Insect of the Week: How to Make Your Yard More Firefly-Friendly

silent sparksYour neighborhood might have hundreds of fireflies, or maybe you have just a few. Perhaps you have none at all. No matter which, here are some simple things that will help make any yard more attractive to local fireflies.

Create an inviting habitat:
Fireflies need moisture during all of their life stages (that is, eggs, larvae, pupae and the adult).

  • Let the grass grow longer in parts of your lawn to help the soil hold more moisture.
  • Juvenile fireflies spend up to two years living underground, where they feed on earthworms and snails. If you leave some leaf litter and woody debris in the corners of your yard, this will help larval fireflies—and their prey—to thrive.
  • Female fireflies lay their eggs in moist, mossy places, so preserve any wetlands, streams, or ponds in your neighborhood.

Bring back the night:
Fireflies court using bioluminenscent flashes, so artificial lights that are too bright can interfere with their ability to find mates.

  • When installing or re-thinking your outdoor lighting, use only what you need to get the job done.
  • Use shielded lighting fixtures recommended by the International Dark-Sky Association; these direct light downward, where it’s most useful. Use bulbs as low-wattage as possible to provide just the light you need for safety and security.
  • Try turning off your outdoorlights, or put them on timers, particularly during firefly season.

Reduce pesticide use:
Because juveniles fireflies spend months living underground, they will come into contact with any insecticides spread on lawns and gardens. Broad-spectrum insecticides like malathion and diazinon will kill whatever insects they contact, including fireflies.

  • Consider using organic or least-toxic practices and products on your lawn and garden. Avoid broad-spectrum insecticides – use horticultural oils or insecticidal bacteria like Bt designed to target specific pests.
  • Apply pesticides to treat specific pest problems, never routinely.
  • Don’t use Weed & Feed or similar products that contain 2,4-D, which has been shown to be toxic to earthworms and beetles like ladybugs.

As I describe in Silent Sparks, our scientific understanding of firefly biology and habitat requirements has grown exponentially over the past few decades. Such knowledge now provides a powerful tool for protecting fireflies. And of course, we can all work to preserve and restore the wild places where fireflies thrive – their fields and forests, their mangoves and meadows. We all dream about the kind of world we want our children to inherit. Let’s make certain the magical sparkle of fireflies will continue to be part of their world.

Silent Sparks
The Wondrous World of Fireflies

For centuries, the beauty of fireflies has evoked wonder and delight. Yet for most of us, fireflies remain shrouded in mystery: How do fireflies make their light? What are they saying with their flashing? And what do fireflies look for in a mate? In Silent Sparks, noted biologist and firefly expert Sara Lewis dives into the fascinating world of fireflies and reveals the most up-to-date discoveries about these beloved insects. From the meadows of New England and the hills of the Great Smoky Mountains, to the rivers of Japan and mangrove forests of Malaysia, this beautifully illustrated and accessible book uncovers the remarkable, dramatic stories of birth, courtship, romance, sex, deceit, poison, and death among fireflies.

The nearly two thousand species of fireflies worldwide have evolved in different ways—and while most mate through the aerial language of blinking lights, not all do. Lewis introduces us to fireflies that don’t light up at all, relying on wind-borne perfumes to find mates, and we encounter glow-worm fireflies, whose plump, wingless females never fly. We go behind the scenes to meet inquisitive scientists who have dedicated their lives to understanding fireflies, and we learn about various modern threats including light pollution and habitat destruction. In the last section of the book, Lewis provides a field guide for North American fireflies, enabling us to identify them in our own backyards and neighborhoods. This concise, handy guide includes distinguishing features, habits, and range maps for the most commonly encountered fireflies, as well as a gear list.

A passionate exploration of one of the world’s most charismatic and admired insects, Silent Sparks will inspire us to reconnect with the natural world.

Insect of the Week: Question Marks

Adapted from page 46 of Butterfly Gardening:

Butterfly guides describe the Question Mark as a butterfly found in and at the edges of woodlands, and specifically moist woodlands. Even if your garden does not happen to be ideally situated next to a bucolic, damp, woody wonderland, Question Marks can still be drawn to parks and yards if their caterpillar foods—elms, hackberries, or nettles—are readily available. Since nettles are renowned for stinging, and elms (still susceptible to Dutch elm disease) are not commercially available, you will probably want to check native-plant nurseries for one of the many species of hackberry tree. As a bonus, if you live within their range, a hackberry may also reward you by attracting the less-common butterflies Hackberry and Tawny emperors, Empress Leilia, or American Snout.

A Question Mark (left) and a two Hackberry Emperors share a juicy watermelon slice. Photo credit: Mike Wetherford.

Question Marks rarely visit flowers for nectar; instead, they gain energy by drinking liquids from rotting fruit, tree sap, and even animal droppings. An interesting way to see Question Marks in a garden setting is to set up a butter y feeder, which can be as simple as a slice of watermelon set out on a plate where animals and people will not disturb it. Other gardeners create more elaborate arrangements for butterfly feeding.

Butterfly Gardening: The North American Butterfly Association Guide
By Jane Hurwitz

Butterfly gardening creates habitats that support butterflies, connecting us with some of the most beautiful creatures in the natural world and bringing new levels of excitement and joy to gardening. In this engaging and accessible guide, lavishly illustrated with more than two hundred color photographs and maps, accomplished butterfly gardener Jane Hurwitz presents essential information on how to choose and cultivate plants that will attract a range of butterflies to your garden and help sustain all the stages of their life cycles.

An indispensable resource for aspiring and experienced butterfly gardeners alike, Butterfly Gardening is the most gardener-friendly source on the subject, covering all the practical details needed to create a vibrant garden habitat that fosters butterflies. It tells you which plants support which butterflies, depending on where you live; it describes what different butterflies require in the garden over the course of their lives; and it shows you how to become a butterfly watcher as well as a butterfly gardener.

While predominantly recommending regionally native plants, the book includes information on non-native plants. It also features informative interviews with experienced butterfly gardeners from across the United States. These gardeners share a wealth of information on plants and practices to draw butterflies to all kinds of gardens–from small suburban gardens to community plots and larger expanses.

Whether you are a gardener who wants to see more butterflies in your garden, a butterfly enthusiast who wants to bring that passion to the garden, or someone who simply wants to make their garden or yard friendlier to Monarchs or other butterflies, this is a must-have guide.

  • An essential guide for aspiring and experienced butterfly gardeners
  • Encourages readers to rethink gardening choices to support butterflies and other pollinators in their gardens and communities
  • Introduces gardeners to butterfly watching
  • Includes regional lists of plant species that are time-proven to help sustain butterflies and their caterpillars
  • Features informative interviews with expert butterfly gardeners from across the United States

 

Insect of the Week: Skipper Butterflies

Adapted from page 55-58 of Butterfly Gardening:

Skippers are small, fast-flying butterflies that many people initially think are moths. Skippers have relatively thick bodies and short wings and their flight is often characterized as fast, darting, or jerky—obviously thought by some to be a “skipping” motion.

The vast majority of the skippers in the United States lack colorful scales and so tend to be orange, white, brown, black, or gray. Many skippers are smaller than the familiar and colorful garden visitors that initially come to mind when thinking “butterfly,” but once you notice skippers, you will appreciate the motion and activity they add to the garden.

A Common-Checkered Skipper in a typical spread-wing stance. Photo credit: Alan Schmierer.

Two subfamilies of skippers visit gardens in the United States: spreadwing skippers and grass-skippers. The spreadwing skippers generally perch with both forewings and hindwings open flat, while grass-skippers sit perkily with all wings closed or with the forewings open at a 45-degree angle to the flat hindwings. It is possible to get a peek at the open wings of a grass-skipper when it basks in the sun, a common behavior. Grass-skippers are also equipped with exceedingly long tongues, allowing them to nectar at many types of flowers.

Common Checkered-Skipper is likely the most widespread skipper in the United States, and its caterpillars feed on plants in the Mallow Family. This spreadwing skipper inhabits many different settings, from prairies and meadows to yards and pastures. Open, sunny, often disturbed places are what Common Checkered-Skippers prefer.

Butterfly Gardening: The North American Butterfly Association Guide
By Jane Hurwitz

Butterfly gardening creates habitats that support butterflies, connecting us with some of the most beautiful creatures in the natural world and bringing new levels of excitement and joy to gardening. In this engaging and accessible guide, lavishly illustrated with more than two hundred color photographs and maps, accomplished butterfly gardener Jane Hurwitz presents essential information on how to choose and cultivate plants that will attract a range of butterflies to your garden and help sustain all the stages of their life cycles.

An indispensable resource for aspiring and experienced butterfly gardeners alike, Butterfly Gardening is the most gardener-friendly source on the subject, covering all the practical details needed to create a vibrant garden habitat that fosters butterflies. It tells you which plants support which butterflies, depending on where you live; it describes what different butterflies require in the garden over the course of their lives; and it shows you how to become a butterfly watcher as well as a butterfly gardener.

While predominantly recommending regionally native plants, the book includes information on non-native plants. It also features informative interviews with experienced butterfly gardeners from across the United States. These gardeners share a wealth of information on plants and practices to draw butterflies to all kinds of gardens–from small suburban gardens to community plots and larger expanses.

Whether you are a gardener who wants to see more butterflies in your garden, a butterfly enthusiast who wants to bring that passion to the garden, or someone who simply wants to make their garden or yard friendlier to Monarchs or other butterflies, this is a must-have guide.

  • An essential guide for aspiring and experienced butterfly gardeners
  • Encourages readers to rethink gardening choices to support butterflies and other pollinators in their gardens and communities
  • Introduces gardeners to butterfly watching
  • Includes regional lists of plant species that are time-proven to help sustain butterflies and their caterpillars
  • Features informative interviews with expert butterfly gardeners from across the United States

 

Insect of the Week: the Great Spangled Fritillary

Adapted from pages 85 to 87 of Butterfly Gardening:

The Great Spangled Fritillary is a large, showy butterfly found throughout a large section of the United States from southern Canada down to northern California on the western half of the continent, with the range extending down across the country to North Carolina on the East Coast. Within its range, the Great Spangled Fritillary can be considered a common garden butterfly that is on the wing during the summer months and through the early fall.

Violets are the only plant that Great Spangled Fritillary caterpillars will eat. Great Spangled Fritillaries do not care whether the violet flowers are blue, yellow, or white, though it does matter to egg-laying butterflies that the violets are native. African “violets,” which are grown as houseplants, and pansies, which are sold at garden centers as outdoor bedding plants, are not suitable for Great Spangled Fritillary caterpillars. Since most violets spread enthusiastically, you may regard them as weeds or wildflowers, but native violets are the kind needed to feed Great Spangled Fritillaries as well as a number of other fritillary species that have smaller ranges.

A Great Sprangled Fritillary laying eggs near a violet. Photo credit: Jane Hurwitz

Butterflies bearing the common name “fritillary” can be confusing; since they all share a name, one could conclude that they all belong to the same genus, and therefore share similar characteristics. But things are not that tidy in the butterfly world, or in the gardening world either, and the fritillaries mentioned so far are actually all a bit different.

Great Spangled Fritillary belongs to the genus Speyeria. They have one brood per year and their caterpillars eat only violets. Hosting Great Spangled Fritillaries requires gardeners to hold off on vigorous flowerbed cleaning in the fall. By leaving leaf litter undisturbed surrounding violets, gardeners preserve caterpillar overwintering habitat, ensuring that any unseen caterpillars are able to remain near violets and complete their life cycle. Since Great Spangled Fritillary produces only one generation per year, if your yard is cleared each fall and spring by landscape crews, or by overenthusiastic family members sent outside on a fine fall day, the potential to lose overwintering caterpillars is high.

 

Butterfly Gardening: The North American Butterfly Association Guide
By Jane Hurwitz

Butterfly gardening creates habitats that support butterflies, connecting us with some of the most beautiful creatures in the natural world and bringing new levels of excitement and joy to gardening. In this engaging and accessible guide, lavishly illustrated with more than two hundred color photographs and maps, accomplished butterfly gardener Jane Hurwitz presents essential information on how to choose and cultivate plants that will attract a range of butterflies to your garden and help sustain all the stages of their life cycles.

An indispensable resource for aspiring and experienced butterfly gardeners alike, Butterfly Gardening is the most gardener-friendly source on the subject, covering all the practical details needed to create a vibrant garden habitat that fosters butterflies. It tells you which plants support which butterflies, depending on where you live; it describes what different butterflies require in the garden over the course of their lives; and it shows you how to become a butterfly watcher as well as a butterfly gardener.

While predominantly recommending regionally native plants, the book includes information on non-native plants. It also features informative interviews with experienced butterfly gardeners from across the United States. These gardeners share a wealth of information on plants and practices to draw butterflies to all kinds of gardens–from small suburban gardens to community plots and larger expanses.

Whether you are a gardener who wants to see more butterflies in your garden, a butterfly enthusiast who wants to bring that passion to the garden, or someone who simply wants to make their garden or yard friendlier to Monarchs or other butterflies, this is a must-have guide.

  • An essential guide for aspiring and experienced butterfly gardeners
  • Encourages readers to rethink gardening choices to support butterflies and other pollinators in their gardens and communities
  • Introduces gardeners to butterfly watching
  • Includes regional lists of plant species that are time-proven to help sustain butterflies and their caterpillars
  • Features informative interviews with expert butterfly gardeners from across the United States

 

Jane Hurwitz on Butterfly Gardening

Butterflies are regarded by many as canaries in our ecological coal mine: they provide visual signals indicating the relative health and diversity of a habitat. Improving our local fragmented and degraded habitats in order to promote butterflies may seem like an onerous task, but in Butterfly Gardening: The North American Butterfly Association Guide, Jane Hurwitz presents simple steps to create more vibrant and dynamic environments that encourage wild butterflies to flourish—and provide gardeners of all levels with inspiration and pleasure.

Why did you write this book?

I am a life-long gardener who has had the good fortune to work for an organization that actively promotes gardening for butterflies. During the years I directed the North American Butterfly Association’s Butterfly Garden and Habitat Program,  I was exposed to a wealth of information on butterfly gardening that changed the way I view all aspects of gardening. A large part of my work with the program involved daily communication with people of all skill levels concerning their NABA certified gardens. In fact, the second half of the book revolves around specific butterfly gardeners living in different regions of the United States; there is so much to be learned from other gardeners regardless of their location or garden size.

Writing this book allowed me to explore the connection between how we take care of our landscapes, whether our private gardens or public spaces, and how those choices impact butterflies. Very little is static in a garden, a fact that is accentuated when butterflies—or any insects, for that matter—become part of the garden’s focus. Butterfly gardening is a gardening method that allows the interplay between the natural world and human-made habitats to expand in ways that allow wildlife to flourish. Learning the interconnections between plants and butterflies is fascinating and works as a catalyst to deepen our connection to our natural surroundings. The creation of habitats for butterflies is an ongoing process, not a fixed point that will ever be perfectly attained; as such, butterfly gardening provides an open ended opportunity for constant experimentation and learning.

Who is this book for?

Anyone with an interest in butterflies and gardening—even if they’re only mildly curious! Gardening books are often quite prescriptive, providing chapter after chapter on how to grow specific plants or how to achieve a particular garden style. Butterfly Gardening takes a more flexible approach, imparting basic information on butterfly and plant biology, butterfly watching, and plant selection in an accessible way that allows the reader to make their own informed choices on how best to create a habitat for butterflies within the constraints of their location and budget. Whether one’s focus is on creating habitat for monarchs, installing a school garden, or simply making a suburban yard more butterfly-friendly, once equipped with the essential information it is easy to implement changes that will lure these beautiful and fascinating creatures into our lives.

What are some of the first steps in creating a great butterfly garden?

Eliminating the use of pesticides, particularly those in the class of insecticides known as neonicotinoids, is the first item on any butterfly gardening checklist. Of course, there may need to be exceptions; if my home has termites, for example, I am probably going to need to use pesticides, but as a general rule they are best avoided. In fact, taking pesticides out of our garden toolkits is one of the very few things we must do in order to provide a habitat for butterflies.

Identifying the butterflies that are common to your locale and learning their names would be a second step to consider. There are many ways to accomplish this; some people start with a butterfly guide book and work from their own observations, while others find information through local sources such as nature centers, NABA chapters, or the Extension Service.

Learning the names of butterflies will enable you to communicate better with other butterfly gardeners and will also inform you about which caterpillar food plants to install. Many butterfly gardeners, however, skip this step, at least in the early stages. For many, butterfly gardening begins with the plants (and there are so many good ones!); rather than identify possible butterfly visitors to their garden and plan specifically for that group, they jump right into planting nectar sources, and see what comes to visit. As I emphasize throughout the book, there are no rules about how to start or organize a butterfly garden, but most gardeners do eventually become interested in naming their butterfly visitors and learning about their life cycles.

What would you say is the benefit of butterfly gardening?

A garden represents different things to different people. By using the methods detailed in Butterfly Gardening, a layer of ecological relevance can be added to a pleasurable and revitalizing activity. We can make our gardens a refuge for butterflies as well as ourselves.

 

Jane Hurwitz  is the editor of Butterfly Gardener magazine and the former director of the Butterfly Garden and Habitat Program for the North American Butterfly Association. She lives in northern New Jersey.

Insect of the Week: the May/June beetle

Adapted from pages 466-468 of Garden Insects of North America:

May/June Beetles (Phyllophaga spp.) are among the largest of the white grubs, typically about 3/4 inches to 1 inch long and stout-bodied. Adults are generally chocolate brown to nearly black. More than 200 species occur in North America, with about 25 reported to damage turfgrasses, garden plants, and field crops. The adults are active at night and may be seen careening around porch lights and bouncing off screens, often in late spring. The beetles feed on the foliage of various trees and shrubs, with oak a preferred host for many species, but this rarely results in any significant injuries. Much more significant damage results from the white grub larvae, which chew on plant roots. Grasses are most commonly damaged, but larvae can seriously injure roots of young trees and shrubs planted in grassy areas.

 In northern areas, May/June beetles often have an extended life cycle that requires 3 years to complete. With these species, eggs are laid in the soil in May or June, and a limited amount of feeding takes place by young larvae during the first season, before they migrate downward for winter. They return to feed on roots and grow rapidly during the second season, producing most damage at this time. In the third year there is some additional feeding before the insects pupate in a belowground chamber. They transform to adults in late summer and early fall, ready to emerge the following year.

An adult May/June beetle. Photo credit: David Shetlar

Variations of May/June beetle life cycles occur, and in the southern U.S. many species complete development in a single season. Phyllophaga crinita, an important species in Texas, and P. latifrons, found in most Gulf States, have this habit. They commonly damage St. Augustinegrass, bermudagrass, and buffalograss.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North America continues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause

 

Insect of the Week: the Emerald Ash Borer

Adapted from pages 434-435 of Garden Insects of North America

The larvae of the emerald ash borer develop under the bark of trees, creating zigzag tunnels through the cambium. Cumulative injuries cause a progressive dieback that initially involves upper limbs but ultimately moves into the trunks. Typically trees are killed within 5 years after they are first colonized.

The first North American detection of emerald ash borer was in 2002 in Detroit. By 2016 this insect was found in most states east of the Mississippi, two Canadian provinces, and two western states (Colorado, Texas). The rapid spread of this insect over wide areas has been largely through the human-assisted movement of infested ash firewood. Once introduced into a location, local dispersal occurs from the flight of adults during late spring and early summer. Adults are metallic green beetles, approximately 1/2 inch long. The larvae are flatheaded borers that make meandering tunnels through the cambium, under the bark. Adults emerge from trees through D-shaped exit holes in the bark.

An emerald ash borer with wings open (Agrilus planipennis).                            Photo credit: David Shetlar.

Winter is spent as a larva within tunnels under the bark and pupation occurs in mid-spring. Adults can be expected to begin to emerge in late May, about the time black locust (Robinia) is in full bloom. Initially they feed on the foliage and, about 2 weeks later, after mating, females begin to lay eggs on the surface of trunks and branches. About 100 eggs may be laid on the trunk or larger limbs, usually at points of rough bark and in cracks of the bark, with most egg laying completed by early July. 

Eggs hatch about 2 weeks after being laid, and the larvae bore into the plant where they feed on the sapwood. As they feed and develop the larvae extend their mines under the bark, the size of the tunnels gradually widening as the insect grows. Fine sawdust frass packs these galleries. Larval feeding continues until the larva is mature or until weather becomes too cold for development. Growth is resumed in spring when they complete their development. Normally, one generation is produced annually. Development may be slowed in more vigorous trees in early stages of infestation and in cooler areas some larvae that develop from eggs laid late in the season have been observed to require a second season to mature.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North America continues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause

Insect of the Week: the False chinch bug

Adapted from page 299 of Garden Insects of North America

 False chinch bugs are about 1/6 inch, winged, and slightly more elongate in form than “true” chinch bugs. General coloration is mottled gray, with the thorax and head somewhat darker. Nymphs are gray-brown and have some reddish or orange markings on the abdomen. False chinch bugs are generally distributed throughout most of western North America but are particularly common in the High Plains and Intermountain West. 

False chinch bugs suck the sap from plants during feeding. The adults also commonly aggregate and occur in large numbers on individual plants, causing plants to wilt and die rapidly. Outbreaks are sporadic but can destroy plantings, particularly early in the year. Later in the season, aggregations tend to be greatest on developing seed heads. False chinch bugs are sometimes a nuisance pest of homes and buildings during hot summers when they may migrate into buildings. Most garden plants can be damaged during outbreaks; crucifers and beet family plants are favored. Wild hosts include many weeds such as tansy mustard, kochia, Russian thistle, and sagebrush. 

False chinch bugs (Nysius spp.) at mixed life stages. Photo credit: Whitney Cranshaw

False chinch bugs spend the winter as nymphs or adults under protective debris near winter annual mustards they use for hosts. They become active in early spring and move to developing mustards to feed. Adults lay eggs in loose soil or soil cracks around plants and eggs hatch in about 4 days. Under summer conditions, the wingless, gray nymphs feed for about 3 weeks and then reach the adult stage. Adults live for several weeks, fly readily, and can disperse over wide areas. About three generations are usually produced, with peak numbers often appearing in July and early August.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North America continues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause

 

Insect of the Week: the Green Lacewing

Adapted from pages 620-621 of Garden Insects of North America:

Several species of green lacewings commonly frequent yards and gardens, most in the genera Chrysopa or Chrysoperla. Adults are generally pale green insects with clear, highly veined wings they hold over the body when at rest. Some species turn a light brown during cold weather. They are delicate and very attractive insects that feed primarily on nectar, pollen, and honeydew, although adults in the genus Chrysopa also feed on small insects. The females lay a distinctive stalked egg, approximately 1/2 inch in height. Eggs may be laid in small groups or singly on leaves of plants throughout the yard.

An adult green lacewing. Photo credit: David Shetlar.

Lacewing larvae emerge from the egg in about a week. These larvae, sometimes called “aphid lions,” are voracious predators capable of feeding on a wide range of insects, including small caterpillars and beetles as well as aphids and other insects. They are perhaps best marked by their large sickle-shaped jaws that project from the head. The body is elongate, usually a bit thicker in the middle, and most lacewing larvae are some shade of light brown to nearly white. However, these features are obscured by the larvae of some “trash-carrying” species that pile the carcasses of prey, small bits of lichen, and other debris on their body, an effective camouflage from some predators that also allows them to escape detection by aphid-tending ants. Pupation occurs in a nearly spherical, pale-colored cocoon often attached loosely to leaves or needles.

Some Chrysoperla species are produced commercially in insectary facilities. These are sold, often as eggs, for use in biological control of aphids and caterpillars in certain vegetable and greenhouse crops and interiorscapes.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North America continues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause

 

Insect of the Week: the Bumble Bee

Adapted from pages 674-675 of Garden Insects of North America

Bumble bees are large, fuzzy bees brightly colored black with yellow and/or orange. Like honey bees, they are social insects that produce a colony, usually in an abandoned rodent or bird nest where there is insulating material they use to surround the nest. Bumble bee colonies are abandoned at the end of the year, however, and only new, large, fertilized queens survive the winter. The queen establishes a new colony in spring, conducting all chores of foraging, hive construction, and rearing. The first workers produced are usually quite small, but they assist the queen as the colony develops. As the colony grows, worker size tends to increase and some reproductive forms (queens, males) are produced toward the end of the season. 

A bumble bee (Bombus vosnesenskii). Photo credit: Whitney Cranshaw.

Bumble bees are native insects, with close to 50 species in North America. Many are important pollinators, and they have a unique method of acquiring pollen from some plants, known as buzz pollination, which shakes pollen from some kinds of flowers. The collected pollen is then packed into pollen baskets on the hind legs, in a manner similar to honey bees and others in the family Apidae. Bumble bees are used extensively to pollinate greenhouse-grown tomatoes, and many native plants are dependent on buzz pollination for seed set. Bumble bees sting readily in defense of their hive but are nonaggressive while foraging. The sting is painful, but the stinger is not left behind.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North America continues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause

 

Insect of the Week: Locust Borer

Adapted from pages 440-441 of Garden Insects of North America:

The Locust Borer is an insect that typically uses the black locust as a host throughout much of North America, excluding some Pacific States and southern Florida. Larvae develop in trunks, causing deep tunneling that can riddle the plant and cause serious structural weakening. The adult is a colorful, generally black beetle marked with yellow cross bands on the thorax and W-shaped bands on the wing covers. It is about 3/4 inch in length with antennae nearly as long as the body. The larvae, about 1 inch long when fully grown, are robust, cream-colored, legless grubs with a brown head. 

Two locust borer adults (Megacyllene robiniae) on a goldenrod plant.                Photo credit: Whitney Crenshaw.

Adults are active in late summer and early fall, considerably later than most longhorned beetles. At this time they are commonly seen feeding on the pollen of goldenrod and other yellow flowers. Concurrently, eggs are deposited in cracks and crevices in the bark of host trees. Larvae hatch in late fall, bore into bark, and construct small hibernation cells for overwintering. They resume activity in the spring and tunnel extensively through heartwood. The larvae mature in the latter part of July. There is one generation per year.

To see additional photos of the locust borer, follow us on Princeton Nature.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North America continues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause

Insect of the Week: Periodical Cicadas

Adapted from page 406-407 of Garden Insects of North America:

Periodical cicadas can typically be found in a wide variety of deciduous trees and shrubs through much of the northeastern quadrant of the U.S. They cause injuries to their plant hosts when females lay a series of small batches of eggs, inserting them into twigs. Small branches can be girdled and killed shortly after egg insertion. The damage also predisposes the branches to breakage and allows entry of pathogens. Surviving branches can display wounds for years. Adults feed on fluids extracted from twigs, and the nymphs similarly feed on roots, but these feeding injuries are considered minor.

Periodical cicadas have unique life cycles that involve synchronized adult emergence at consistent intervals (17 years for northern broods, 13 years for southern broods). Emergence of the various periodical cicadas is staggered at the various places where they occur, which are referred to as “broods.” Emergence events can be spectacular— and noisy—often attracting considerable attention and sometimes concern. Because of their large numbers during such events, early European settlers likened then to Biblical locusts; as a result they are sometimes still incorrectly referred to as “17-year locusts.” (The term locust is properly applied to certain grasshoppers that may periodically mass and migrate).

A periodical cicada ovipositing in a twig. Photo credit: David Shetlar

Adults are 1.25 to 1.75 inches, generally dark, and may have some banding. Their eyes are conspicuously red, and the wings are nearly transparent with orange veins. Immature stages live on the roots of trees and shrubs, growing slowly. In the seventeenth year of their life they emerge from the soil, typically in late May and early June in the north, earlier in the south. They climb trees, buildings, and other upright surfaces. The nymphal skin is then shed, and adults shortly thereafter move to the trees.

Head to our Instagram to see the damage that periodical cicadas can do to twigs.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North America continues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause