Insect of the Week: the Cabbage Looper

Adapted from pages 102-103 of Garden Insects of North America:

Despite its name, the cabbage looper is not limited to mustard family plants but may also damage plants as diverse as potatoes, tomatoes, peas, lettuce, spinach, nasturtium, and carnation. It is sometimes found as a greenhouse pest on various ornamentals. Larvae chew leaves of various plants, occasionally causing serious defoliation. Late instars tend to tunnel into heads of cabbage, lettuce, and other plants, causing additional injury.

An adult cabbage (Trichoplusia ni) looper feeding at a flower. Photo credit: Whitney Cranshaw.

The Cabbage Looper thrives best in warmer climates and survives poorly following winters in areas with extended freezing temperatures. Adults, however, are strong fliers and annually migrate long distances. Caterpillars are pale green, darkening somewhat as they get older. Faint white stripes run the length of the body. Adults are of moderate size (wingspan of about 1.5 inches) with mottled gray or brown forewings and a distinctive silvery white U-mark with a single spot below.

Their eggs are hemispherical and glued singly to foliage, often in small groups. They hatch in a few days, and the first-stage larvae are creamy colored. They go through a series of molts as they develop, becoming full grown in about 3 weeks. Young larvae typically feed on outer leaves, producing windowpaning patterns on thick-leaved plants such as cabbage. Late stages feed more generally and tend to tunnel into heads. Pupation occurs on or in the nearby vicinity of host plants in a loose cocoon, and the pupal stage lasts 1–2 weeks. The number of generations produced annually is highly variable, and during the growing season generations greatly overlap and become indistinct.

Head to our Instagram to see the evolution of the Cabbage Looper, from egg to adult.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North America continues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause

 

Insect of the Week: the Buffalo Treehopper

Adapted from page 402-403 of Garden Insects of North America:

Treehoppers are distinguished by a prominent enlargement of the segment behind the head (pronotum), which extends shieldlike over the head and much of the abdomen. Most species have fairly innocuous habits, and the primary plant injuries often occur during the course of depositing eggs into stems and twigs.

The Buffalo treehopper, the most widely distributed and familiar North American treehopper,  causes very little, if any, injury to plants in the course of feeding. Plant injuries are produced during egg laying, when eggs are inserted into slits made in the upper surface of twigs. Extensive egg laying can cause damaged twigs to become scabby and somewhat distorted.

An adult Buffalo treehopper (Stictocephala bisonia). Photo credit: Whitney Cranshaw.

Adults are generally triangular shaped, with the sides of the front developed into small points, somewhat resembling a miniature bison. Buffalo treehopper is grassy green and about ⅜ inch long. Nymphs are somewhat brighter green with a row of ridges along the back.

The Buffalo treehopper overwinters in the egg stage, and eggs are inserted as small groups under the bark of twigs. The eggs hatch in late spring, and the nymphs drop to the ground to feed on grasses and broadleaf weeds around the base of trees on which eggs were laid. Adults become full grown in late July or August. Females insert their eggs into twigs, typically laying about a half-dozen eggs within each oviposition wound. One generation is produced per year.

Head to our Instagram to see what the Buffalo treehopper looks like in its nymph stage.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North America continues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause

 

Insect of the Week: Hickory Horned Devil

Adapted from page 78 of Garden Insects of North America:

The Hickory Horned Devil is a caterpillar of bizarre appearance that may be 5 inches long. Generally blue green, it has numerous spikes, particularly two long curving pairs on the thorax, giving it a rather dragonlike appearance.

The Hickory Horned Devil (Citheronia regalis), photographed here as a young larva. Photo credit: David Shetlar.

It is found in much of the eastern U.S., being more common in the southern states. Hickory, walnut, and a few other trees and shrubs may host the caterpillars. When feeding is completed, the larvae descend trees and walk about in search of soil in which to pupate. Adults are large moths with prominent orange markings and stripes known as Regal Moths.

Head to our Instagram to see what these caterpillars look like once they complete their transformation into adult moths.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North Americacontinues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause

 

Insect of the Week: the Snowy Tree Cricket

Adapted from pages 48-49 of Garden Insects of North America:

The snowy tree cricket is a pale green species that occurs over a broad area of the northern U.S. and parts of southern Canada. It is particularly well known because it has been shown that it can be used to determine temperature, as a type of living thermometer, based on its rate of chirping, which varies reliably with temperature in a manner that has been quantified.

A female Snowy tree cricket. Photo credit: Jim Kalisch, University of Nebraska

The formula for determining temperature by chirping rate is known as Dolbear’s Law, after A. E. Dolbear, who first published on the phenomenon in 1897. The formula is T = 40 + N15 , where T is temperature (in Fahrenheit) and N is the number of chirps in 15 seconds.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North Americacontinues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause

 

Insect of the Week: The Tobacco Hornworm

Adapted from pages 68-69 of Garden Insects of North America:

Tomato and tobacco hornworms spend the winter months in the pupal stage, within a chamber approximately 4–6 inches deep in the soil. Adult moths emerge in mid- to late spring and may migrate long distances. Their eggs resemble small pearls and are laid singly on foliage. The newly hatched caterpillars possess a horn that is nearly the same length as the body and subsequently pass through four to five additional larval instars over the course of about a month. Full-grown larvae burrow several inches into soil and create a cell in which pupation occurs.

Where these insects can successfully survive winter conditions there are typically two generations produced annually. The adults are very strong fliers and in more northern areas, incidence of tomato and tobacco hornworms from year to year may be strongly influenced by migrations of moths originating from more southerly areas.

An adult tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta). Photo credit: John Capinera, University of Florida

Larvae develop into large caterpillars, with five pairs of prolegs and a flexible “horn” on the last segment. Most are generally green. Seven diagonal white stripes are present along the side of the tobacco hornworm, and the horn is usually red. Tomato hornworm has a series of V-shaped white markings along the sides, and the horn is often black. Less common dark green or even black forms of tomato hornworm may be present. Adults of both are strong-flying, heavy-bodied moths. The forewings may have a span of up to 5 inches and are generally gray or grayish brown with light wavy markings.

When it comes to hosts, tomatoes and tobacco are particularly susceptible to injury. Pepper, potato, and certain nightshade famil weeds are also hosts. Caterpillars chew leaves and can defoliate plants rapidly. Fruits, particularly green fruit, may also be chewed.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North Americacontinues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause

The Insect of the Week: The Silverspotted Skipper

In our latest series, Princeton Birds & Nature will highlight a new insect as seen in one of our titles, Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs, now available in its second edition. From tiny earthworms to creepy cockroaches, and even beautiful butterflies, this new series will thrust bugs out of the backyard and into the spotlight.

Our inaugural post is adapted from pages 138-139 of Garden Insects of North America:

The Silverspotted Skipper is the most commonly encountered skipper, found throughout most of the southern border provinces of Canada and most of the continental U.S., except the Great Basin and west Texas. Adults are light brown, heavy-bodied butterflies with a wingspan ranging from 1. to 2⅝ inches. The overall color of the wings is brown with a yellow-brown band, but the underside of the lobed hindwing has a metallic silver band.

Larvae develop on wisteria and various leguminous plants such as black locust, honeylocust, false indigo bush, soybean, (Amorpha) and Cassia species. A full-grown larva is about 2 inches long. It has a dark reddish brown head with large yellow eye patches. The prothoracic shield is brown and the abdomen is yellow with darker transverse stripes and spots.

A silverspotted skipper (Epargyreus clarus) perched on a leaf, where they tend to create nests of eggs.

During egg laying, females alight on potential host plants to attach single eggs to leaves. The eggs are green with a red top. After hatching, the young larvae make shelters on the apical halves of leaves by cutting a flap on the leaf margin, folding it over and attaching it with silk. Larger larvae often silk several leaves together to form shelters. They leave the shelters only to feed or to make larger shelters. When mature, the larvae pupate inside the leaf nest. The pupal stage gives rise to summer adults, but pupae formed in the fall spend the winter in the leaf nests. In the more northern parts of its range, one generation is normal, but three to four generations can occur in southern states.

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs
Second Edition
By Whitney Cranshaw & David Shetlar

This second edition of Garden Insects of North America solidifies its place as the most comprehensive guide to the common insects, mites, and other “bugs” found in the backyards and gardens of the United States and Canada. Featuring 3,300 full-color photos and concise, detailed text, this fully revised book covers the hundreds of species of insects and mites associated with fruits and vegetables, shade trees and shrubs, flowers and ornamental plants, and turfgrass—from aphids and bumble bees to leafhoppers and mealybugs to woollybears and yellowjacket wasps—and much more. This new edition also provides a greatly expanded treatment of common pollinators and flower visitors, the natural enemies of garden pests, and the earthworms, insects, and other arthropods that help with decomposing plant matter in the garden.

Designed to help you easily identify what you find in the garden, the book is organized by where insects are most likely to be seen—on leaves, shoots, flowers, roots, or soil. Photos are included throughout the book, next to detailed descriptions of the insects and their associated plants.

An indispensable guide to the natural microcosm in our backyards, Garden Insects of North America continues to be the definitive resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists.

  • Revised and expanded edition covers most of the insects, mites, and other “bugs” one may find in yards or gardens in the United States and Canada—all in one handy volume
  • Features more than 3,300 full-color photos, more than twice the illustrations of the first edition
  • Concise, informative text organized to help you easily identify insects and the plant injuries that they may cause

 

Book Launch for Art Evans’s Beetles of Eastern North America at Stir Crazy Cafe on May 23, 2014

Beetles of Eastern North America_Poster_04 11 2014