Insect of the Week: Question Marks

Adapted from page 46 of Butterfly Gardening:

Butterfly guides describe the Question Mark as a butterfly found in and at the edges of woodlands, and specifically moist woodlands. Even if your garden does not happen to be ideally situated next to a bucolic, damp, woody wonderland, Question Marks can still be drawn to parks and yards if their caterpillar foods—elms, hackberries, or nettles—are readily available. Since nettles are renowned for stinging, and elms (still susceptible to Dutch elm disease) are not commercially available, you will probably want to check native-plant nurseries for one of the many species of hackberry tree. As a bonus, if you live within their range, a hackberry may also reward you by attracting the less-common butterflies Hackberry and Tawny emperors, Empress Leilia, or American Snout.

A Question Mark (left) and a two Hackberry Emperors share a juicy watermelon slice. Photo credit: Mike Wetherford.

Question Marks rarely visit flowers for nectar; instead, they gain energy by drinking liquids from rotting fruit, tree sap, and even animal droppings. An interesting way to see Question Marks in a garden setting is to set up a butter y feeder, which can be as simple as a slice of watermelon set out on a plate where animals and people will not disturb it. Other gardeners create more elaborate arrangements for butterfly feeding.

Butterfly Gardening: The North American Butterfly Association Guide
By Jane Hurwitz

Butterfly gardening creates habitats that support butterflies, connecting us with some of the most beautiful creatures in the natural world and bringing new levels of excitement and joy to gardening. In this engaging and accessible guide, lavishly illustrated with more than two hundred color photographs and maps, accomplished butterfly gardener Jane Hurwitz presents essential information on how to choose and cultivate plants that will attract a range of butterflies to your garden and help sustain all the stages of their life cycles.

An indispensable resource for aspiring and experienced butterfly gardeners alike, Butterfly Gardening is the most gardener-friendly source on the subject, covering all the practical details needed to create a vibrant garden habitat that fosters butterflies. It tells you which plants support which butterflies, depending on where you live; it describes what different butterflies require in the garden over the course of their lives; and it shows you how to become a butterfly watcher as well as a butterfly gardener.

While predominantly recommending regionally native plants, the book includes information on non-native plants. It also features informative interviews with experienced butterfly gardeners from across the United States. These gardeners share a wealth of information on plants and practices to draw butterflies to all kinds of gardens–from small suburban gardens to community plots and larger expanses.

Whether you are a gardener who wants to see more butterflies in your garden, a butterfly enthusiast who wants to bring that passion to the garden, or someone who simply wants to make their garden or yard friendlier to Monarchs or other butterflies, this is a must-have guide.

  • An essential guide for aspiring and experienced butterfly gardeners
  • Encourages readers to rethink gardening choices to support butterflies and other pollinators in their gardens and communities
  • Introduces gardeners to butterfly watching
  • Includes regional lists of plant species that are time-proven to help sustain butterflies and their caterpillars
  • Features informative interviews with expert butterfly gardeners from across the United States

 

Insect of the Week: Skipper Butterflies

Adapted from page 55-58 of Butterfly Gardening:

Skippers are small, fast-flying butterflies that many people initially think are moths. Skippers have relatively thick bodies and short wings and their flight is often characterized as fast, darting, or jerky—obviously thought by some to be a “skipping” motion.

The vast majority of the skippers in the United States lack colorful scales and so tend to be orange, white, brown, black, or gray. Many skippers are smaller than the familiar and colorful garden visitors that initially come to mind when thinking “butterfly,” but once you notice skippers, you will appreciate the motion and activity they add to the garden.

A Common-Checkered Skipper in a typical spread-wing stance. Photo credit: Alan Schmierer.

Two subfamilies of skippers visit gardens in the United States: spreadwing skippers and grass-skippers. The spreadwing skippers generally perch with both forewings and hindwings open flat, while grass-skippers sit perkily with all wings closed or with the forewings open at a 45-degree angle to the flat hindwings. It is possible to get a peek at the open wings of a grass-skipper when it basks in the sun, a common behavior. Grass-skippers are also equipped with exceedingly long tongues, allowing them to nectar at many types of flowers.

Common Checkered-Skipper is likely the most widespread skipper in the United States, and its caterpillars feed on plants in the Mallow Family. This spreadwing skipper inhabits many different settings, from prairies and meadows to yards and pastures. Open, sunny, often disturbed places are what Common Checkered-Skippers prefer.

Butterfly Gardening: The North American Butterfly Association Guide
By Jane Hurwitz

Butterfly gardening creates habitats that support butterflies, connecting us with some of the most beautiful creatures in the natural world and bringing new levels of excitement and joy to gardening. In this engaging and accessible guide, lavishly illustrated with more than two hundred color photographs and maps, accomplished butterfly gardener Jane Hurwitz presents essential information on how to choose and cultivate plants that will attract a range of butterflies to your garden and help sustain all the stages of their life cycles.

An indispensable resource for aspiring and experienced butterfly gardeners alike, Butterfly Gardening is the most gardener-friendly source on the subject, covering all the practical details needed to create a vibrant garden habitat that fosters butterflies. It tells you which plants support which butterflies, depending on where you live; it describes what different butterflies require in the garden over the course of their lives; and it shows you how to become a butterfly watcher as well as a butterfly gardener.

While predominantly recommending regionally native plants, the book includes information on non-native plants. It also features informative interviews with experienced butterfly gardeners from across the United States. These gardeners share a wealth of information on plants and practices to draw butterflies to all kinds of gardens–from small suburban gardens to community plots and larger expanses.

Whether you are a gardener who wants to see more butterflies in your garden, a butterfly enthusiast who wants to bring that passion to the garden, or someone who simply wants to make their garden or yard friendlier to Monarchs or other butterflies, this is a must-have guide.

  • An essential guide for aspiring and experienced butterfly gardeners
  • Encourages readers to rethink gardening choices to support butterflies and other pollinators in their gardens and communities
  • Introduces gardeners to butterfly watching
  • Includes regional lists of plant species that are time-proven to help sustain butterflies and their caterpillars
  • Features informative interviews with expert butterfly gardeners from across the United States

 

Jane Hurwitz on Butterfly Gardening

Butterflies are regarded by many as canaries in our ecological coal mine: they provide visual signals indicating the relative health and diversity of a habitat. Improving our local fragmented and degraded habitats in order to promote butterflies may seem like an onerous task, but in Butterfly Gardening: The North American Butterfly Association Guide, Jane Hurwitz presents simple steps to create more vibrant and dynamic environments that encourage wild butterflies to flourish—and provide gardeners of all levels with inspiration and pleasure.

Why did you write this book?

I am a life-long gardener who has had the good fortune to work for an organization that actively promotes gardening for butterflies. During the years I directed the North American Butterfly Association’s Butterfly Garden and Habitat Program,  I was exposed to a wealth of information on butterfly gardening that changed the way I view all aspects of gardening. A large part of my work with the program involved daily communication with people of all skill levels concerning their NABA certified gardens. In fact, the second half of the book revolves around specific butterfly gardeners living in different regions of the United States; there is so much to be learned from other gardeners regardless of their location or garden size.

Writing this book allowed me to explore the connection between how we take care of our landscapes, whether our private gardens or public spaces, and how those choices impact butterflies. Very little is static in a garden, a fact that is accentuated when butterflies—or any insects, for that matter—become part of the garden’s focus. Butterfly gardening is a gardening method that allows the interplay between the natural world and human-made habitats to expand in ways that allow wildlife to flourish. Learning the interconnections between plants and butterflies is fascinating and works as a catalyst to deepen our connection to our natural surroundings. The creation of habitats for butterflies is an ongoing process, not a fixed point that will ever be perfectly attained; as such, butterfly gardening provides an open ended opportunity for constant experimentation and learning.

Who is this book for?

Anyone with an interest in butterflies and gardening—even if they’re only mildly curious! Gardening books are often quite prescriptive, providing chapter after chapter on how to grow specific plants or how to achieve a particular garden style. Butterfly Gardening takes a more flexible approach, imparting basic information on butterfly and plant biology, butterfly watching, and plant selection in an accessible way that allows the reader to make their own informed choices on how best to create a habitat for butterflies within the constraints of their location and budget. Whether one’s focus is on creating habitat for monarchs, installing a school garden, or simply making a suburban yard more butterfly-friendly, once equipped with the essential information it is easy to implement changes that will lure these beautiful and fascinating creatures into our lives.

What are some of the first steps in creating a great butterfly garden?

Eliminating the use of pesticides, particularly those in the class of insecticides known as neonicotinoids, is the first item on any butterfly gardening checklist. Of course, there may need to be exceptions; if my home has termites, for example, I am probably going to need to use pesticides, but as a general rule they are best avoided. In fact, taking pesticides out of our garden toolkits is one of the very few things we must do in order to provide a habitat for butterflies.

Identifying the butterflies that are common to your locale and learning their names would be a second step to consider. There are many ways to accomplish this; some people start with a butterfly guide book and work from their own observations, while others find information through local sources such as nature centers, NABA chapters, or the Extension Service.

Learning the names of butterflies will enable you to communicate better with other butterfly gardeners and will also inform you about which caterpillar food plants to install. Many butterfly gardeners, however, skip this step, at least in the early stages. For many, butterfly gardening begins with the plants (and there are so many good ones!); rather than identify possible butterfly visitors to their garden and plan specifically for that group, they jump right into planting nectar sources, and see what comes to visit. As I emphasize throughout the book, there are no rules about how to start or organize a butterfly garden, but most gardeners do eventually become interested in naming their butterfly visitors and learning about their life cycles.

What would you say is the benefit of butterfly gardening?

A garden represents different things to different people. By using the methods detailed in Butterfly Gardening, a layer of ecological relevance can be added to a pleasurable and revitalizing activity. We can make our gardens a refuge for butterflies as well as ourselves.

 

Jane Hurwitz  is the editor of Butterfly Gardener magazine and the former director of the Butterfly Garden and Habitat Program for the North American Butterfly Association. She lives in northern New Jersey.