Amazing Arachnids: The Lace-Weaver Spiders

Amazing Arachnids is a new, month-long series from Princeton Nature. Each week, we’ll highlight one of the unique arachnids found in Jillian Cowles’ richly illustrated and up-close look at the secret lives of spiders.

Adapted from page 229 of the text: 

Broad, black chelicerae and a stocky build give members of the family Amaurobiidae a powerful appearance suggestive of bulldogs. The imposing physique of these spiders contrasts with the delicate beauty of their webs, built of woolly cribellate silk. These characteristic webs give this family its name “lace-weaver spiders” or “hacklemesh weavers.” The cribellate silk of the web radiates out from a tunnel retreat, where the spider lies in wait. Insects become tangled in these hackled threads, giving time for the spider to rush out from its hiding place and catch the prey.

Amaurobius has a truly remarkable natural history in regard to its reproduction. In the case of Amaurobius ferox (an introduced species from Europe reportedly found in southern California), the mother spider lays her first clutch of eggs and stays nearby to guard them until the babies hatch. This maternal behavior is consistent with many other species of arachnids and is therefore hardly noteworthy. But then it gets interesting. After the spiderlings emerge from the egg sac, they interact with their mother, and she is induced by this interaction to lay a second clutch of eggs. This time, the eggs are laid before they are mature, and consequently this clutch of eggs serves as food for the spiderlings that hatched from the first clutch. This is referred to as trophic egg laying and is a strategy employed by several other species of animals, including some species of poison dart frogs. The spiderlings that receive this food are heavier and have a higher survival rate than spiderlings deprived of the trophic egg meal.

Callobius arizonicus. Callobius are found in cool areas, such as the mountains of Arizona and the forests of California.

But the mother spider’s sacrifice does not end there. The mother and her offspring interact further, and this time she actually appears to solicit her babies to feed on her. This the babies do, collectively killing and feeding on their mother. This matriphagy appears to be regulated by the life stage of the spiderlings, the reproductive state of the mother, and the behavioral interactions of the mother and her young. The spiderlings derive considerable benefit from this behavior. They are heavier and larger at the time they disperse compared with spiderlings deprived of their mother as food, including groups of spiderlings given an abundance of other prey to eat.

Finally, the matriphagous spiderlings have a longer period of social behavior, compared with the nonmatriphagous spiderlings. The subsocial spiderlings live together through several instar stages on the web of their mother, cooperatively killing prey and sharing it. The maternal web appears to provide a superior platform for the offspring to detect and cooperatively kill prey, as compared with webs that the spiderlings construct themselves. Prey that would be too large for one or two spiderlings to overcome is killed by groups of spiderlings, and that prey is shared even with those that did not take part in that particular kill. The spiderlings appear to use coordinated teamwork to subdue prey that is up to 10 times the size of any individual spiderling. Cooperative prey capture increases predation efficiency and survival of all the spiderlings.

Most of the members of the family Amaurobiidae live in cool, moist habitats, making their webs under debris, in caves, or in the nooks and crannies of trees. California boasts the greatest diversity of these spiders in the United States. In the arid southwestern states, Callobius arizonicus lives principally at higher elevations where it is cooler and moister. Found under rocks and dead wood, several individual Callobius spiders may share a single shelter. Only centimeters may separate their webs, indicating some degree of tolerance between individuals of the same species. Also like Amaurobius, Callobius guards her egg sac, which is produced in the shelter of her refuge. But in the case of Callobius, it is unknown whether the mother spider feeds her young.

 

Amazing Arachnids
By Jillian Cowles

The American Southwest is home to an extraordinary diversity of arachnids, from spitting spiders that squirt silk over their prey to scorpions that court one another with kissing and dancing. Amazing Arachnids presents these enigmatic creatures as you have never seen them before. Featuring a wealth of color photos of more than 300 different kinds of arachnids from eleven taxonomic orders–both rare and common species—this stunningly illustrated book reveals the secret lives of arachnids in breathtaking detail, including never-before-seen images of their underground behavior.

Amazing Arachnids covers all aspects of arachnid biology, such as anatomy, sociality, mimicry, camouflage, and venoms. You will meet bolas spiders that lure their victims with fake moth pheromones, fishing spiders that woo their mates with silk-wrapped gifts, chivalrous cellar spiders, tiny mites, and massive tarantulas, as well as many others. Along the way, you will learn why arachnids are living fossils in some respects and nimble opportunists in others, and how natural selection has perfected their sensory structures, defense mechanisms, reproductive strategies, and hunting methods.

  • Covers more than 300 different kinds of arachnids, including ones new to science
  • Features more than 750 stunning color photos
  • Describes every aspect of arachnid biology, from physiology to biogeography
  • Illustrates courtship and mating, birth, maternal care, hunting, and defense
  • Includes first-ever photos of the underground lives of schizomids and vinegaroons
  • Provides the first organized guide to macroscopic mites, including photos of living mites for easy reference

 

Insect of the Week: Synchronous Symphonies

Among all the glamorous mating rituals that have been shaped by evolution, the displays performed by certain synchronously flashing fireflies might rank as the most spectacular. For reasons we don’t yet understand, only a few lightningbugs show a remarkable behavior: thousands of male fireflies will match up their rhythms to flash together in unison. Two distinct types of synchronous flash behavior have been observed: one type involves stationary males, while the other takes place among roving (flying) fireflies.

In southeast Asia, certain Pteroptyxmale fireflies sit in communal display trees along tidal rivers, where each night they spend hours flashing together in perfect synchrony. Females fly to these stationary aggregations, known as leks, where mating occurs.

Writing in the journal Science in 1935, Hugh Smith, a naturalist living in Thailand, described these dazzling displays:

Photo credit: Radim Schreiber

Imagine a tree thirty-five to forty feet high thickly covered with small ovate leaves, apparently with a firefly on every leaf and all the fireflies flashing in perfect unison at the rate of about three times in two seconds, the tree being in complete darkness between the flashes. Imagine a dozen such trees standing close together along the river’s edge with synchronously flashing fireflies on every leaf. Imagine a tenth of a mile of riverfront with an unbroken line of Sonneratia[mangrove] trees with fireflies on every leaf flashing in synchronism, the insects on the trees at the ends of the line acting in perfect unison with those between.

 

Because fireflies congregrate so predictably in the same trees, night after night for months, native boatmen once navigated among the twisting waterways using firefly display trees as landmarks.

But stationary flash synchrony doesn’t happen in any North American fireflies. Instead, several of our lightningbug species show a kind of wave synchrony, where flashes are synchronized locally among males flying within line-of-sight of each other. In the southern Appalachians, the synchronous symphony of Photinus carolinusattracts thousands of visitors to admire these flying males as they coordinate their six-pulsed courtship flashes with those of nearby males. These fireflies create waves of synchronous flashing that moves through the forest in the Allegheny National Forest and Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Similar displays of wave synchrony among roving males can be seen in mating displays of Photuris frontalis in Congaree National Park, South Carolina, Photinus knulli in Arizona, and Macrolampis palaciosi in Tlaxcala, Mexico. When they’re in a dense population, males of other fireflies will sometimes synchronize their flashes for a short time.

Wherever you find them, synchronous fireflies make an indelible impression – they are certainly one of Earth’s great natural treasures!

 

Learn more about firefly synchrony in Silent Sparks: The Wondrous World of Fireflies, and on the author’s firefly blog.

silent sparksSilent Sparks
The Wondrous World of Fireflies

For centuries, the beauty of fireflies has evoked wonder and delight. Yet for most of us, fireflies remain shrouded in mystery: How do fireflies make their light? What are they saying with their flashing? And what do fireflies look for in a mate? In Silent Sparks, noted biologist and firefly expert Sara Lewis dives into the fascinating world of fireflies and reveals the most up-to-date discoveries about these beloved insects. From the meadows of New England and the hills of the Great Smoky Mountains, to the rivers of Japan and mangrove forests of Malaysia, this beautifully illustrated and accessible book uncovers the remarkable, dramatic stories of birth, courtship, romance, sex, deceit, poison, and death among fireflies.

The nearly two thousand species of fireflies worldwide have evolved in different ways—and while most mate through the aerial language of blinking lights, not all do. Lewis introduces us to fireflies that don’t light up at all, relying on wind-borne perfumes to find mates, and we encounter glow-worm fireflies, whose plump, wingless females never fly. We go behind the scenes to meet inquisitive scientists who have dedicated their lives to understanding fireflies, and we learn about various modern threats including light pollution and habitat destruction. In the last section of the book, Lewis provides a field guide for North American fireflies, enabling us to identify them in our own backyards and neighborhoods. This concise, handy guide includes distinguishing features, habits, and range maps for the most commonly encountered fireflies, as well as a gear list.

A passionate exploration of one of the world’s most charismatic and admired insects, Silent Sparks will inspire us to reconnect with the natural world.

Insect of the Week: How to Make Your Yard More Firefly-Friendly

silent sparksYour neighborhood might have hundreds of fireflies, or maybe you have just a few. Perhaps you have none at all. No matter which, here are some simple things that will help make any yard more attractive to local fireflies.

Create an inviting habitat:
Fireflies need moisture during all of their life stages (that is, eggs, larvae, pupae and the adult).

  • Let the grass grow longer in parts of your lawn to help the soil hold more moisture.
  • Juvenile fireflies spend up to two years living underground, where they feed on earthworms and snails. If you leave some leaf litter and woody debris in the corners of your yard, this will help larval fireflies—and their prey—to thrive.
  • Female fireflies lay their eggs in moist, mossy places, so preserve any wetlands, streams, or ponds in your neighborhood.

Bring back the night:
Fireflies court using bioluminenscent flashes, so artificial lights that are too bright can interfere with their ability to find mates.

  • When installing or re-thinking your outdoor lighting, use only what you need to get the job done.
  • Use shielded lighting fixtures recommended by the International Dark-Sky Association; these direct light downward, where it’s most useful. Use bulbs as low-wattage as possible to provide just the light you need for safety and security.
  • Try turning off your outdoorlights, or put them on timers, particularly during firefly season.

Reduce pesticide use:
Because juveniles fireflies spend months living underground, they will come into contact with any insecticides spread on lawns and gardens. Broad-spectrum insecticides like malathion and diazinon will kill whatever insects they contact, including fireflies.

  • Consider using organic or least-toxic practices and products on your lawn and garden. Avoid broad-spectrum insecticides – use horticultural oils or insecticidal bacteria like Bt designed to target specific pests.
  • Apply pesticides to treat specific pest problems, never routinely.
  • Don’t use Weed & Feed or similar products that contain 2,4-D, which has been shown to be toxic to earthworms and beetles like ladybugs.

As I describe in Silent Sparks, our scientific understanding of firefly biology and habitat requirements has grown exponentially over the past few decades. Such knowledge now provides a powerful tool for protecting fireflies. And of course, we can all work to preserve and restore the wild places where fireflies thrive – their fields and forests, their mangoves and meadows. We all dream about the kind of world we want our children to inherit. Let’s make certain the magical sparkle of fireflies will continue to be part of their world.

Silent Sparks
The Wondrous World of Fireflies

For centuries, the beauty of fireflies has evoked wonder and delight. Yet for most of us, fireflies remain shrouded in mystery: How do fireflies make their light? What are they saying with their flashing? And what do fireflies look for in a mate? In Silent Sparks, noted biologist and firefly expert Sara Lewis dives into the fascinating world of fireflies and reveals the most up-to-date discoveries about these beloved insects. From the meadows of New England and the hills of the Great Smoky Mountains, to the rivers of Japan and mangrove forests of Malaysia, this beautifully illustrated and accessible book uncovers the remarkable, dramatic stories of birth, courtship, romance, sex, deceit, poison, and death among fireflies.

The nearly two thousand species of fireflies worldwide have evolved in different ways—and while most mate through the aerial language of blinking lights, not all do. Lewis introduces us to fireflies that don’t light up at all, relying on wind-borne perfumes to find mates, and we encounter glow-worm fireflies, whose plump, wingless females never fly. We go behind the scenes to meet inquisitive scientists who have dedicated their lives to understanding fireflies, and we learn about various modern threats including light pollution and habitat destruction. In the last section of the book, Lewis provides a field guide for North American fireflies, enabling us to identify them in our own backyards and neighborhoods. This concise, handy guide includes distinguishing features, habits, and range maps for the most commonly encountered fireflies, as well as a gear list.

A passionate exploration of one of the world’s most charismatic and admired insects, Silent Sparks will inspire us to reconnect with the natural world.

Insect of the Week: Five Myths About Fireflies

silent sparksMyth #1. Fireflies are flies, and lightningbugs are bugs

Truth: They have two different nicknames, but both refer to the same group of insects. Throughout much of the southern United States they’re called lightning bugs, while in the north and east they’re more often known as fireflies. Yet these insects are neither flies nor bugs – they’re actually beetles! What makes them beetles? Their hard wing covers that fold down to protect the delicate flight wings when the insect is resting.

Myth #2. If you’ve seen one firefly, you’ve seen them all

Truth: The firefly family, known as Lampyridae, includes more than 2000 described species worldwide. Here in North America, we have more than 200 different firefly species. These include the lightningbug fireflies, which use quick, bright flashes to find mates. These are mainly found east of the Mississippi River. But more common in the western U.S. are the glow-worm fireflies, which have glowing, wingless females, as well as dark fireflies, whose adults don’t light up at all.

Myth #3. Fireflies only light up for sex

Truth: In every species within the firefly family, the larval stage is capable of producing light. Because larvae are too young to reproduce, their bioluminescence appears to serve as an anti-predator warning. Fireflies contain chemicals that are toxic to many vertebrate predators. For these nocturnal larvae, bioluminescence is similar to the bright coloration used by monarch butterflies: it shouts out “I’m toxic – stay away!”

 Myth #4. Fireflies mean summertime

Truth: The spectacular summer lightshows produced by adult lightningbugs are just the tip of the firefly life cycle. Adult fireflies fly for merely a few weeks, but can spend nearly two years living underground during their larval stage. Juvenile fireflies spend months feasting on earthworms, snails, and other soft-bodied creatures. Ferocious carnivores, firefly larvae inject victims with paralyzing neurotoxins, then secrete digestive enzymes to liquify and ingest their prey.

Myth #5. There are so many fireflies, they don’t need protection

Truth: Certain firefly species, like the Big Dipper firefly Photinus pyralis, are abundant and occur in many habitats across a wide geographic range. But others are restricted to small, isolated populations or are habitat specialists, and these are in greater need of protection. Worldwide, many firefly populations are under threat from habitat loss, light pollution, and altered rainfall patterns due to climate disruption. In addition, firefly ecotourism is gaining popularity, and increasing numbers of visitors can impact both adult and larval habitats. Within the past century, fireflies in the U.S., Japan, and China have also been commercially harvested from wild populations.

 

Sara Lewis, who has been captivated by fireflies for nearly three decades, is a professor in the Department of Biology at Tufts University. Her work has been featured in numerous publications, including the New York Times, Scientific American, and USA Today. Lewis lives with her husband in Watertown, Massachusetts.


Silent Sparks
The Wondrous World of Fireflies

For centuries, the beauty of fireflies has evoked wonder and delight. Yet for most of us, fireflies remain shrouded in mystery: How do fireflies make their light? What are they saying with their flashing? And what do fireflies look for in a mate? In Silent Sparks, noted biologist and firefly expert Sara Lewis dives into the fascinating world of fireflies and reveals the most up-to-date discoveries about these beloved insects. From the meadows of New England and the hills of the Great Smoky Mountains, to the rivers of Japan and mangrove forests of Malaysia, this beautifully illustrated and accessible book uncovers the remarkable, dramatic stories of birth, courtship, romance, sex, deceit, poison, and death among fireflies.

The nearly two thousand species of fireflies worldwide have evolved in different ways—and while most mate through the aerial language of blinking lights, not all do. Lewis introduces us to fireflies that don’t light up at all, relying on wind-borne perfumes to find mates, and we encounter glow-worm fireflies, whose plump, wingless females never fly. We go behind the scenes to meet inquisitive scientists who have dedicated their lives to understanding fireflies, and we learn about various modern threats including light pollution and habitat destruction. In the last section of the book, Lewis provides a field guide for North American fireflies, enabling us to identify them in our own backyards and neighborhoods. This concise, handy guide includes distinguishing features, habits, and range maps for the most commonly encountered fireflies, as well as a gear list.

A passionate exploration of one of the world’s most charismatic and admired insects, Silent Sparks will inspire us to reconnect with the natural world.

 

Insect of the Week: the Darkest Fireflies

Bioluminescence lights up the larval stage in every member of this beetle family (Lampyridae), but adult fireflies have evolved remarkably diverse ways to find mates. Summertime icons that fill the night with their flashy courtship displays, the lightning bug fireflies might be the most spectacular. Yet many fireflies lose their bioluminescent spark once they become adults. These dark fireflies are active during the daytime, and females emit chemical signals to attract males. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that the common ancestor of all fireflies also had nonluminous adults. Though they are often overlooked, today these dark fireflies can be found coast-to-coast across the United States and Canada. Two groups of dark fireflies are particularly common. Once you learn to recognize them, you will see them everywhere!

A Lucidota atra firefly. Photo credit: Molly Jacobsen

Ellychnia includes a dozen or so different species with nonluminous adults. These dark fireflies are close cousins to the Photinus lightning bugs, but they have evolved a radically different lifestyle. Sometimes called Winter Fireflies, the adults spend the winter wedged down into grooves on tree trunks. They prefer trees with deeply furrowed bark, and dozens are often seen congregating on a single tree. After hunkering down for several months, surviving snow and freezing temperatures, Ellychnia adults are among the first insects to become active in the spring. Mating takes place in late March and April, when these hardy beetles can be seen flying slowly through wooded areas. Mating pairs, attached tail-to-tail, are commonly seen on tree trunks, where they remain coupled for 12 hours or more. It has been proposed that Ellychnia, which evolved from a nocturnal, Photinus-like ancestor, shifted to become day-active to escape night-time hunters like the predatory Photuris fireflies.

Lucidota atra is another day-flying, non-luminous firefly, and these adults are simply stunning. They are also easy to identify with their jet black wing covers, brightly colored head shield and flattened, saw-toothed antennae. These dark fireflies are commonly seen in early summer as they fly slowly, just a few feet above the ground, across lawns, fields, and forests. Experiments done by Jim Lloyd in the 1970s revealed that Lucidota females release pheromones that are carried on the wind, creating an invisible plume. Males seek out females by flying slowly back and forth until they encounter a plume, then fly upwind until they reach the female. The chemical nature of the female pheromone remains unknown.

 

Sara Lewis, who has been captivated by fireflies for nearly three decades, is a professor in the Department of Biology at Tufts University. Her work has been featured in numerous publications, including the New York Times, Scientific American, and USA Today. Lewis lives with her husband in Watertown, Massachusetts.

silent sparksSilent Sparks
The Wondrous World of Fireflies

For centuries, the beauty of fireflies has evoked wonder and delight. Yet for most of us, fireflies remain shrouded in mystery: How do fireflies make their light? What are they saying with their flashing? And what do fireflies look for in a mate? In Silent Sparks, noted biologist and firefly expert Sara Lewis dives into the fascinating world of fireflies and reveals the most up-to-date discoveries about these beloved insects. From the meadows of New England and the hills of the Great Smoky Mountains, to the rivers of Japan and mangrove forests of Malaysia, this beautifully illustrated and accessible book uncovers the remarkable, dramatic stories of birth, courtship, romance, sex, deceit, poison, and death among fireflies.

The nearly two thousand species of fireflies worldwide have evolved in different ways—and while most mate through the aerial language of blinking lights, not all do. Lewis introduces us to fireflies that don’t light up at all, relying on wind-borne perfumes to find mates, and we encounter glow-worm fireflies, whose plump, wingless females never fly. We go behind the scenes to meet inquisitive scientists who have dedicated their lives to understanding fireflies, and we learn about various modern threats including light pollution and habitat destruction. In the last section of the book, Lewis provides a field guide for North American fireflies, enabling us to identify them in our own backyards and neighborhoods. This concise, handy guide includes distinguishing features, habits, and range maps for the most commonly encountered fireflies, as well as a gear list.

A passionate exploration of one of the world’s most charismatic and admired insects, Silent Sparks will inspire us to reconnect with the natural world.

Insect of the Week: the American Lady

Adapted from page 49 of Butterfly Gardening:

Some American Ladies overwinter as adults in northern climates, so sightings of this wide-ranging butterfly often begin early in spring. The actual northern limit of American Lady overwintering has not been firmly established, and questions persist regarding the life stage in which they overwinter. Some reports suggest that only adults overwinter, while others indicate that both adults and chrysalides overwinter. Additionally, American Ladies are migrants, so as the weather warms each spring, butterflies from the south move northward, laying eggs as they progress. However, one fact is clear; American Ladies are widespread and common in gardens!

This patch of Parlin’s pussytoes had only recently been planted before an American Lady stopped by to lay eggs.
Photo credit: Jan Dixon.

To the nascent butterfly watcher, American Ladies look quite similar to Painted Ladies, or in the western United States, to West Coast Ladies as well. Painted Lady, with more than 100 recorded host plants, needs no special planting plans, and West Coast Lady caterpillars accept a variety of plant, some of which are weeds, but if you wish to watch the life cycle of American Lady, you will need to provide its caterpillar food plants. These are native plants that are lovely to include in gardens—western pearly everlasting, some of the species of pussytoes, and the similar but rather unattractively named cudweed.

Pussytoes are a group of plants that are easy to incorporate into gardens or wild plantings—their cultural needs are not great, and in fact they can be used as a ground cover in dry areas with poor soil. Approximately 40 different species of pussytoes are native in the United States, although many are not commonly for sale. Native-plant nurseries usually carry at least one species, with shale barren pussytoes, rosy pussytoes, and the oddly named woman’s tobacco being fairly common.

Butterfly Gardening: The North American Butterfly Association Guide
By Jane Hurwitz

Butterfly gardening creates habitats that support butterflies, connecting us with some of the most beautiful creatures in the natural world and bringing new levels of excitement and joy to gardening. In this engaging and accessible guide, lavishly illustrated with more than two hundred color photographs and maps, accomplished butterfly gardener Jane Hurwitz presents essential information on how to choose and cultivate plants that will attract a range of butterflies to your garden and help sustain all the stages of their life cycles.

An indispensable resource for aspiring and experienced butterfly gardeners alike, Butterfly Gardening is the most gardener-friendly source on the subject, covering all the practical details needed to create a vibrant garden habitat that fosters butterflies. It tells you which plants support which butterflies, depending on where you live; it describes what different butterflies require in the garden over the course of their lives; and it shows you how to become a butterfly watcher as well as a butterfly gardener.

While predominantly recommending regionally native plants, the book includes information on non-native plants. It also features informative interviews with experienced butterfly gardeners from across the United States. These gardeners share a wealth of information on plants and practices to draw butterflies to all kinds of gardens–from small suburban gardens to community plots and larger expanses.

Whether you are a gardener who wants to see more butterflies in your garden, a butterfly enthusiast who wants to bring that passion to the garden, or someone who simply wants to make their garden or yard friendlier to Monarchs or other butterflies, this is a must-have guide.

  • An essential guide for aspiring and experienced butterfly gardeners
  • Encourages readers to rethink gardening choices to support butterflies and other pollinators in their gardens and communities
  • Introduces gardeners to butterfly watching
  • Includes regional lists of plant species that are time-proven to help sustain butterflies and their caterpillars
  • Features informative interviews with expert butterfly gardeners from across the United States

 

 

Insect of the Week: Question Marks

Adapted from page 46 of Butterfly Gardening:

Butterfly guides describe the Question Mark as a butterfly found in and at the edges of woodlands, and specifically moist woodlands. Even if your garden does not happen to be ideally situated next to a bucolic, damp, woody wonderland, Question Marks can still be drawn to parks and yards if their caterpillar foods—elms, hackberries, or nettles—are readily available. Since nettles are renowned for stinging, and elms (still susceptible to Dutch elm disease) are not commercially available, you will probably want to check native-plant nurseries for one of the many species of hackberry tree. As a bonus, if you live within their range, a hackberry may also reward you by attracting the less-common butterflies Hackberry and Tawny emperors, Empress Leilia, or American Snout.

A Question Mark (left) and a two Hackberry Emperors share a juicy watermelon slice. Photo credit: Mike Wetherford.

Question Marks rarely visit flowers for nectar; instead, they gain energy by drinking liquids from rotting fruit, tree sap, and even animal droppings. An interesting way to see Question Marks in a garden setting is to set up a butter y feeder, which can be as simple as a slice of watermelon set out on a plate where animals and people will not disturb it. Other gardeners create more elaborate arrangements for butterfly feeding.

Butterfly Gardening: The North American Butterfly Association Guide
By Jane Hurwitz

Butterfly gardening creates habitats that support butterflies, connecting us with some of the most beautiful creatures in the natural world and bringing new levels of excitement and joy to gardening. In this engaging and accessible guide, lavishly illustrated with more than two hundred color photographs and maps, accomplished butterfly gardener Jane Hurwitz presents essential information on how to choose and cultivate plants that will attract a range of butterflies to your garden and help sustain all the stages of their life cycles.

An indispensable resource for aspiring and experienced butterfly gardeners alike, Butterfly Gardening is the most gardener-friendly source on the subject, covering all the practical details needed to create a vibrant garden habitat that fosters butterflies. It tells you which plants support which butterflies, depending on where you live; it describes what different butterflies require in the garden over the course of their lives; and it shows you how to become a butterfly watcher as well as a butterfly gardener.

While predominantly recommending regionally native plants, the book includes information on non-native plants. It also features informative interviews with experienced butterfly gardeners from across the United States. These gardeners share a wealth of information on plants and practices to draw butterflies to all kinds of gardens–from small suburban gardens to community plots and larger expanses.

Whether you are a gardener who wants to see more butterflies in your garden, a butterfly enthusiast who wants to bring that passion to the garden, or someone who simply wants to make their garden or yard friendlier to Monarchs or other butterflies, this is a must-have guide.

  • An essential guide for aspiring and experienced butterfly gardeners
  • Encourages readers to rethink gardening choices to support butterflies and other pollinators in their gardens and communities
  • Introduces gardeners to butterfly watching
  • Includes regional lists of plant species that are time-proven to help sustain butterflies and their caterpillars
  • Features informative interviews with expert butterfly gardeners from across the United States

 

Insect of the Week: Skipper Butterflies

Adapted from page 55-58 of Butterfly Gardening:

Skippers are small, fast-flying butterflies that many people initially think are moths. Skippers have relatively thick bodies and short wings and their flight is often characterized as fast, darting, or jerky—obviously thought by some to be a “skipping” motion.

The vast majority of the skippers in the United States lack colorful scales and so tend to be orange, white, brown, black, or gray. Many skippers are smaller than the familiar and colorful garden visitors that initially come to mind when thinking “butterfly,” but once you notice skippers, you will appreciate the motion and activity they add to the garden.

A Common-Checkered Skipper in a typical spread-wing stance. Photo credit: Alan Schmierer.

Two subfamilies of skippers visit gardens in the United States: spreadwing skippers and grass-skippers. The spreadwing skippers generally perch with both forewings and hindwings open flat, while grass-skippers sit perkily with all wings closed or with the forewings open at a 45-degree angle to the flat hindwings. It is possible to get a peek at the open wings of a grass-skipper when it basks in the sun, a common behavior. Grass-skippers are also equipped with exceedingly long tongues, allowing them to nectar at many types of flowers.

Common Checkered-Skipper is likely the most widespread skipper in the United States, and its caterpillars feed on plants in the Mallow Family. This spreadwing skipper inhabits many different settings, from prairies and meadows to yards and pastures. Open, sunny, often disturbed places are what Common Checkered-Skippers prefer.

Butterfly Gardening: The North American Butterfly Association Guide
By Jane Hurwitz

Butterfly gardening creates habitats that support butterflies, connecting us with some of the most beautiful creatures in the natural world and bringing new levels of excitement and joy to gardening. In this engaging and accessible guide, lavishly illustrated with more than two hundred color photographs and maps, accomplished butterfly gardener Jane Hurwitz presents essential information on how to choose and cultivate plants that will attract a range of butterflies to your garden and help sustain all the stages of their life cycles.

An indispensable resource for aspiring and experienced butterfly gardeners alike, Butterfly Gardening is the most gardener-friendly source on the subject, covering all the practical details needed to create a vibrant garden habitat that fosters butterflies. It tells you which plants support which butterflies, depending on where you live; it describes what different butterflies require in the garden over the course of their lives; and it shows you how to become a butterfly watcher as well as a butterfly gardener.

While predominantly recommending regionally native plants, the book includes information on non-native plants. It also features informative interviews with experienced butterfly gardeners from across the United States. These gardeners share a wealth of information on plants and practices to draw butterflies to all kinds of gardens–from small suburban gardens to community plots and larger expanses.

Whether you are a gardener who wants to see more butterflies in your garden, a butterfly enthusiast who wants to bring that passion to the garden, or someone who simply wants to make their garden or yard friendlier to Monarchs or other butterflies, this is a must-have guide.

  • An essential guide for aspiring and experienced butterfly gardeners
  • Encourages readers to rethink gardening choices to support butterflies and other pollinators in their gardens and communities
  • Introduces gardeners to butterfly watching
  • Includes regional lists of plant species that are time-proven to help sustain butterflies and their caterpillars
  • Features informative interviews with expert butterfly gardeners from across the United States

 

Insect of the Week: the Great Spangled Fritillary

Adapted from pages 85 to 87 of Butterfly Gardening:

The Great Spangled Fritillary is a large, showy butterfly found throughout a large section of the United States from southern Canada down to northern California on the western half of the continent, with the range extending down across the country to North Carolina on the East Coast. Within its range, the Great Spangled Fritillary can be considered a common garden butterfly that is on the wing during the summer months and through the early fall.

Violets are the only plant that Great Spangled Fritillary caterpillars will eat. Great Spangled Fritillaries do not care whether the violet flowers are blue, yellow, or white, though it does matter to egg-laying butterflies that the violets are native. African “violets,” which are grown as houseplants, and pansies, which are sold at garden centers as outdoor bedding plants, are not suitable for Great Spangled Fritillary caterpillars. Since most violets spread enthusiastically, you may regard them as weeds or wildflowers, but native violets are the kind needed to feed Great Spangled Fritillaries as well as a number of other fritillary species that have smaller ranges.

A Great Sprangled Fritillary laying eggs near a violet. Photo credit: Jane Hurwitz

Butterflies bearing the common name “fritillary” can be confusing; since they all share a name, one could conclude that they all belong to the same genus, and therefore share similar characteristics. But things are not that tidy in the butterfly world, or in the gardening world either, and the fritillaries mentioned so far are actually all a bit different.

Great Spangled Fritillary belongs to the genus Speyeria. They have one brood per year and their caterpillars eat only violets. Hosting Great Spangled Fritillaries requires gardeners to hold off on vigorous flowerbed cleaning in the fall. By leaving leaf litter undisturbed surrounding violets, gardeners preserve caterpillar overwintering habitat, ensuring that any unseen caterpillars are able to remain near violets and complete their life cycle. Since Great Spangled Fritillary produces only one generation per year, if your yard is cleared each fall and spring by landscape crews, or by overenthusiastic family members sent outside on a fine fall day, the potential to lose overwintering caterpillars is high.

 

Butterfly Gardening: The North American Butterfly Association Guide
By Jane Hurwitz

Butterfly gardening creates habitats that support butterflies, connecting us with some of the most beautiful creatures in the natural world and bringing new levels of excitement and joy to gardening. In this engaging and accessible guide, lavishly illustrated with more than two hundred color photographs and maps, accomplished butterfly gardener Jane Hurwitz presents essential information on how to choose and cultivate plants that will attract a range of butterflies to your garden and help sustain all the stages of their life cycles.

An indispensable resource for aspiring and experienced butterfly gardeners alike, Butterfly Gardening is the most gardener-friendly source on the subject, covering all the practical details needed to create a vibrant garden habitat that fosters butterflies. It tells you which plants support which butterflies, depending on where you live; it describes what different butterflies require in the garden over the course of their lives; and it shows you how to become a butterfly watcher as well as a butterfly gardener.

While predominantly recommending regionally native plants, the book includes information on non-native plants. It also features informative interviews with experienced butterfly gardeners from across the United States. These gardeners share a wealth of information on plants and practices to draw butterflies to all kinds of gardens–from small suburban gardens to community plots and larger expanses.

Whether you are a gardener who wants to see more butterflies in your garden, a butterfly enthusiast who wants to bring that passion to the garden, or someone who simply wants to make their garden or yard friendlier to Monarchs or other butterflies, this is a must-have guide.

  • An essential guide for aspiring and experienced butterfly gardeners
  • Encourages readers to rethink gardening choices to support butterflies and other pollinators in their gardens and communities
  • Introduces gardeners to butterfly watching
  • Includes regional lists of plant species that are time-proven to help sustain butterflies and their caterpillars
  • Features informative interviews with expert butterfly gardeners from across the United States

 

Insect of the Week: the May/June beetle

Adapted from pages 466-468 of Garden Insects of North America:

May/June Beetles (Phyllophaga spp.) are among the largest of the white grubs, typically about 3/4 inches to 1 inch long and stout-bodied. Adults are generally chocolate brown to nearly black. More than 200 species occur in North America, with about 25 reported to damage turfgrasses, garden plants, and field crops. The adults are active at night and may be seen careening around porch lights and bouncing off screens, often in late spring. The beetles feed on the foliage of various trees and shrubs, with oak a preferred host for many species, but this rarely results in any significant injuries. Much more significant damage results from the white grub larvae, which chew on plant roots. Grasses are most commonly damaged, but larvae can seriously injure roots of young trees and shrubs planted in grassy areas.

 In northern areas, May/June beetles often have an extended life cycle that requires 3 years to complete. With these species, eggs are laid in the soil in May or June, and a limited amount of feeding takes place by young larvae during the first season, before they migrate downward for winter. They return to feed on roots and grow rapidly during the second season, producing most damage at this time. In the third year there is some additional feeding before the insects pupate in a belowground chamber. They transform to adults in late summer and early fall, ready to emerge the following year.

An adult May/June beetle. Photo credit: David Shetlar

Variations of May/June beetle life cycles occur, and in the southern U.S. many species complete development in a single season. Phyllophaga crinita, an important species in Texas, and P. latifrons, found in most Gulf States, have this habit. They commonly damage St. Augustinegrass, bermudagrass, and buffalograss.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North America continues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause

 

Insect of the Week: the Emerald Ash Borer

Adapted from pages 434-435 of Garden Insects of North America

The larvae of the emerald ash borer develop under the bark of trees, creating zigzag tunnels through the cambium. Cumulative injuries cause a progressive dieback that initially involves upper limbs but ultimately moves into the trunks. Typically trees are killed within 5 years after they are first colonized.

The first North American detection of emerald ash borer was in 2002 in Detroit. By 2016 this insect was found in most states east of the Mississippi, two Canadian provinces, and two western states (Colorado, Texas). The rapid spread of this insect over wide areas has been largely through the human-assisted movement of infested ash firewood. Once introduced into a location, local dispersal occurs from the flight of adults during late spring and early summer. Adults are metallic green beetles, approximately 1/2 inch long. The larvae are flatheaded borers that make meandering tunnels through the cambium, under the bark. Adults emerge from trees through D-shaped exit holes in the bark.

An emerald ash borer with wings open (Agrilus planipennis).                            Photo credit: David Shetlar.

Winter is spent as a larva within tunnels under the bark and pupation occurs in mid-spring. Adults can be expected to begin to emerge in late May, about the time black locust (Robinia) is in full bloom. Initially they feed on the foliage and, about 2 weeks later, after mating, females begin to lay eggs on the surface of trunks and branches. About 100 eggs may be laid on the trunk or larger limbs, usually at points of rough bark and in cracks of the bark, with most egg laying completed by early July. 

Eggs hatch about 2 weeks after being laid, and the larvae bore into the plant where they feed on the sapwood. As they feed and develop the larvae extend their mines under the bark, the size of the tunnels gradually widening as the insect grows. Fine sawdust frass packs these galleries. Larval feeding continues until the larva is mature or until weather becomes too cold for development. Growth is resumed in spring when they complete their development. Normally, one generation is produced annually. Development may be slowed in more vigorous trees in early stages of infestation and in cooler areas some larvae that develop from eggs laid late in the season have been observed to require a second season to mature.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North America continues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause

Insect of the Week: the False chinch bug

Adapted from page 299 of Garden Insects of North America

 False chinch bugs are about 1/6 inch, winged, and slightly more elongate in form than “true” chinch bugs. General coloration is mottled gray, with the thorax and head somewhat darker. Nymphs are gray-brown and have some reddish or orange markings on the abdomen. False chinch bugs are generally distributed throughout most of western North America but are particularly common in the High Plains and Intermountain West. 

False chinch bugs suck the sap from plants during feeding. The adults also commonly aggregate and occur in large numbers on individual plants, causing plants to wilt and die rapidly. Outbreaks are sporadic but can destroy plantings, particularly early in the year. Later in the season, aggregations tend to be greatest on developing seed heads. False chinch bugs are sometimes a nuisance pest of homes and buildings during hot summers when they may migrate into buildings. Most garden plants can be damaged during outbreaks; crucifers and beet family plants are favored. Wild hosts include many weeds such as tansy mustard, kochia, Russian thistle, and sagebrush. 

False chinch bugs (Nysius spp.) at mixed life stages. Photo credit: Whitney Cranshaw

False chinch bugs spend the winter as nymphs or adults under protective debris near winter annual mustards they use for hosts. They become active in early spring and move to developing mustards to feed. Adults lay eggs in loose soil or soil cracks around plants and eggs hatch in about 4 days. Under summer conditions, the wingless, gray nymphs feed for about 3 weeks and then reach the adult stage. Adults live for several weeks, fly readily, and can disperse over wide areas. About three generations are usually produced, with peak numbers often appearing in July and early August.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North America continues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause