to our Instagram to see additional photos of the walkingstick.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North America continues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause

 

Bird Fact Friday – The Barn Swallow

Adapted from page 160 of Birds of the Masai Mara:

The Barn Swallow is a blue swallow with a red throat and pale belly. Familiar to many visitors from outside of Kenya, the Barn Swallow is among the most cosmopolitan of all bird species. It is a common migrant to the Mara between September and April, but stragglers have been recorded in all months of the year.

The Barn Swallow, mid flight. Photo credit: Adam Scott Kennedy.

In flight, it appears glossy-blue above and cream-coloured on the belly. When perched, good views of the velvet-red throat and blue breast-band help to separate it from the Angola Swallow, which is a less frequent visitor to the Mara. That species shows a reddish-orange throat, light dusky-grey underparts, and lacks the blue breastband. Young Barn Swallows are less strongly marked than adults and lack the long tail streamers of birds in breeding plumage (as do many adults that arrive into Kenya from September onwards).

Birds of the Masai Mara
By Adam Scott Kennedy

Birds of the Masai Mara is a remarkably beautiful photographic guide featuring the bird species likely to be encountered by visitors to the popular Masai Mara National Reserve in Kenya. With an eye-catching layout, easy-to-use format, and no-jargon approach, the book contains more than 300 stunning photographs covering over 200 species of birds and is accessible and informative, rather than purely identification-based. A handy, brief introduction provides visitors with background on the habitats of the national park, and the guide’s habitat-based approach makes it simple to identify any bird species according to where it is found. Based on the firsthand experiences of the author, Birds of the Masai Mara is an ideal companion to all those visiting the national reserve and to bird aficionados interested in learning more about the region.

  • The only photographic guide to focus solely on the bird species of the Masai Mara National Reserve
  • More than 300 remarkable photographs covering over 200 species
  • Accessible text explores bird species behavior and species etymology
  • A brief and handy introduction examines the habitats of the Masai Mara
  • Easy-to-use habitat-based layout makes exciting birdwatching easy

First published in 2012.

Insect of the Week: the Cabbage Looper

Adapted from pages 102-103 of Garden Insects of North America:

Despite its name, the cabbage looper is not limited to mustard family plants but may also damage plants as diverse as potatoes, tomatoes, peas, lettuce, spinach, nasturtium, and carnation. It is sometimes found as a greenhouse pest on various ornamentals. Larvae chew leaves of various plants, occasionally causing serious defoliation. Late instars tend to tunnel into heads of cabbage, lettuce, and other plants, causing additional injury.

An adult cabbage (Trichoplusia ni) looper feeding at a flower. Photo credit: Whitney Cranshaw.

The Cabbage Looper thrives best in warmer climates and survives poorly following winters in areas with extended freezing temperatures. Adults, however, are strong fliers and annually migrate long distances. Caterpillars are pale green, darkening somewhat as they get older. Faint white stripes run the length of the body. Adults are of moderate size (wingspan of about 1.5 inches) with mottled gray or brown forewings and a distinctive silvery white U-mark with a single spot below.

Their eggs are hemispherical and glued singly to foliage, often in small groups. They hatch in a few days, and the first-stage larvae are creamy colored. They go through a series of molts as they develop, becoming full grown in about 3 weeks. Young larvae typically feed on outer leaves, producing windowpaning patterns on thick-leaved plants such as cabbage. Late stages feed more generally and tend to tunnel into heads. Pupation occurs on or in the nearby vicinity of host plants in a loose cocoon, and the pupal stage lasts 1–2 weeks. The number of generations produced annually is highly variable, and during the growing season generations greatly overlap and become indistinct.

Head to our Instagram to see the evolution of the Cabbage Looper, from egg to adult.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North America continues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause

 

Bird Fact Friday – the Common Kestrel

Adapted from page 51 of Birds of the Masai Mara:

The Common Kestrel is a brown-backed falcon with a long tail. Found in singles and groups, these kestrels are frequently seen hovering over the grass in search of small prey before diving steeply onto their quarry. The sexes are fairly similar although males show more grey in the head and tail; young birds are mostly brown. In flight, all birds show a dark band at the end of the tail.

A male (left) and female (right) Common Kestrel. Photo credit: Greg & Yvonne Dean, WorldWildlifeImages.com

Resident birds, sometimes known as ‘Rock Kestrels’, are supplemented by migratory birds from Europe and Asia between October and April. Birds often come together to roost on the top of an acacia or desert palm tree, when you may hear their excited high-pitched calls “kee-kee-kee.”

Birds of the Masai Mara
By Adam Scott Kennedy

Birds of the Masai Mara is a remarkably beautiful photographic guide featuring the bird species likely to be encountered by visitors to the popular Masai Mara National Reserve in Kenya. With an eye-catching layout, easy-to-use format, and no-jargon approach, the book contains more than 300 stunning photographs covering over 200 species of birds and is accessible and informative, rather than purely identification-based. A handy, brief introduction provides visitors with background on the habitats of the national park, and the guide’s habitat-based approach makes it simple to identify any bird species according to where it is found. Based on the firsthand experiences of the author, Birds of the Masai Mara is an ideal companion to all those visiting the national reserve and to bird aficionados interested in learning more about the region.

  • The only photographic guide to focus solely on the bird species of the Masai Mara National Reserve
  • More than 300 remarkable photographs covering over 200 species
  • Accessible text explores bird species behavior and species etymology
  • A brief and handy introduction examines the habitats of the Masai Mara
  • Easy-to-use habitat-based layout makes exciting birdwatching easy

First published in 2012.

 

Insect of the Week: the Buffalo Treehopper

Adapted from page 402-403 of Garden Insects of North America:

Treehoppers are distinguished by a prominent enlargement of the segment behind the head (pronotum), which extends shieldlike over the head and much of the abdomen. Most species have fairly innocuous habits, and the primary plant injuries often occur during the course of depositing eggs into stems and twigs.

The Buffalo treehopper, the most widely distributed and familiar North American treehopper,  causes very little, if any, injury to plants in the course of feeding. Plant injuries are produced during egg laying, when eggs are inserted into slits made in the upper surface of twigs. Extensive egg laying can cause damaged twigs to become scabby and somewhat distorted.

An adult Buffalo treehopper (Stictocephala bisonia). Photo credit: Whitney Cranshaw.

Adults are generally triangular shaped, with the sides of the front developed into small points, somewhat resembling a miniature bison. Buffalo treehopper is grassy green and about ⅜ inch long. Nymphs are somewhat brighter green with a row of ridges along the back.

The Buffalo treehopper overwinters in the egg stage, and eggs are inserted as small groups under the bark of twigs. The eggs hatch in late spring, and the nymphs drop to the ground to feed on grasses and broadleaf weeds around the base of trees on which eggs were laid. Adults become full grown in late July or August. Females insert their eggs into twigs, typically laying about a half-dozen eggs within each oviposition wound. One generation is produced per year.

Head to our Instagram to see what the Buffalo treehopper looks like in its nymph stage.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North America continues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause

 

Bird Fact Friday – The white-bellied Blue Robin

Adapted from page 147 of The World’s Rarest Birds:

The white-bellied Blue Robin is a chat-like flycatcher found only on a few isolated mountain-tops across the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in Southern India. It occurs between 1,000-2,2000m, favoring wet undergrowth, often along streams and in forested areas. It has also been recorded in gardens and plantations.

A white-bellied Blue Robin (Myiomela albiventris) perched on a tree. Photo credit: Vivek Tiwari.

Although sedentary, it may make some altitudinal movements. Habitat destruction, degradation for agriculture and forestry, and infrastructure development are its major threats. Since it lives close to the maximum altitude within its range, it may also be susceptible to the effects of climate change. Although some populations occur in protected areas, comprehensive population studies are urgently needed.

The World’s Rarest Birds
By Erik Hirschfeld, Andy Swash & Robert Still

This illustrated book vividly depicts the most endangered birds in the world and provides the latest information on the threats each species faces and the measures being taken to save them. Today, 571 bird species are classified as critically endangered or endangered, and a further four now exist only in captivity. This landmark book features stunning photographs of 500 of these species–the results of a prestigious international photographic competition organized specifically for this book. It also showcases paintings by acclaimed wildlife artist Tomasz Cofta of the 75 species for which no photos are known to exist.

The World’s Rarest Birds has introductory chapters that explain the threats to birds, the ways threat categories are applied, and the distinction between threat and rarity. The book is divided into seven regional sections–Europe and the Middle East; Africa and Madagascar; Asia; Australasia; Oceanic Islands; North America, Central America, and the Caribbean; and South America. Each section includes an illustrated directory to the bird species under threat there, and gives a concise description of distribution, status, population, key threats, and conservation needs. This one-of-a-kind book also provides coverage of 62 data-deficient species.