Bird Fact Friday — Franklin’s Gull

Adapted from pages 44-46; 49 of Gulls Simplified:

This small, gregarious, petite-billed, and blackheaded breeder of the western interior suggests a smaller, stockier Laughing Gull, with a shorter, straighter bill, shorter legs, and conspicuously shorter, round-tipped wings. Franklin’s also has a rounder head with more prominent white eye arcs and boldly patterned black outer wings with large white spots (mirrors) near the tip of the outer primaries (adults). Franklin’s are agile gulls, able to hop over obstacles and perch on cattails.

During the breeding season, they hawk insects over marshes, and in migration often forage on tilled agricultural land. When foraging for aquatic insects on lakes, they behave like a swimming phalarope, plucking insects from the surface. In some locations, migrating flocks may number in the thousands. Franklin’s Gulls forage on beaches, inshore waters, lakeshores, and dry or flooded fields, and they nest in freshwater marshes. They are often found in small homogeneous flocks, but inland they may mix with California Gulls. In migration on the Gulf coast, they often roost and rest with Laughing Gulls.

Adult, non breeding Franklin’s Gulls. They are typically 13.25-15 inches long, with a wingspan of 33-36 inches. Photo credit: Kevin Karlson

Common in appropriate habitats, it breeds for the most part in small to very large colonies in inland marshes and lakes on the prairies, in the Great Basin, and in the northern Rocky Mountains. 

Breeding colonies may number in the hundreds, or as many as twenty-five thousand pairs, which occurred at the Lake Alice National Wildlife Refuge in North Dakota in 2000 (North Dakota Game and Fish Department website, 2017). 

During migration, Franklin’s is common to abundant from August to October through its main migratory corridor south through the Great Plains, and also along the Texas lowland coastal areas from mid-October through November (Gulls of the Americas, Howell and Dunn, 2007). Migratory  flocks at this coastal Texas location can number in the many thousands, and Kevin witnessed a flock of over six thousand birds at South Padre Island, Texas, in early November 2003. Migration through the interior is often spread out, with migrating birds widely dispersed until larger numbers gather at nighttime roosts on bodies of water. Winter range is primarily coastal regions of western South America.

This species has experienced a notable decline over the last fifty years (78 percent) according to North American Breeding Bird Atlas data, but population numbers and concerns vary according to individual research papers.

Gulls Simplified
A Comparative Approach to Identification
By Pete Dunne and Kevin Karlson

This unique photographic field guide to North America’s gulls provides a comparative approach to identification that concentrates on the size, structure, and basic plumage features of gulls—gone are the often-confusing array of plumage details found in traditional guides.

Featuring hundreds of color photos throughout, Gulls Simplified illustrates the variations of gull plumages for a variety of ages, giving readers strong visual reference points for each species. Extensive captions accompany the photos, which include comparative photo arrays, digitized photo arrays for each age group, and numerous images of each species—a wealth of visual information at your fingertips. This one-of-a-kind guide includes detailed species accounts and a distribution map for each gull.

An essential field companion for North American birders, Gulls Simplified reduces the confusion commonly associated with gull identification, offering a more user-friendly way of observing these marvelous birds.

  • Provides a simpler approach to gull identification
  • Features a wealth of color photos for easy comparison among species
  • Includes detailed captions that explain identification criteria and aging, with direct visual reinforcement above the captions
  • Combines plumage details with a focus on size, body shape, and structural features for easy identification in the field
  • Highlights important field marks and physical features for each gull

Follow Princeton Nature on Instagram

Princeton University Press is pleased to announce the launch of the Princeton Nature Instagram, an extension of the Princeton Birds & Nature social media channels we curate on Facebook and Twitter, as well as here on our blog.

Making use of the array of features offered on Instagram, we’ll be introducing our readers to the new books and perennial favorites on our expanding natural history list. Our popular Bird Fact Friday series, along with various recurring series like Big Pacific, will also make appearances on Instagram, where we can offer you a glimpse of the stunning illustration programs. We’re looking forward to showcasing our latest publications, and putting them into action on the various hiking trails, gardens, and scenic locations around Princeton. In addition, we’ll be holding giveaways, quizzes, and using the Stories feature to highlight our titles in new and exciting ways. You can expect information on our upcoming BirdGenie app, which will be available on supported Apple® or Android® smartphones and tablets in Spring 2018.

Follow us @princetonnature for the latest photos and videos from our Princeton Birds & Natural History titles. We look forward to taking you around the world, one photo at a time.

Bird Fact Friday – The Blue Waxbill

From page 156 of Birds of Kruger National Park:

Waxbills are small finches that are inconspicuous despite their bright coloration. The Blue Waxbill is readily identified by its entirely sky-blue underparts, rump and tail, silver-pink bill and grey-brown upperparts. The female is paler than the male, and juveniles are mostly grey-brown with a powder-blue wash to the face.

The Blue Waxbill (Uraeginthus angolensis) is a little more than 5 inches in length. Photo credit: Keith Barnes & Ken Behrens.

It is a common and widespread resident in a variety of habitats in Kruger, favouring drier woodlands close to permanent water where it regularly comes to drink, often dispersing during perods of drought. It feeds mainly on grass seeds but will also take insects, and frequently gives a loud and distinctive high-pitched “tsee-tsee” call, especially when flushed.

Birds of Kruger National Park
Keith Barnes & Ken Behrens

South Africa’s Kruger National Park is one of the largest and most iconic conservation areas in Africa. Habitats range from wide-open savannah and rugged thornveld to broadleaved mopani woodland. This microhabitat variation gives Kruger a phenomenal diversity of some 520 bird species, half of which are resident. From Africa’s most extraordinary eagles, like the scarlet-faced Bateleur, to electric-colored glossy-starlings and jewel-like finches, Kruger offers an avian celebration of form and color. It is also a crucial conservation area, supporting South Africa’s largest viable populations of vultures, eagles, and large terrestrial birds.

This field guide offers a unique window into the world of Kruger’s birds. More than 500 stunning color photographs illustrate the 259 most frequently encountered species, and a habitat-based approach assists in identification. The authoritative text provides key information about identification, habitat, behavior, biology, and conservation. The guide contains information likely to be new to even the most experienced birders, but is written in a nontechnical style that makes it accessible to anyone.

  • An essential guide to Kruger’s birds
  • Perfect for new and experienced birders alike
  • Small, portable format ideal for field use
  • Unique attractive layout with more than 500 stunning color photographs
  • Covers the 259 most frequently seen species
  • Uses a habitat-based approach to aid identification
  • Authoritative and accessible text provides key information about identification, behavior, biology, and conservation

Bird Fact Friday – Townsend’s Warbler

From pages 440-442 in The Warbler’s Guide:

Townsend’s Warbler is easily identified by its high-contrast yellow face, which also contains a dark ear patch and yellow undereye arc. These warblers have variably black throats boarded by yellow, and dark streaking. In addition, they have a dark olive-green back and white wing bars. Their dark flight feathers contrast with their yellow bodies. Additionally, Townsend’s Warblers are identified by their white bellies and tails. They also have a distinctive, contrasty facial pattern.

The Townsend Warbler (Setophaga townsendi) perched on a branch. Photo courtesy of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL. Copyright: Scott Whittle and Tom Stephenson.

This warbler breeds in conifers; during migration, they can use a range of habitats, but are often found in pines whenever available. Their breeding range overlaps with Hermit Warbler’s, and hybrids between the two are found annually. Townsend’s Warblers are typically found in the western part of the United States.

The Warbler GuideThe Warbler Guide
Tom Stephenson & Scott Whittle
Drawings by Catherine Hamilton

Warblers are among the most challenging birds to identify. They exhibit an array of seasonal plumages and have distinctive yet oft-confused calls and songs. The Warbler Guide enables you to quickly identify any of the 56 species of warblers in the United States and Canada. This groundbreaking guide features more than 1,000 stunning color photos, extensive species accounts with multiple viewing angles, and an entirely new system of vocalization analysis that helps you distinguish songs and calls.

The Warbler Guide revolutionizes birdwatching, making warbler identification easier than ever before. For more information, please see the author videos on the Princeton University Press website.

Bird Fact Friday – The Ringed Kingfisher

From page 154 of Wildlife of Ecuador:

The Ringed Kingfisher is one of the largest kingfishers in the world. The head, back, and tail are pale grayish blue; the belly (and chest in males) is rich rust; and a complete white collar encircles the neck. Females have a grayishblue breast band.

Ringed Kingfisher

A female Ringed Kingfisher (Megaceryle torquata) perched on a tree. Photo credit: Pablo Cervantes D, Tropical Birding Tours & Capturing Nature Tours

The Ringed Kingfisher’s loud, machine-gun-like call is often the first alert to its presence. It is common and widespread on both sides of the Andes, from lowlands to about 1,500m (4,920ft ), but requires medium-size to large bodies of water. It is often found around fish-farm pools on Andean slopes where rivers are narrower.

Andrés Vásquez Noboa
Photography by Pablo Cervantes Daza
Preview a Chapter

Mainland Ecuador’s spectacular wildlife makes it a magnet for nature tourists, but until now there hasn’t been a go-to, all-in-one guide geared to the general reader. With this handy and accessible guide, visitors now have everything they need to identify and enjoy the majority of birds and animals they are likely to see. Written and illustrated by two of Ecuador’s most experienced nature guides and photographers, this book covers more than 350 birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. It features over 400 stunning color photographs and includes a range map for each species, as well as a brief account of the country’s natural history and biogeography. With its extensive coverage, attractive and easy-to-use layout, beautiful photographs, and nontechnical text, this is an essential guide for anyone who wants to explore the natural wonders of Ecuador.

Bird Fact Friday — The Sword-billed Hummingbird

From page 134 of Wildlife of Ecuador:

The Sword-billed Hummingbird has the longest bill in proportion to its body of any bird on earth. Reaching up to 11cm (4.25in) long, the bill nearly equals the length of its large body. Males are solid green, and females are speckled white and green from throat to belly; both have a brown-bronzy shine on the head.

The Sword-billed Hummingbird

The Sword-billed Hummingbird (Ensifera ensifera) mid-flight. Photo credit: Andres Vasquez, Tropical Birding Tour.

The species has coevolved with long tubular flowers to be their exclusive pollinator; it favors red Datura flowers and Purple Passionflower, or Taxo. Pleasingly, this stunner visits feeders and is fairly common throughout its range, which stretches along both slopes from 2,500m to about 3,400m (8,200–11,150ft). It is present close to small towns and in agricultural areas that grow its favored flowers as ornamentals.

Andrés Vásquez Noboa
Photography by Pablo Cervantes Daza
Preview a Chapter

Mainland Ecuador’s spectacular wildlife makes it a magnet for nature tourists, but until now there hasn’t been a go-to, all-in-one guide geared to the general reader. With this handy and accessible guide, visitors now have everything they need to identify and enjoy the majority of birds and animals they are likely to see. Written and illustrated by two of Ecuador’s most experienced nature guides and photographers, this book covers more than 350 birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. It features over 400 stunning color photographs and includes a range map for each species, as well as a brief account of the country’s natural history and biogeography. With its extensive coverage, attractive and easy-to-use layout, beautiful photographs, and nontechnical text, this is an essential guide for anyone who wants to explore the natural wonders of Ecuador.

Bird Fact Friday — All About the Red-masked Parakeet

From page 112 of Wildlife of Ecuador:

The Red-masked Parakeet is an attractive parakeet that shows a bold red mask with a contrasting white eye-ring. It is overall light olive green, and yellowish under the longish tail; in flight it shows red shoulders. It is resident in the drier lowland forests of the southwest, where common, and locally into the northwestern foothills and the upper subtropics of the far south.

The Red-masked Parakeet

The Red-masked Parakeet (Psittacara erythrogenys) perched on a branch.

It flies in noisy groups that give distinctive nasal calls, and it is known to visit fruit feeders in some locations. This is the main species of the parakeets of San Francisco, California (where introduced and afterward escaped) presented in the film The Wild Parrots of the Telegraph Hill.

Wildlife of Ecuador
Andrés Vásquez Noboa
Photography by Pablo Cervantes Daza
Preview a Chapter

Mainland Ecuador’s spectacular wildlife makes it a magnet for nature tourists, but until now there hasn’t been a go-to, all-in-one guide geared to the general reader. With this handy and accessible guide, visitors now have everything they need to identify and enjoy the majority of birds and animals they are likely to see. Written and illustrated by two of Ecuador’s most experienced nature guides and photographers, this book covers more than 350 birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. It features over 400 stunning color photographs and includes a range map for each species, as well as a brief account of the country’s natural history and biogeography. With its extensive coverage, attractive and easy-to-use layout, beautiful photographs, and nontechnical text, this is an essential guide for anyone who wants to explore the natural wonders of Ecuador.

Bird Fact Friday – A Look at Pied-billed Grebes

From page 74 of Wildlife of Ecuador:

Superficially like a short-tailed duck in general shape and habits, [the Pied-billed Grebe] shows a quite obvious dark band across a pale, cone-shaped bill. The overall coloration is rich or grayish buff-brown, lighter on the flanks and darker on the wings. This grebe is found exclusively on water, inhabiting ponds, lakes, and estuaries in the western lowlands and large lakes in highlands.

The Pied-billed Grebe

The Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps)Photo by Sam Woods, Tropical Birding Tours & samwoodsbirding.blogspot.com

It is fairly confiding, rarely flying when disturbed, and rarely comes ashore. Grebes walk with difficulty because their legs are located near the rear end of the body, which works great for swimming and diving but not for walking. They feed on invertebrates and fish, which are caught when diving up to several feet underwater.

Wildlife of Ecuador
Andrés Vásquez Noboa
Photography by Pablo Cervantes Daza
Preview a Chapter

Mainland Ecuador’s spectacular wildlife makes it a magnet for nature tourists, but until now there hasn’t been a go-to, all-in-one guide geared to the general reader. With this handy and accessible guide, visitors now have everything they need to identify and enjoy the majority of birds and animals they are likely to see. Written and illustrated by two of Ecuador’s most experienced nature guides and photographers, this book covers more than 350 birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. It features over 400 stunning color photographs and includes a range map for each species, as well as a brief account of the country’s natural history and biogeography. With its extensive coverage, attractive and easy-to-use layout, beautiful photographs, and nontechnical text, this is an essential guide for anyone who wants to explore the natural wonders of Ecuador.

Bird Fact Friday – The Overlooked Puffbirds

From page 290 of The New Neotropical Companion:

Puffbirds are large-headed, heavy-bodied birds so named for the puffed appearance of their feathers. Though some species are boldly patterned in black and white, most species, particularly those that inhabit shaded understory, are brownish or tan. Their cryptic plumage plus their stationary behavior when perched in the shaded forest understory makes them easy to overlook.

The collared puffbird.

The Collared Puffbird (Bucco capensis) is widespread in Amazonia. Photo by Sean Williams.

Like flycatchers, puffbirds have large bills with prominent rictal bristles (hairlike feathers around the base of the bill) that probably aid in capturing aerial insects. Puffbirds excavate nests in termite mounds or in the ground, depending upon species. Rather little is known about the details of their breeding biology, but they do form strong pair bonds, and many species are commonly observed in pairs.

New Neotropical Companion CoverThe New Neotropical Companion
John Kricher
Chapter One

The New Neotropical Companion is the completely revised and expanded edition of a book that has helped thousands of people to understand the complex ecology and natural history of the most species-rich area on Earth, the American tropics. Featuring stunning color photos throughout, it is a sweeping and cutting-edge account of tropical ecology that includes not only tropical rain forests but also other ecosystems such as cloud forests, rivers, savannas, and mountains. This is the only guide to the American tropics that is all-inclusive, encompassing the entire region’s ecology and the amazing relationships among species rather than focusing just on species identification.

The New Neotropical Companion is a book unlike any other. Here, you will learn how to recognize distinctive ecological patterns of rain forests and other habitats and to interpret how these remarkable ecosystems function—everything is explained in clear and engaging prose free of jargon. You will also be introduced to the region’s astonishing plant and animal life.

Bird Fact Friday – All About Trogons

From pages 269-270 of The New Neotropical Companion:

Trogons are cavity nesters. Some species excavate nest holes in decaying trees; others dig into termite mounds. The Gartered Trogon (Trogon caligatus) utilizes large wasp nests, after carefully removing and consuming the resident wasps. The species also utilizes termite mounds as nests.

The Resplendent Quetzal

Male Resplendent Quetzal, in all its splendor.
Photo by Gina Nichol.

Trogons feed on fruits from palms, cecropias, and many other species, which they take by hovering briefly at the tree, plucking the fruits. They also catch large insects and occasional lizards, swiftly swooping down on them or snatching them in flight. Trogon bills are finely serrated, permitting a tight grip on food items. Arguably the most spectacular member of the trogon family is the Central American Resplendent Quetzal (Pharomachrus mocinno; pictured above), which is said to be the inspiration for the legendary phoenix.

New Neotropical Companion CoverThe New Neotropical Companion
John Kricher
Chapter One

The New Neotropical Companion is the completely revised and expanded edition of a book that has helped thousands of people to understand the complex ecology and natural history of the most species-rich area on Earth, the American tropics. Featuring stunning color photos throughout, it is a sweeping and cutting-edge account of tropical ecology that includes not only tropical rain forests but also other ecosystems such as cloud forests, rivers, savannas, and mountains. This is the only guide to the American tropics that is all-inclusive, encompassing the entire region’s ecology and the amazing relationships among species rather than focusing just on species identification.

The New Neotropical Companion is a book unlike any other. Here, you will learn how to recognize distinctive ecological patterns of rain forests and other habitats and to interpret how these remarkable ecosystems function—everything is explained in clear and engaging prose free of jargon. You will also be introduced to the region’s astonishing plant and animal life.

Bird Fact Fridays – Flowerpiercers, the Evolutionary “Cheaters”

From page 173 in The New Neotropical Companion:

Flowerpiercers (a group of 16 bird species related to tanagers), like hummingbirds, consume nectar from flowers . But they “cheat.” Rather than forage within the flower, where they might encounter pollen and thus aid in cross-pollination, they use their delicately upturned and hooked bills to pierce the flower at its base and access the nectar without ever encountering the pollen.

Indigo Flowerpiercer

The Indigo Flowerpiercer (Diglossa indigotica) occurs in cloud forest in western Colombia and northwestern Ecuador. There are 16 flowerpiercer species in South America. Photo by Andrew Whittaker.

Flower traits have been shown to evolve not only to attract certain pollinating species but also to discourage species that are ineffective pollinators or pollen robbers. Adaptations to reduce nectar robbery include adding toxins to the nectar that discourage robbers but not pollinators, flowering at times when nectar robbers are inactive, growing near plants that offer better food sources for nectar robbers, or evolving flowers that are physically difficult for robbers to access.

New Neotropical Companion CoverThe New Neotropical Companion
John Kricher
Chapter One

The New Neotropical Companion is the completely revised and expanded edition of a book that has helped thousands of people to understand the complex ecology and natural history of the most species-rich area on Earth, the American tropics. Featuring stunning color photos throughout, it is a sweeping and cutting-edge account of tropical ecology that includes not only tropical rain forests but also other ecosystems such as cloud forests, rivers, savannas, and mountains. This is the only guide to the American tropics that is all-inclusive, encompassing the entire region’s ecology and the amazing relationships among species rather than focusing just on species identification.

The New Neotropical Companion is a book unlike any other. Here, you will learn how to recognize distinctive ecological patterns of rain forests and other habitats and to interpret how these remarkable ecosystems function—everything is explained in clear and engaging prose free of jargon. You will also be introduced to the region’s astonishing plant and animal life.

PUP Statement on Marra and Santella’s Cat Wars

Marra and SantellaPrinceton University Press takes pride in publishing a diverse, global mix of voices, ideas, and arguments. Cat Wars by Peter P. Marra & Chris Santella addresses a demonstrable threat that free-roaming cats bring to the long-term health of bird and small mammal populations and provides a science-based survey of the subject. It looks at a wide variety of issues and attempts to provide dispassionate, objective analyses. The authors and the Princeton University Press do not support the inhumane treatment of animals.

All books published by Princeton University Press benefit from a rigorous and thorough peer-review process to ensure the highest quality of scholarship and accuracy.  We embrace the highest standards in our publishing, embodied in the work of our authors since 1905.

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