Read this exclusive excerpt from the winners of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has gone to John O’Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser. To celebrate, we are offering a free excerpt from The Future of the Brain, a collection of cutting edge neuroscience articles edited by Gary Marcus. In “Understanding the Cortex through Grid Cells,” May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser write:


One of the ultimate goals of neuroscience is to understand the mammalian cerebral cortex, the outermost sheet of neural tissue that covers the cerebral hemispheres. All mammalian brains have a cortex, but during evolution, the size of the cortex has expanded enormously, and in the largest brains the growth has resulted in extensive folding, with much of the cortical surface getting buried in deep grooves, or sulci and fissures. The cortex is the site where most cognition and intellectual activity takes place. Thinking, planning, reflection, and imagination depend on it. Memories are stored there, and the cortex takes care of language interpretation as well as language production. Moreover, although the cortex can be found across the whole range of mammalian species, the expansion of this brain structure is thought to underlie the amplification of the intellectual repertoire in humans.

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