Bird Fact Friday—Tinamous

Adapted from pages 28-29 of Birds of Central America:

Drawings of the Great Tinamou (top 4 birds), and the Highland Tinamou (bottom two birds).

Tinamous are short-tailed, terrestrial birds, found mainly in humid broadleaf forest. They are sensitive to hunting pressure and can be difficult to see as they quickly walk away at the approach of an observer. In less humid areas, tinamous can sometimes be located by the scratching sound produced as they walk over dry leaf litter. Most are detected by voice.

The Great Tinamou (Tinamus major) is the most common and widespread.  They are 44 cm tall, and are fairly common residents in lowlands and foothills (to 1800 m). These birds can be identified by their gray legs and white throat, mostly brownish barred with dusky on upperparts and flanks, and are grayish below with fine barring on flanks. Most often detected by voice during early morning or dusk, and sometimes calls from elevated roost site. Individuals, pairs, or small groups can be located by listening for rustling sounds produced as they forage or walk in dry leaf litter. Their call is two to four paired, long, tremulous whistles. First note usually slightly lower-pitched and sometimes repeated two or three times. Second note drops in pitch.

Meanwhile, the Highland Tinamou (Nothocercus bonapartei) are uncommon residents in foothills and highlands (above 1200 m). These are fairly large (40cm) birds, with  gray legs, and dark gray crown and sides of head. The birds’ underparts are cinnamon, becoming brightest on throat and belly, and narrowly and sparsely barred with dusky. They have Dark rufous-brown above with fine blackish vermiculations and variable buff spotting on wings. Some have buff spotting extending to rump and mantle. They are, more often than not, solitary or in pairs, secretive and rarely seen. Most often detected by voice , with a call that sounds like a short, hoarse, low-pitched huh-wowr or unh-heer, which it sometimes repeats steadily.

Birds of Central America
Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama

By Andrew C. Vallely and Dale Dyer

Birds of Central America is the first comprehensive field guide to the avifauna of the entire region, including Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Handy and compact, the book presents text and illustrations for nearly 1,200 resident and migrant species, and information on all rare vagrants. Two hundred sixty detailed plates on convenient facing-page spreads depict differing ages and sexes for each species, with a special focus on geographic variation. The guide also contains up-to-date range maps and concise notes on distribution, habitat, behavior, and voice. An introduction provides a brief overview of the region’s landscape, climate, and biogeography.

The culmination of more than a decade of research and field experience, Birds of Central America is an indispensable resource for all those interested in the bird life of this part of the world.

  • Detailed information on the entire avifauna of Central America
  • 260 beautiful color plates
  • Range maps, text, and illustrations presented on convenient facing-page spreads
  • Up-to-date notes on distribution supported by an extensive bibliography
  • Special focus on geographic variation of bird species

Bird Fact Friday – Finding Birds as an Urban Birder

Adapted from pages 205-206; 220 of How to Be an Urban Birder:

Birds are everywhere, but in order to see them you will need to know where to look and how to search for them. This is certainly the situation in urban areas and is perhaps why so many people shun the idea of there being any birds to be found in our towns and cities. Newbie birders are often overawed when they are out with birders more experienced than themselves, some even doubting their ability to have found any birds had they been on their own. Never worry about things like that, as there will soon come the day when you realize that you know more than you thought you did and have seen far more than you’ve given yourself credit for. Learn at your own pace. No one knows everything, and at one point everybody knew nothing.

Carrion Crows. Photo credit: Gideon Knight

Those birders who seem to see everything and get all the luck have actually had to earn it. They would have invariably spent hours in the field watching over their patches and studying every bird that they happened across. Therein lies the secret of how to become a better birder: getting enough experience in the field. However, this does not mean that you have to be out birding several days a week, as your skills can still be honed as you go about your daily life. The golden rule is always to look closely at every bird you come across, wherever that might be, and to listen to calls and songs to work out what they mean – is it a contact call, song or alarm note? By doing this you will be practicing hand-toeye coordination with your binoculars, learning more about identification and behaviour, picking up on sounds, and generally noticing birds that you may not have done previously. 

Don’t be put off looking at birds for fear of not being able to recognize them. There is not one birder on the planet who can confidently put a name to everything that perches up in front of them. If they say they can, then they are fibbers. I have hung out with some of the best observers in the world and they are all fallible. There is nothing wrong with drawing a blank, as some birds just defy identification. Simply enjoy the experience and try to make as many notes as possible. 

An interesting aspect of this learning curve that is not often talked about is the use of peripheral vision. When you look at a bird, also look around it at the same time, and train yourself to be alert to movement at the edges of your visual range. In this way you may notice the Sparrowhawk buzzing the extreme end of the Starling flock you were focused on, or spot the Snipe feeding unobtrusively in the wet meadow near the Moorhen that you were admiring. When you watch a bird such as a Buzzard passing overhead use your peripheral vision to locate any other birds soaring with it. Soon you will be noticing movement from the corner of your eye far more regularly.

LindoHow to Be an Urban Birder
By David Lindo

Urban birding is fast becoming ornithology’s new rock ’n’ roll. Birds and birding have never been cooler—and urban birding is at the cutting edge.

How to Be an Urban Birder is the world’s first guide to the art of urban birding—which is so easy and great fun! Here, urban birding pioneer David Lindo tells you everything you need to know about birds and birding in towns and cities in the UK.

  • Includes a brief history of urban birding in the UK
  • Covers the best places to look for birds in towns and cities
  • Helps you get to know your urban birds
  • Gives useful tips on how to attract birds to your garden
  • Explains what gear you need and how to go about being an urban birde
  • Features hundreds of cool images and illustrations of birds in urban settings

 

Bird Fact Friday – Southern Lapwing

This shorebird is a common and widespread species along the banks of lakes and rivers as well as open grassland habitats throughout South America. It has benefited from the clearance of forests for cattle ranching and in some areas is very much an urban bird. Indeed, they can even be watched feeding on floodlit football pitches during televised games. I have spent much time watching these charismatic birds on the urban fields of Sāo Paulo in Brazil, Buenos Aires, Argentina and Santiago, Chile.

Photo credit: David Lindo.

Southern Lapwings is part of the Vanellus genus of waders, to which the Northern Lapwing belongs, and is one of three to be found in South America. The other species are the Pied Plover and Andean Lapwing. Although all three are fairly distinctive, the Southern Lapwing is the only one with a crest. Normally monogamous, in high density areas they may indulge in co-operative breeding. It is the only shorebird in the world where adults of the same sex have been found caring for eggs and young.

 

LindoHow to Be an Urban Birder
By David Lindo

Urban birding is fast becoming ornithology’s new rock ’n’ roll. Birds and birding have never been cooler—and urban birding is at the cutting edge.

How to Be an Urban Birder is the world’s first guide to the art of urban birding—which is so easy and great fun! Here, urban birding pioneer David Lindo tells you everything you need to know about birds and birding in towns and cities in the UK.

  • Includes a brief history of urban birding in the UK
  • Covers the best places to look for birds in towns and cities
  • Helps you get to know your urban birds
  • Gives useful tips on how to attract birds to your garden
  • Explains what gear you need and how to go about being an urban birde
  • Features hundreds of cool images and illustrations of birds in urban settings

Bird Fact Friday – Feral Pigeons

Adapted from pages 69-72 of How to Be an Urban Birder:

Photo credit: David Lindo

Feral Pigeons are sometimes referred to disparagingly as Flying Rats by city folk. The term ‘Flying Rat’ first appeared in a New York Times article in 1966, but was actually popularized by Woody Allen in his 1980 film Stardust Memories, in which he referred to these pigeons as rats with wings. Along with their non flying mammalian namesake, they have got to be the most hated feathered creature in the land, surely? Pigeons poop whenever the desire takes them, with little respect for the unfortunate souls who might be standing underneath at the time. They certainly foul the pavements below their nest sites: classically underneath railway bridges or in deserted buildings in cities.

There have been many studies and surveys conducted of urban birds, some of which have come back with surprising results. Pigeons are one such fascinating subject matter. For example, research has shown that they are able to recognize the faces of the people that feed them, even if those faces are in a crowd of others. In London, some have learnt to ride the tube system, seemingly purposefully disembarking a few stops later to continue nonchalantly pecking at the pavement. They are accused of being dirty and spreading diseases. But do they? Why do they come in so many colour variations? And how come we never see baby pigeons?

In terms of their propensity for spreading disease, you would be forgiven for thinking that Feral Pigeons harboured every ailment known to man, plus a few that we perhaps don’t yet know about. This is seemingly visually corroborated by the sight of some individuals sporting gammy legs, club feet and very dishevelled plumages. Pigeons are known to carry lurgies like chlamydiosis or psittacosis, a bacterial infection that has flu-like symptoms. The jury is still out as to how much of a health risk they pose to humans, as many experts believe that the chances of catching anything from them are minimal. It is the droppings that we really have to worry about. Fresh droppings plopped on your head, whilst being unpleasant and, contrastingly, a sign of good luck, pose no risk to health. It is when they become dried that things can get dodgy. Spores from these droppings can be carried on the wind and be inhaled as dust. This can cause a flu-like illness in healthy people and a much more serious reaction in those with low immunity. Additionally, accumulations of droppings, which are highly acidic, can cause long-term damage to buildings, much to the chagrin of council officials.

Far from being boring and not very intelligent, Feral Pigeons have a fascinating life history, one part of which often flummoxes members of the public – the often-posed question “how come we never see baby pigeons?” The answer is actually quite simple. Young pigeons, or squabs, remain in the nest until they are about the same size as an adult – so when they make their debut appearances on our streets they are often indistinguishable from their parents.

 

LindoHow to Be an Urban Birder
By David Lindo

Urban birding is fast becoming ornithology’s new rock ’n’ roll. Birds and birding have never been cooler—and urban birding is at the cutting edge.

How to Be an Urban Birder is the world’s first guide to the art of urban birding—which is so easy and great fun! Here, urban birding pioneer David Lindo tells you everything you need to know about birds and birding in towns and cities in the UK.

  • Includes a brief history of urban birding in the UK
  • Covers the best places to look for birds in towns and cities
  • Helps you get to know your urban birds
  • Gives useful tips on how to attract birds to your garden
  • Explains what gear you need and how to go about being an urban birde
  • Features hundreds of cool images and illustrations of birds in urban settings

Bird Fact Friday—White Stork

David Lindo – author of How to Be an Urban Birder –continues his take over our Bird Fact Friday series. Check out these posts every week to learn about the different birds he’s encountered in his travels through the Concrete Jungle. In his latest entry, he highlights the White Stork.

The White Stork is the classic bird of Mediterranean Europe that is often to be seen standing nonchalantly on top of enormous nests, usually on the very tips of impressive old buildings. Their stick nests grow with every year of use and are often used for generations. Their range in Europe actually extends beyond the Mediterranean basin north to Finland and into Eastern Europe. Globally, they range as far south as South Africa and east into the Indian subcontinent. Famously a long distant migrant it has been discovered that birds in the Iberian Peninsula are increasingly overwintering to take advantage of the food sources found in refuse dumps as well as at more natural sources.

Photo credit: David Lindo

The White Stork’s black-and-white plumage makes it an instantly recognisable bird in Europe, although care has to be taken when viewing distant birds as confusion may occur between it and its darker cousin, the Black Stork. The White Stork’s history within the UK is a bit of a contentious one as many of the birds discovered there are often suspected of being escapees. What is startling though is the fact that they have not bred naturally on British soil in over 600 years!

 

How to Be an Urban Birder
By David Lindo

Urban birding is fast becoming ornithology’s new rock ’n’ roll. Birds and birding have never been cooler—and urban birding is at the cutting edge.

How to Be an Urban Birder is the world’s first guide to the art of urban birding—which is so easy and great fun! Here, urban birding pioneer David Lindo tells you everything you need to know about birds and birding in towns and cities in the UK.

  • Includes a brief history of urban birding in the UK
  • Covers the best places to look for birds in towns and cities
  • Helps you get to know your urban birds
  • Gives useful tips on how to attract birds to your garden
  • Explains what gear you need and how to go about being an urban birde
  • Features hundreds of cool images and illustrations of birds in urban settings

 

 

Bird Fact Friday— Blackcap

For the next three weeks, David Lindo – author of How to Be an Urban Birder – will take over our Bird Fact Friday series. Check out these posts every week to learn about the different birds he’s encountered in his travels through the Concrete Jungle. In his latest entry, he highlights the Blackcap.

The Blackcap. Photo credit: Rubén Cebrián.

The Blackcap is one of Britain’s and indeed, Europe’s most familiar summer songsters. Its rich warbling is often cited as one of the best of any bird in the land. Its song led it to be referred to as the Northern Nightingale and the King of Warblers in the 1700’s during the days of Gilbert White – the pioneering English naturalist. With perhaps 1.2 million breeding pairs, this handsome warbler has steadily spread across the UK. Elsewhere, Blackcaps breed over much of Europe, western Asia and northwestern Africa favouring mature deciduous woodland. Nearly all winter around the Mediterranean and tropical Africa. However, it is well known that a steadily increasing number of Eastern European and, in particular, German birds are migrating west to winter in Britain. They are even evolving thicker bills to deal with the bird table food that we provide.

Listen to the singing males in Switzerland, Austria and southern Germany as they sometimes sing a different variant to their usual song. It is a very abbreviated warble ending in a repeated ‘tuuli, tuuli, tuuli’.

How to Be an Urban Birder
By David Lindo

Urban birding is fast becoming ornithology’s new rock ’n’ roll. Birds and birding have never been cooler—and urban birding is at the cutting edge.

How to Be an Urban Birder is the world’s first guide to the art of urban birding—which is so easy and great fun! Here, urban birding pioneer David Lindo tells you everything you need to know about birds and birding in towns and cities in the UK.

  • Includes a brief history of urban birding in the UK
  • Covers the best places to look for birds in towns and cities
  • Helps you get to know your urban birds
  • Gives useful tips on how to attract birds to your garden
  • Explains what gear you need and how to go about being an urban birde
  • Features hundreds of cool images and illustrations of birds in urban settings

Bird Fact Friday— Black Redstart

For the next four weeks, David Lindo – author of How to Be an Urban Birder – will take over our Bird Fact Friday series. Check out these posts every week to learn about the different birds he’s encountered in his travels through the Concrete Jungle. In his latest entry, he highlights the Black Redstart.

The Black Redstart is one of two species of redstart to be found in the UK with other being the summer visiting Common Redstart. Globally, there are 15 species of redstart ranging from the large Güldenstädt’s Redstart to the charismatic river dwelling Plumbeous Redstart. The various species are mostly found in Asia. Formally classed as members of the thrush family the popular thinking is now is to include redstarts as Old World flycatchers.

Black Redstart

Photo credit: David Lindo

Black Red’s, as commonly coined by British birders, have a large distribution ranging from the UK across to Central China and south into Morocco. In Britian, it is a very rare breeder and thus Red-listed with between 40 – 100 breeding pairs. Their numbers are swelled to around 400 individuals during the winter. In Europe, their population is ranked at 4.5 million pairs. There are several theories as to why the British population is so low yet literally across the Channel they are numerous. One interesting supposition is that their numbers are kept low by competition with the far more dominant European Robin. Whereas on the Continent, the Robin is very much a shy woodland dweller and thus the Black Redstarts there can thrive in urban areas due to the lack of competition.

Although being well known to birders in the UK, Black Redstarts are virtually unknown to the general public. This is probably due not only to their rarity but to their propensity for nesting on derelict land or in business areas.

 

How to Be an Urban Birder
By David Lindo

Urban birding is fast becoming ornithology’s new rock ’n’ roll. Birds and birding have never been cooler—and urban birding is at the cutting edge.

How to Be an Urban Birder is the world’s first guide to the art of urban birding—which is so easy and great fun! Here, urban birding pioneer David Lindo tells you everything you need to know about birds and birding in towns and cities in the UK.

  • Includes a brief history of urban birding in the UK
  • Covers the best places to look for birds in towns and cities
  • Helps you get to know your urban birds
  • Gives useful tips on how to attract birds to your garden
  • Explains what gear you need and how to go about being an urban birde
  • Features hundreds of cool images and illustrations of birds in urban settings

Bird Fact Friday– Black-tailed Godwit

For the next five weeks, David Lindo – author of How to Be an Urban Birder – will take over our Bird Fact Friday series. Check out these posts every week to learn about the different birds he’s encountered in his travels through the Concrete Jungle. In his first entry, he highlights the Black-tailed Godwit.

Photo credit: David Lindo

This elegant species is a member of the strongly migratory Limosa genus of the wader family. There are three other species in the Godwit family: the Bar-tailed, Hudsonian and Marbled. The latter two species are restricted to the Americas. Although the Hudsonian Godwit has turned up in the UK a few times the Marbled, which is also the world’s largest godwit, is yet to make footfall on British mud.

Black-tailed Godwits are currently Red Listed in the UK and is a very rare re-colonised breeding bird. They once regularly nested across large parts of Britain but draining of the fenland habitat that they favoured plus, the over-harvesting by bird catchers coupled with their reputation as being good for the table led to their demise. They returned to East Anglia as breeders as recently as 1952.

The Islandic race islandica individuals are quite distinctive. This race tends to be brighter brick-red around the neck and underparts and on migration they tend to end up in Portugal.

How to Be an Urban Birder
By David Lindo

Urban birding is fast becoming ornithology’s new rock ’n’ roll. Birds and birding have never been cooler—and urban birding is at the cutting edge.

How to Be an Urban Birder is the world’s first guide to the art of urban birding—which is so easy and great fun! Here, urban birding pioneer David Lindo tells you everything you need to know about birds and birding in towns and cities in the UK.

  • Includes a brief history of urban birding in the UK
  • Covers the best places to look for birds in towns and cities
  • Helps you get to know your urban birds
  • Gives useful tips on how to attract birds to your garden
  • Explains what gear you need and how to go about being an urban birde
  • Features hundreds of cool images and illustrations of birds in urban settings

 

Bird Fact Friday – the Lesser Black-Backed Gull

Adapted from pages 266 to 273 of Gulls of the World:

The Lesser Black-Backed Gull is a four-year gull, and resembles a dark-backed, more slender version of Herring Gull, with rounder head and slightly thinner bill that appears less blunt-tipped and slightly drooping. They have long, slender wings are often held lowered when relaxed. Their head and underbody is whitish with dark streaking to mottling and dark eye-mask, while their central hindbelly and vent may lack dark spotting. The darkest of these birds have rather uniform brown head and underbody. Meanwhile, their upperwing is dark brown with blackish flight feathers, only rarely with indication of paler inner webs to inner primaries. They have two solid dark wing-bars, formed by blackish centres to greater coverts and secondaries, and an underwing that is blackish-brown to barred grey-brown in contrast to paler flight feathers. Finally, their rump is white with dense dark spotting reaching upper mantle as slight paler wedge against darker scapulars, and their tail is black with narrow white bases and spots along edges of t6; sometimes with more extensive white at base and narrower black tail-bar.

A gull

An adult Lesser Black-Backed Gull (intermedius). It’s a rather dark individual
with blackish upperparts, almost concolorous with wing-tip. Photographed by the author in Copenhagen, Denmark.

In flight, they are dark enough to be mistaken at range for juvenile skua (especially Pomarine, which is similar in size and dark overall plumage). The majority retain juvenile plumage in first part of autumn, unlike Yellow-legged, Caspian and many Herring Gulls, which from Sep have renewed mantle and scapulars and have slightly worn coverts. They breed colonially along coasts and on islands, locally on islands in lakes and rivers, on moors and on buildings.

There was a large increase since the 1940s with the extension of breeding range from 1920, so it is able to manage competition with Herring Gull. Since the 1990s, they have been breeding in Greenland; they probably also breed in North America, where scarce visitors to East Canada and USA. Most of the European population is migratory, but some remain near breeding sites to winter in milder parts of West Europe. Birds leave breeding sites from late July, with several stops during southward journey. Most winters are spent in the West Mediterranean and Atlantic coastline between the South Iberian peninsula and Mauritania, with some reaching southwards to interior West Africa and Gulf of Guinea coasts.

Gulls of the World
By Klaus Malling Olsen

With more than 50 gull species in the world, this family of seabirds poses some of the greatest field identification challenges of any bird group: age-related plumage changes, extensive variations within species, frequent hybridization, and complex distribution. 

Gulls of the World takes on these challenges and is the first book to provide a comprehensive look at these birds. Concise text emphasizes field identification, with in-depth discussion of variations as well as coverage of habitat, status, and distribution. Abundant photographs highlight identification criteria and, crucially, factor in age and subspecific field separation. Informative species accounts are accompanied by detailed color range maps.

Gulls of the World is the most authoritative photographic guide to this remarkable bird family.

  • The first book to provide in-depth coverage of all the world’s gull species
  • More than 600 stunning color photographs
  • Concise text looks at variations, habitat, status, and distribution
  • Informative species accounts and color range maps

 

 

 

Bird Fact Friday— Mediterranean Gull

Adapted from pages 68-71 of Gulls of the World:

The Mediterranean Gull is a three-year gull. They are medium-sized and compact with large squarish head, a deep parallel-edged bill with drooping tip, dark eyes and long legs. The largest males of this species are almost size of Common Gull and have the heaviest bills. Meanwhile, the smallest females are Black-headed Gull-sized with shorter, stubby bills. Settled birds look stocky with long legs; when relaxed, often appear compact and neckless with flat back. Swimming birds sit high on water.

In flight, these gulls are full-bodied with a short neck, ‘well-fed’ belly and shortish-looking wings, appearing rounded and in adults very pale. Flight with stiffer wing-beats than Black-headed and Common Gulls, somewhat recalling that of small egrets (particularly in the case of palewinged adults). May feed with short dips, but will also chase flying insects like Black-headed Gull.

A Mediterranean Gull.

Their most common call is a mellow yelping ee-ar or yee-ah, slightly reminiscent of male  Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope, or small barking dog.

These gulls nest along coasts and lagoons with sparse vegetation, generally avoiding barren sand. They breed mainly from Black Sea region westwards; extension of breeding range from 1940s to scattered regions of S Europe northwards to Denmark and westwards to southern England.

Migration takes place mainly coastal with large concentrations around W Black Sea in September before leaving for winter quarters in S Black Sea and Mediterranean. Most of W European population gathers in N France following breeding season. They are regular visitors to Europe north of breeding range. Vagrant to Iceland, Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Macaronesia, Africa S to Senegal, The Gambia and Kenya, and Jordan, Iraq, Arabian Gulf and Kazakhstan.

Gulls of the World
By Klaus Malling Olsen

With more than 50 gull species in the world, this family of seabirds poses some of the greatest field identification challenges of any bird group: age-related plumage changes, extensive variations within species, frequent hybridization, and complex distribution. 

Gulls of the World takes on these challenges and is the first book to provide a comprehensive look at these birds. Concise text emphasizes field identification, with in-depth discussion of variations as well as coverage of habitat, status, and distribution. Abundant photographs highlight identification criteria and, crucially, factor in age and subspecific field separation. Informative species accounts are accompanied by detailed color range maps.

Gulls of the World is the most authoritative photographic guide to this remarkable bird family.

  • The first book to provide in-depth coverage of all the world’s gull species
  • More than 600 stunning color photographs
  • Concise text looks at variations, habitat, status, and distribution
  • Informative species accounts and color range maps

Bird Fact Friday — Pallas’s Gull

Adapted from pages 46-48 of Gulls of the World:

Pallas’s Gull is a four-year gull, but with initial rapid plumage development as in three-year gulls. The largest hooded gull by far, Pallas’s Gull is almost as large as Great Black-backed Gull, and dwarfs almost any other gull in its company. Its pear-shaped head has flat crown that peaks well behind dark eyes. These gulls have a long, heavy bill, while its head looks small relative to heavy, barrel-shaped body. In settled birds, the breast appears full, but their rear is attenuated with wings extending moderately beyond tail-tip. Loosely folded tertials create a prominent hump. Meanwhile, their legs are long and thin, with long visible tibia. 

With regards to their in flight profile, it is front-heavy with triangular head, protruding breast and slender wings, like an oversized Caspian Gull. They fly ponderously and slowly with heron-like wing-beats, gliding on angled wings with little flexing at carpal joint. The birds are known for often lowering their bill in flight. They frequently catch fish by hovering and diving. Swimming birds sit higher on water than other large gulls.

A gull.

A Pallas Gull in Uttar Pradesh, India.

These gulls are not very vocal. Calls deep and short, on breeding sites a deep há-u. Flocks utter a goose-like ga-gaga. They also make a low, slightly nasal oow, similar to the calls of the Common Raven Corvus corax. Finally, their alarm call a barking whe-ow.

These gulls breed from Central Asia W to Ukraine and the S Caspian region, along with E to W Mongolia. They nest on barren islands in saline and fresh waters, generally in warm, dry steppe areas and mountain lakes. Colonies often relocate from year to year. Main winter areas are between E Mediterranean (westwards to Sicily) and Bay of Bengal along fish-rich coasts, rivers and lakes, also fish-ponds and reservoirs. Populations from Tibet winter mainly in Bangladesh. They are scarce southwards to Lake Turkana in Kenya and eastwards to Gulf of Thailand and Hong Kong. Regular visitor to SE Europe in increasing numbers from late 1980s, with most records May–Sep; majority recorded Hungary, Romania and Poland, probably after following Dnieper River system from Ukraine. Vagrant NW Africa, Canary Islands, Madeira, most European countries northwards to Norway, Uganda, Burundi, Vietnam, E China, Taiwan, Korea and Japan.

 

Gulls of the World
By Klaus Malling Olsen

With more than 50 gull species in the world, this family of seabirds poses some of the greatest field identification challenges of any bird group: age-related plumage changes, extensive variations within species, frequent hybridization, and complex distribution. 

Gulls of the World takes on these challenges and is the first book to provide a comprehensive look at these birds. Concise text emphasizes field identification, with in-depth discussion of variations as well as coverage of habitat, status, and distribution. Abundant photographs highlight identification criteria and, crucially, factor in age and subspecific field separation. Informative species accounts are accompanied by detailed color range maps.

Gulls of the World is the most authoritative photographic guide to this remarkable bird family.

  • The first book to provide in-depth coverage of all the world’s gull species
  • More than 600 stunning color photographs
  • Concise text looks at variations, habitat, status, and distribution
  • Informative species accounts and color range maps

 

Bird Fact Friday—Giant Hummingbirds

Adapted from page 156 of Birds of Chile:

The Andean Giant Hummingbird is from the North Andes, and is fairly common in precordillera, south of Tarapacá. Their wingbeats are slow and strong, which causes undulating flight broken by glides. Their flight is often seen in jerky, hovering bursts of ‘slow-motion’ fly-catching. These birds are slightly larger and longer-billed than the Chilean Giant Hummingbird (more info on that one below) – these two birds do not have any range overlap. Adults have broader, dark tail tips, and buffer under tails than the Chilean hummingbirds. Juvenile birds have whitish feather tips on wings. Both sexes are similar. Their call are high, shrill squeaks in a short series.

An Andean Giant Hummingbird

An Andean Giant Hummingbird

A Chilean Giant Hummingbird

A Chilean Giant Hummingbird.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Meanwhile, the Chilean Giant Hummingbird is typically seen in Central Chile, where it is a fairly common breeding visitor in material, open woodland, and gardens from south Atacama to south Araucanía. Despite having no range overlap, their habits are similar to the Andean Giant Hummingbird. These birds often feed at Puya and Eycalyptus trees, and perch atop Puya trees, along with phone wires. The nests for these birds are often conspicuous. Their calls are loud, sharp seek! noises, and slightly whining tseeich chee-chee

Birds of Chile
A Photo Guide
By Steve N. G. Howell & Fabrice Schmitt

This is the first modern-style photographic field guide to the birds of Chile, an increasingly popular destination with birders and naturalists. Compact and easy to carry, pack, and use, Birds of Chileis ideal for curious naturalists and experienced birders alike, providing everything anyone needs to identify the birds they see. Clear photographs and brief, facing-page species accounts highlight what to look for and how to quickly identify species. The photos include both close-ups and birds-in-habitat images to further aid real-life identification. An introduction and maps provide an overview of Chile’s geographic regions and their distinctive birdlife. Birds of Chile is also a great resource for birding in nearby countries, especially Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru.

  • The first field-friendly photographic guide to the birds of Chile
  • More than 1,000 real-life photos and brief, facing-page text make bird identification easy
  • Overview and maps describe the distinct bird regions of Chile
  • Perfect for curious naturalists and experienced birders alike
  • Compact and easy to carry and pack
  • Also a great resource for birding in Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru