David Vogel on California Greenin’

VogelOver the course of its 150-year history, California has successfully protected its scenic wilderness areas, restricted coastal oil drilling, regulated automobile emissions, preserved coastal access, improved energy efficiency, and, most recently, addressed global climate change. How has this state, more than any other, enacted so many innovative and stringent environmental regulations over such a long period of time? The first comprehensive look at California’s history of environmental leadership, California Greenin’ shows why the Golden State has been at the forefront in setting new environmental standards, often leading the rest of the nation. As environmental policy debates continue to grow more heated, California Greenin’ demonstrates that the Golden State’s impressive record of environmental accomplishments holds lessons not just for the country but for the world.

Why did you decide to focus your book on California?

Much has been written on every aspect of California’s environmental history. Books have been written on the state’s forests and wilderness areas, cars and air pollution in Los Angeles, oil drilling in southern California, the protection of the coast and the San Francisco Bay Area and, most recently, the state’s regulations to improve energy efficiency and stem the risks of global climate change. But no one had ever sought to answer what struck me as a central question, namely why has California long been the nation’s “greenest” state? I wrote this book to answer that question.

What are some important examples of California’s environmental leadership?

California enacted the world’s first emissions controls on automobiles and established the nation’s first coastal protection authority. Yosemite was the first protected wilderness in the United States and by 1890 three of nation’s four national parks were located in the state. California issued the nation’s first energy efficiency standards for appliances and buildings. Its greenhouse gas reduction targets are the most ambitious in the United States. Half of the nation’s rooftop solar installations are in California.

How do you account for the state’s long record of environmental innovation?

It traces back to California’s geography. The “Golden State” has an unusually beautiful natural environment. Its coastal area encompasses the best weather in the United States. It has a long and scenic coastline, miles of sand beaches, and inland there are the granite formations, rivers, lakes and valleys of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The state’s forests contain the spectacular redwoods and sequoias, the largest and oldest living species on the planet. But every aspect of this attractive environment has been continually threatened by rapid economic development and population growth. It is in response to these threats that Californians have mobilized to protect the environmental amenities that they valued.

What is the “California effect?”

The “California effect” refers to the impact California has had in strengthening environmental protection outside its borders. The most important example is automotive emissions standards These were first introduced in California and then subsequently adopted by the federal government. Virtually all of the important innovations in emissions controls, such unleaded gasoline and the two-way catalytic convertor, originated in California and were then nationally mandated. California’s innovative greenhouse gas emission standards for vehicles were subsequently adopted by the Obama Administration. Significantly, California is the only state permitted by the federal government to issue its own automotive regulations. Other states then have the option of adapting California’s more stringent standards and several states have chosen to do so.

What most surprised you in writing this book?

I was most struck by the role business has played in supporting environmental protection. Business has been traditionally viewed as the main opponent of stronger environmental standards. But in the case of California influential business interests have often actively backed stronger regulations  For example, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries the Southern Pacific Railroad lobbied to protect the sequoias in the Sierra Nevada mountains, while during the mid 20th century, the Los Angeles real estate community led the political struggle to reduce air pollution. Southern California’s shoreline property developers were the main opponents of coastal oil drilling. California’s renewable energy industry and clean tech investors have benefited from and been strong supporters of the state’s climate change initiatives. In sum, many business interests have recognized the economic benefits of placing the state on a greener growth trajectory.   

What practical lessons can other states learn from California?

The United States is a federal system in which states can play important policy roles. They have enormous potential to improve environmental quality. What other states can also learn from California is that regulations are more likely to be supported if they directly improve the quality of life of local communities, provide economic as well as environmental benefits, receive some business 6backing, and are administrated by competent public authorities. California’s example of regulatory leadership can and hopefully should be followed by other states.

What do you hope readers will take away from the book? 

That protecting the environment and growing economically can go hand in hand. Since the 1860s California has consistently enacted the nation’s most stringent, comprehensive and innovative environmental standards and its economy is now the sixth largest in the worlds. Had it not made such vigorous efforts to protect its fragile natural environment, California would now be a much less desirable place to visit, to live to work, and to invest. California’s economy has benefited substantially from its environmental regulations. This can be true for all states as well.

David Vogel is professor emeritus in the Haas School of Business and the Department of Political Science at the University of California, Berkeley. His many books include The Politics of Precaution and The Market for Virtue.

Plants That Kill: White Snakeroot

Adapted from page 191 of Plants That Kill:

When Europeans started to settle in the Midwest region of the United States in the 1800s, they and their livestock began to fall ill. The animals developed violent trembling when they were forced to move or became agitated, and the disease became known as trembles. People who drank the milk of affected animals developed so-called milk sickness, and it is estimated that in some areas of Indiana and Ohio 25–50 per cent of the deaths of early settlers were caused by this condition. One casualty in 1818 was Nancy Hanks Lincoln, whose son, nine years old at the time, would become President Abraham Lincoln. 

Nowadays, human poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) is rare due to industrial milk production, but it is an historically interesting killer plant. Photo credit: Shutterstock, Wiert nieuman

It took some time to identify white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima, syn. Eupatorium rugosum) as the cause of trembles. Although the plant was initially suggested as the culprit in the 1830s, this was only confirmed in the early 1900s. This member of the daisy family (Asteraceae) grows in moist, shaded areas, such as along stream beds and near tree lines. Animals do not show any signs of being poisoned until they have been eating white snakeroot for one to three weeks, and symptoms finally progress to chronic degeneration of the skeletal muscles. Benzofuran ketones, including tremetone, are at least partly responsible for the toxicity of white snakeroot, and they are also found in another member of the daisy family, the rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora, syn. Haplopappus heterophyllus), which causes a similar disease in grazing animals. 

Plants That Kill: A Natural History of the World’s Most Poisonous Plants
By Elizabeth A. Dauncey & Sonny Larsson

This richly illustrated book provides an in-depth natural history of the most poisonous plants on earth, covering everything from the lethal effects of hemlock and deadly nightshade to the uses of such plants in medicine, ritual, and chemical warfare.

Featuring hundreds of color photos and diagrams throughout, Plants That Kill explains how certain plants evolved toxicity to deter herbivores and other threats and sheds light on their physiology and the biochemistry involved in the production of their toxins. It discusses the interactions of poisonous plants with other organisms–particularly humans—and explores the various ways plant toxins can target the normal functioning of bodily systems in mammals, from the effects of wolfsbane on the heart to toxins that cause a skin reaction when combined with the sun’s rays. This intriguing book also looks at plants that can harm you only if your exposure to them is prolonged, the ethnobotany of poisons throughout human history, and much more.

A must for experts and armchair botanists alike, Plants That Kill is the essential illustrated compendium to these deadly and intriguing plants.

  • Provides an authoritative natural history of the most poisonous plants on earth
  • Features hundreds of color illustrations throughout
  • Looks at how and why plants produce toxins
  • Describes the effects of numerous poisonous plants, from hemlock and deadly nightshade to poppies and tobacco
  • Explains poisonous plants’ evolution, survival strategies, physiology, and biochemistry
  • Discusses the uses of poisonous plants in medicine, rituals, warfare, and more

 

Insect of the Week: Five Myths About Fireflies

silent sparksMyth #1. Fireflies are flies, and lightningbugs are bugs

Truth: They have two different nicknames, but both refer to the same group of insects. Throughout much of the southern United States they’re called lightning bugs, while in the north and east they’re more often known as fireflies. Yet these insects are neither flies nor bugs – they’re actually beetles! What makes them beetles? Their hard wing covers that fold down to protect the delicate flight wings when the insect is resting.

Myth #2. If you’ve seen one firefly, you’ve seen them all

Truth: The firefly family, known as Lampyridae, includes more than 2000 described species worldwide. Here in North America, we have more than 200 different firefly species. These include the lightningbug fireflies, which use quick, bright flashes to find mates. These are mainly found east of the Mississippi River. But more common in the western U.S. are the glow-worm fireflies, which have glowing, wingless females, as well as dark fireflies, whose adults don’t light up at all.

Myth #3. Fireflies only light up for sex

Truth: In every species within the firefly family, the larval stage is capable of producing light. Because larvae are too young to reproduce, their bioluminescence appears to serve as an anti-predator warning. Fireflies contain chemicals that are toxic to many vertebrate predators. For these nocturnal larvae, bioluminescence is similar to the bright coloration used by monarch butterflies: it shouts out “I’m toxic – stay away!”

 Myth #4. Fireflies mean summertime

Truth: The spectacular summer lightshows produced by adult lightningbugs are just the tip of the firefly life cycle. Adult fireflies fly for merely a few weeks, but can spend nearly two years living underground during their larval stage. Juvenile fireflies spend months feasting on earthworms, snails, and other soft-bodied creatures. Ferocious carnivores, firefly larvae inject victims with paralyzing neurotoxins, then secrete digestive enzymes to liquify and ingest their prey.

Myth #5. There are so many fireflies, they don’t need protection

Truth: Certain firefly species, like the Big Dipper firefly Photinus pyralis, are abundant and occur in many habitats across a wide geographic range. But others are restricted to small, isolated populations or are habitat specialists, and these are in greater need of protection. Worldwide, many firefly populations are under threat from habitat loss, light pollution, and altered rainfall patterns due to climate disruption. In addition, firefly ecotourism is gaining popularity, and increasing numbers of visitors can impact both adult and larval habitats. Within the past century, fireflies in the U.S., Japan, and China have also been commercially harvested from wild populations.

 

Sara Lewis, who has been captivated by fireflies for nearly three decades, is a professor in the Department of Biology at Tufts University. Her work has been featured in numerous publications, including the New York Times, Scientific American, and USA Today. Lewis lives with her husband in Watertown, Massachusetts.


Silent Sparks
The Wondrous World of Fireflies

For centuries, the beauty of fireflies has evoked wonder and delight. Yet for most of us, fireflies remain shrouded in mystery: How do fireflies make their light? What are they saying with their flashing? And what do fireflies look for in a mate? In Silent Sparks, noted biologist and firefly expert Sara Lewis dives into the fascinating world of fireflies and reveals the most up-to-date discoveries about these beloved insects. From the meadows of New England and the hills of the Great Smoky Mountains, to the rivers of Japan and mangrove forests of Malaysia, this beautifully illustrated and accessible book uncovers the remarkable, dramatic stories of birth, courtship, romance, sex, deceit, poison, and death among fireflies.

The nearly two thousand species of fireflies worldwide have evolved in different ways—and while most mate through the aerial language of blinking lights, not all do. Lewis introduces us to fireflies that don’t light up at all, relying on wind-borne perfumes to find mates, and we encounter glow-worm fireflies, whose plump, wingless females never fly. We go behind the scenes to meet inquisitive scientists who have dedicated their lives to understanding fireflies, and we learn about various modern threats including light pollution and habitat destruction. In the last section of the book, Lewis provides a field guide for North American fireflies, enabling us to identify them in our own backyards and neighborhoods. This concise, handy guide includes distinguishing features, habits, and range maps for the most commonly encountered fireflies, as well as a gear list.

A passionate exploration of one of the world’s most charismatic and admired insects, Silent Sparks will inspire us to reconnect with the natural world.

 

Announcing the trailer for Gorey’s Worlds

The illustrator, designer, and writer Edward Gorey (1925–2000) is beloved for his droll, surreal, and slightly sinister drawings. Gorey’s Worlds delves into the numerous and surprising cultural and artistic sources that influenced Gorey’s unique and instantly recognizable visual language. A variety of objects shaped his artistic mindset, from works of popular culture to the more than twenty-six thousand books he owned and the art pieces in his vast collection. As this book shows, these artistic pieces present a visual riddle, as the connections between them—to each other and to Gorey’s works—are significant and enigmatic. Featuring a sumptuous selection of Gorey’s creations alongside his fascinating and diverse collections, Gorey’s Worlds reveals the private world that inspired one of the most idiosyncratic artists of the twentieth century.

Gorey’s Worlds by Erin Monroe, with contributions from Robert Greskovic, Arnold Arluke, and Kevin Shortsleeve, from Princeton University Press on Vimeo.

Erin Monroe is the Robert H. Schutz Jr. Associate Curator of American Paintings and Sculpture at the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art. She is the author of Andrew Wyeth: Looking BeyondRobert Greskovic is a dance critic for the Wall Street Journal and the author of Ballet 101Arnold Arluke is professor emeritus of sociology and anthropology at Northeastern University. His books include Just a Dog and The Photographed CatKevin Shortsleeve is associate professor of English at Christopher Newport University. His books include Thirteen Monsters Who Should Be Avoided.

Heather Widdows on Perfect Me: Beauty as an Ethical Ideal

WiddowsThe demand to be beautiful is increasingly important in today’s visual and virtual culture. Rightly or wrongly, being perfect has become an ethical ideal to live by, and according to which we judge ourselves good or bad, a success or a failure. Perfect Me explores the changing nature of the beauty ideal, showing how it is more dominant, more demanding, and more global than ever before. If you have ever felt the urge to “make the best of yourself” or worried that you were “letting yourself go,” this book explains why. Perfect Me demonstrates that we must first recognize the ethical nature of the beauty ideal if we are ever to address its harms.

How is the idea of beauty as an ethical ideal expressed in the media?

That beauty is connected to morality is ubiquitous in the media. Look at the amount of moral terminology there is in beauty talk; ‘You’re worth it!’ being a very obvious one. But it is everywhere. We are ‘good’ when we say ‘no thanks’ to cake, chocolate, cheese, or carbs; force ourselves to go out for a run; or when we routinely remove make up, body brush, and perform the tasks of everyday maintenance. We are ‘naughty,’ ‘bad,’ failing, and even ashamed if we don’t ‘make an effort’ or ‘make the most of ourselves.’ We must not ‘let ourselves go,’ and if we do then we have invited bad things to happen to us.

In some ways this is nothing new, especially for young women. and as the song says, “It’s your duty to be young and beautiful, if you want to be loved.” But, as beauty becomes an ethical ideal, the ideal changes. It is more dominant, even global, and what we all have to do to be ‘normal’ or ‘just good enough,’ is increasing. In a visual and virtual culture where we have to be ‘camera ready’ in public and private—all moments are selfie moments—the pressure to make the appearance grade grows. As the second chapter title and the advert says, “Life is one long catwalk.”

Your book talks about the changing perception of self. How is it changing?  

I argue in Perfect Me that we now locate ourselves in our bodies—something women especially have long done—but not just in our actual body (which we often regard as flawed and failing), but in our transforming bodies (which are full of potential and promise), and our imagined perfect self (the end point of the body project). We are all these selves and part of the reason we are so committed to attaining the body beautiful is that we have invested in the imagined self. In a very real sense this is our self and we imagine our perfect me as an active me, where the beautiful me will have attained all kind of goods along with an improved appearance. The imagined self is a doing self: we picture ourselves looking a certain way, in our ideal job, loved, and happy. Increasingly, how we look is a direct proxy for who and what we are. We used to think self-improvement was character work (being more honest or helpful) now we think its body work (being thinner or fitter). We can clearly see this change in New Year’s resolutions. At the turn of the 20th century a resolution might be ‘to think before speaking,’ whereas now they are standardly ‘to go to the gym and stick to my diet.’

Given how invested we are in the self as our body—actual, transforming, and imagined—traditional suggestions that we simply stop engaging and reject beauty practices and the body are outdated, naive, divide women from each other, and simply don’t work. If we want to address the harms of beauty practices—and there are some exceptional risky practices around; body image anxiety is a global epidemic—we have to understand just how much they matter to us and why. In a very real sense we are our bodies, but there is nothing ‘mere’ or trivial about being a body.

Is viewing the beauty ideal as an ethical imperative a new phenomenon? If so, how did it get started?

In one sense conforming to a beauty ideal is nothing new. Human beings have always cared about appearance in some form or another. We have always painted and adorned ourselves, and cultures which hide and deny the body are arguably even more obsessed with it than those which flaunt it. But we have never before had a global ideal which is so dominant. Because there are fewer competitor ideals it is far harder to challenge the ideal. As a result it is normalized and naturalized, and gradually, almost stealthily, the demands rise. So too does the extent to which we invest in it and regard ourselves as failed and failing when we don’t live up to it.

In our ever more visual and virtual culture where we have to be ‘camera ready’ at all times and places, and where we believe beauty success will make us successful in other areas, the ethical nature of the ideal will only increase. Beauty and goodness have often gone together, but now they have become almost identical in our collective imagination.

What do you think of the strides that plus-sized models are making in the fashion industry and how is that related to the beauty ideal?

In the last chapter—“Beauty without the Beast”—I consider possible ways to counter the bleak future to which we are moving in which appearance matters most, extensive body modification is required, and all are anxious and failing. Celebrating diverse bodies—bodies of all shapes and sizes—is to be welcomed. However, I am not sure how much the move to embracing plus-sized models is really different or if it’s just a variant on a theme. Plus-sized models may be fatter than other models but they still conform in other ways. They have curves in the right places—not the wrong ones—and are firm, smooth and young. So while big, they are also beautiful; they are not big and hairy and have cellulite and jowls. So yes plus-sized models are a step in the right direction, but they are still—obviously—all about appearance. We need to find a way to embrace our bodies—our embodied selves—but also to recognize that what we think and do matters, as well as how we look.

In your book, you talk about the fact that as more demanding practices become the norm, more will be required of us. Have we already seen this begin to happen?

Yes we have. All kinds of beauty practices are increasingly and ‘routinely’ demanded which were not a generation ago. In the book I focus on ‘routine’ practices, particularly body hair removal, ‘de-fluffing,’ which is now regarded by very many as required to be ‘normal.’ Indeed so far has this gone that body hair, including pubic hair, if often regarded as ‘dirty,’ ‘disgusting,’ and even ‘unnatural.’ This kind of double think about what is natural is particularly revealing. Only in a dominant (and I argue globally dominant) ideal can what is in fact ‘unnatural’ be regarded as ‘natural.’ This is very different from previous beauty ideals.

The normalization of ‘routine’ beauty practices extends to many beauty practices and across cultures. Hairlessness and smoothness are global demands and met by a mixture of practices; including waxing, shaving, threading, skin-lightening, tanning, and the daily application of lotions and potions. In some areas more extreme practices are already required, for instance, Botox and lip fillers are increasingly normalized. Even the most extreme practices of cosmetic surgery are regarded as normal and required, for example, in Brazil and South Korea. I see no reason to think that this trend will not continue to spread—only limited by what women can afford—to a future where dramatic body modification is expected and aspired to.

What do you hope that readers will take away from reading your book?

I expect readers will take very many things from Perfect Me. I hope the four key claims—that beauty is functioning as an ethical ideal, that the beauty ideal is more dominant, demanding, and global, that the self is located in the actual, transforming, and imagined body and that old explanations don’t work, beauty choices are not ‘freely chosen,’ but nor are they coerced or gendered exploitation—will resonate within and beyond academia. We need to think differently about the future we want. We are embodied beings and we need to own and celebrate our bodies, but reject embracing damaging and unrealistic beauty ideals. It is not true to say ‘it’s the inside that counts’—and our daughters know this—but nor do we want to end up with only the outside counting. I hope Perfect Me shows just how serious beauty ideals and engagement are. It is defining of who and what human beings are—it is not trivial or unimportant. If we are to address the harmful trends—such as the epidemic of body anxiety—we need to recognize the moral features of the beauty ideal.

Heather Widdows is the John Ferguson Professor of Global Ethics in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Birmingham. Her books include Global Ethics: An Introduction, The Connected Self: The Ethics and Governance of the Genetic Individual, and The Moral Vision of Iris Murdoch.

Bird Fact Friday: the Caracaras of Chile

Adapted from page 136 of Birds of Chile:

Caracas are primal falcons of the New World that walk and run confidently, and are often social and noisy. The Chimango Caracara is common in Central Chile, and lives in open, lightly wooded country, farmland, towns and dumps. They often live in groups– sometime these groups will consist of 100s of falcons. These birds typically perch on trees and posts, but rarely on wires. They are agile and aerobatic while flying. Their calls are varied screeches, screams, and mewing noises, often in a series. Juvenile falcons lack broad, dark tail band. 

A Chimango Caracara.

Mountain Caracaras live in Northern and Central Chile, and, as their name suggests, are frequently found in the mountains. But they also inhabit bogs, lakeshore, cliffs, and even around buildings. They live in small groups, but can also be found on their own. Their flight is strong and aerobatic, at times tumbling in updrafts. Their call is a rough, bleating rattle with hissing shrieks, heard infrequently. 

Next, there is the White-throated Caracara, found in South Chile. They are uncommon in the Andes of Magallanes, north of Aysén. They inhabit lightly wooded areas and farmland. Their call is a rough, rasping rrowh and a bleating mehr, made slightly or in series. The juveniles’ call is shrieker, like a miehr

Finally, the Southern Crested Caracara is fairly common in the Tierra del Fuego, which is north of Los Lagos. They are scarce in Central Chile, and become more numerous northward, along the coast of Coquimbo. They typically live in open country, from the desert to farmland, and inhabit forest edge and clearings. They typically stay in pairs, small groups, or even on their own. They fly with  steady, strong wind-beats and short glides. They are quiet– when interacting, they make low rattles or growls. 

To see photos of all these caracaras, head to our Instagram.

Birds of Chile
A Photo Guide
By Steve N. G. Howell & Fabrice Schmitt

This is the first modern-style photographic field guide to the birds of Chile, an increasingly popular destination with birders and naturalists. Compact and easy to carry, pack, and use, Birds of Chile is ideal for curious naturalists and experienced birders alike, providing everything anyone needs to identify the birds they see. Clear photographs and brief, facing-page species accounts highlight what to look for and how to quickly identify species. The photos include both close-ups and birds-in-habitat images to further aid real-life identification. An introduction and maps provide an overview of Chile’s geographic regions and their distinctive birdlife. Birds of Chile is also a great resource for birding in nearby countries, especially Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru.

  • The first field-friendly photographic guide to the birds of Chile
  • More than 1,000 real-life photos and brief, facing-page text make bird identification easy
  • Overview and maps describe the distinct bird regions of Chile
  • Perfect for curious naturalists and experienced birders alike
  • Compact and easy to carry and pack
  • Also a great resource for birding in Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru

 

Emma Morgan on the London Book Fair 2018

by PUP International Rights Assistant Emma Morgan

LBF2018 was my first year attending the three-day London Book Fair on the Princeton University Press team, and it was also our biggest book fair yet, with 19 members of staff in attendance. Our team at the fair this year included staff from all three of our offices—in Princeton, Woodstock, and Beijing. We were excited to have the opportunity to meet with partners from around the world.

If you attended the book fair, you likely walked past our stand; we were located this year directly in front of a main entrance in the good company of publishers such as Taylor & Francis and Wiley. We hope that you visited the stand to say hello, though with our Rights team heavily booked-up with meetings across the three days of the fair, there was little time to stop!

The book fair represented an opportunity to meet with our key partners, sub-agents, and publishers who regularly license and translate our titles, but also gave us the chance to meet with new potential partners. We held around 85 meetings over the three days, and built on the relationships which are so important to us throughout the year. New partnerships included markets such as Turkey, Russia, and Spain. For me personally, it was also my first opportunity to meet with several members of the Princeton team from the US.

Our Rights Guide was carefully curated for the book fair to highlight some titles which we felt were well-suited to translation, although we still regularly see publishers attend having found titles we never expected in our seasonal catalogues. Some of the titles we saw considerable interest for at the book fair included Sir Martin Rees’s On the Future and Edward B. Burger’s Making Up Your Own Mind. Many publishers were intrigued by the prospect of the mirror-image and upside-down chapters in the latter, and to hear of another strong list of science titles from Princeton.

While there is usually lots of news from the London Book Fair about big deals signed and rights sold, we typically see the majority of our deals done in the weeks and months after the fair. It’s always interesting to see how some markets will decide within a few days that they want a book, and others take until the next book fair, or even longer, to decide. Several of our partners commented on the range of titles we had to show on the stand, and there were lots of compliments for the covers, in particular Anthony Zee’s On Gravity, Jerry Z. Muller’s The Tyranny of Metrics and Vladimir Nabokov’s Insomniac Dreams.

Away from the PUP stand, there were seminars and talks on a variety of subjects, as well LBFas the opportunity to be photographed at the U.S. President’s desk as part of the promotion for the Bill Clinton and James Patterson title, The President is Missing. The Book Fair selected for the Market Focus the publishing industries of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia, and we were interested to gather some information on these markets.

The Book Fairs represent an opportunity to hear from our agents and publishing partners about their markets, both the positive and the negative. While many territories continue to struggle with financial and political issues, there is also broadly cause for optimism, with reports in the UK that the sale of print books is up for the second year in a row. Also, we were interested to gather information from our partners on the rise in audio books, which have seen great increases in the UK and which the International Rights team have been working on since June last year.

After attending the Book Fair in 2017 as a student, I had some idea of what was involved, but being able to sit in on meetings with past and future partners of PUP from around the world emphasised the international recognition of our scholarship and its value. The range of titles which publishers were interested in, both in our upcoming titles and far back in our catalogues, is something I see every day in answering queries from publishers and agents, but the enthusiasm and the value that is placed on our scholarship by publishers from around the world was something I was very glad to see first-hand.

Plants That Kill: Cycads

Adapted from pages 188-189 of Plants That Kill:

The cycads are a group of slow-growing tropical and subtropical palm-like trees that have barely changed since before the time of the dinosaurs – cycad fossils date back to the Late Palaeozoic era, 290–265 million years ago. Their resistance to hurricanes and droughts is part of the reason for their continued survival to the present day. Over the centuries, humans have used cycads for food and medicine, but the toxins they contain mean they have to be processed before they are consumed. Even then, there can be long-term consequences.

Crown of the sago cycad (Cycas revoluta), with a head of developing seeds attached to small leaf-like structures, and surrounded by rigid palm-like leaves up to 1.5 m (5 ft) long. Photo credit: Shutterstock, JT888.

The sago cycad (Cycas revoluta), a member of one of the two families of cycad (Cycadaceae, the other one being Zamiaceae), is often called the ‘sago palm’ but should not be confused with the true sago palm (Metroxylon sagu) in the palm family (Arecaceae). Native to Japan, it is probably the most widely cultivated cycad. Various parts of this and other cycads are eaten by humans, usually when other crops have been destroyed by natural disasters or as a stop-gap during seasonal shortages, but also as a staple part of the traditional diet in many regions. The young leaves may be eaten as a vegetable, but it is the seeds and also the stem pith that are most often used as they, after a long detoxification process, provide a flour with a high starch content.

When Europeans first encountered cycads during their voyages of discovery, they were unaware of their toxicity. During Captain James Cook’s first voyage to Australia in 1770, the botanist Joseph Banks noticed that several crew members became violently ill after eating nuts from Cycas media, and General Jan Smuts and his troops fell foul of the breadpalm (Encephalartos longifolius, Zamiaceae) during the Boer War. In Honduras, it has been documented that the roots of camotillo (Zamia furfuracea, Zamiaceae) were used in unlawful poisonings. Improper processing of cycad plants before consumption, either as a food or traditional remedy, leaves the azoxymethanol glycosides they contain at toxic levels and is now the usual cause of acute poisoning. A second toxin, beta-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), which is particularly concentrated in the seeds and root nodules, is not removed by the processing, but only takes effect if the plant is eaten on repeated occasions. 

Plants That Kill: A Natural History of the World’s Most Poisonous Plants
By Elizabeth A. Dauncey & Sonny Larsson

This richly illustrated book provides an in-depth natural history of the most poisonous plants on earth, covering everything from the lethal effects of hemlock and deadly nightshade to the uses of such plants in medicine, ritual, and chemical warfare.

Featuring hundreds of color photos and diagrams throughout, Plants That Kill explains how certain plants evolved toxicity to deter herbivores and other threats and sheds light on their physiology and the biochemistry involved in the production of their toxins. It discusses the interactions of poisonous plants with other organisms–particularly humans—and explores the various ways plant toxins can target the normal functioning of bodily systems in mammals, from the effects of wolfsbane on the heart to toxins that cause a skin reaction when combined with the sun’s rays. This intriguing book also looks at plants that can harm you only if your exposure to them is prolonged, the ethnobotany of poisons throughout human history, and much more.

A must for experts and armchair botanists alike, Plants That Kill is the essential illustrated compendium to these deadly and intriguing plants.

  • Provides an authoritative natural history of the most poisonous plants on earth
  • Features hundreds of color illustrations throughout
  • Looks at how and why plants produce toxins
  • Describes the effects of numerous poisonous plants, from hemlock and deadly nightshade to poppies and tobacco
  • Explains poisonous plants’ evolution, survival strategies, physiology, and biochemistry
  • Discusses the uses of poisonous plants in medicine, rituals, warfare, and more

Insect of the Week: the Darkest Fireflies

Bioluminescence lights up the larval stage in every member of this beetle family (Lampyridae), but adult fireflies have evolved remarkably diverse ways to find mates. Summertime icons that fill the night with their flashy courtship displays, the lightning bug fireflies might be the most spectacular. Yet many fireflies lose their bioluminescent spark once they become adults. These dark fireflies are active during the daytime, and females emit chemical signals to attract males. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that the common ancestor of all fireflies also had nonluminous adults. Though they are often overlooked, today these dark fireflies can be found coast-to-coast across the United States and Canada. Two groups of dark fireflies are particularly common. Once you learn to recognize them, you will see them everywhere!

A Lucidota atra firefly. Photo credit: Molly Jacobsen

Ellychnia includes a dozen or so different species with nonluminous adults. These dark fireflies are close cousins to the Photinus lightning bugs, but they have evolved a radically different lifestyle. Sometimes called Winter Fireflies, the adults spend the winter wedged down into grooves on tree trunks. They prefer trees with deeply furrowed bark, and dozens are often seen congregating on a single tree. After hunkering down for several months, surviving snow and freezing temperatures, Ellychnia adults are among the first insects to become active in the spring. Mating takes place in late March and April, when these hardy beetles can be seen flying slowly through wooded areas. Mating pairs, attached tail-to-tail, are commonly seen on tree trunks, where they remain coupled for 12 hours or more. It has been proposed that Ellychnia, which evolved from a nocturnal, Photinus-like ancestor, shifted to become day-active to escape night-time hunters like the predatory Photuris fireflies.

Lucidota atra is another day-flying, non-luminous firefly, and these adults are simply stunning. They are also easy to identify with their jet black wing covers, brightly colored head shield and flattened, saw-toothed antennae. These dark fireflies are commonly seen in early summer as they fly slowly, just a few feet above the ground, across lawns, fields, and forests. Experiments done by Jim Lloyd in the 1970s revealed that Lucidota females release pheromones that are carried on the wind, creating an invisible plume. Males seek out females by flying slowly back and forth until they encounter a plume, then fly upwind until they reach the female. The chemical nature of the female pheromone remains unknown.

 

Sara Lewis, who has been captivated by fireflies for nearly three decades, is a professor in the Department of Biology at Tufts University. Her work has been featured in numerous publications, including the New York Times, Scientific American, and USA Today. Lewis lives with her husband in Watertown, Massachusetts.

silent sparksSilent Sparks
The Wondrous World of Fireflies

For centuries, the beauty of fireflies has evoked wonder and delight. Yet for most of us, fireflies remain shrouded in mystery: How do fireflies make their light? What are they saying with their flashing? And what do fireflies look for in a mate? In Silent Sparks, noted biologist and firefly expert Sara Lewis dives into the fascinating world of fireflies and reveals the most up-to-date discoveries about these beloved insects. From the meadows of New England and the hills of the Great Smoky Mountains, to the rivers of Japan and mangrove forests of Malaysia, this beautifully illustrated and accessible book uncovers the remarkable, dramatic stories of birth, courtship, romance, sex, deceit, poison, and death among fireflies.

The nearly two thousand species of fireflies worldwide have evolved in different ways—and while most mate through the aerial language of blinking lights, not all do. Lewis introduces us to fireflies that don’t light up at all, relying on wind-borne perfumes to find mates, and we encounter glow-worm fireflies, whose plump, wingless females never fly. We go behind the scenes to meet inquisitive scientists who have dedicated their lives to understanding fireflies, and we learn about various modern threats including light pollution and habitat destruction. In the last section of the book, Lewis provides a field guide for North American fireflies, enabling us to identify them in our own backyards and neighborhoods. This concise, handy guide includes distinguishing features, habits, and range maps for the most commonly encountered fireflies, as well as a gear list.

A passionate exploration of one of the world’s most charismatic and admired insects, Silent Sparks will inspire us to reconnect with the natural world.

Paul Tucker on Unelected Power: The Quest for Legitimacy in Central Banking and the Regulatory State

TuckerCentral bankers have emerged from the financial crisis as the third great pillar of unelected power alongside the judiciary and the military. They pull the regulatory and financial levers of our economic well-being, yet unlike democratically elected leaders, their power does not come directly from the people. Unelected Power lays out the principles needed to ensure that central bankers, technocrats, regulators, and other agents of the administrative state remain stewards of the common good and do not become overmighty citizens. Like it or not, unelected power has become a hallmark of modern government. This critically important book shows how to harness it to the people’s purposes.

What is the regulatory state?

It’s a term that has come to be used to describe a host of government bodies that regulate particular economic sectors or the public more generally to protect, say, investors, the environment, consumers, workers, and so on. In a rudimentary form it has existed for a long time, going back to the 19th century and beyond. Going wider, Americans sometimes refer to the administrative state, meaning the evolution of government beyond a world of legislators and courts to one in which the executive branch makes policy and is divided up into departments, agencies, bureaus, commissions, and so on.

What are Independent agencies, and why do they matter?

They are government organizations that are not under the day-to-day control of elected politicians, whether in the executive branch or the legislature. Obvious examples today are the central banks, such as the Federal Reserve, European Central Bank, and the Bank of England, but also various regulators insulated from ongoing political control. By no means all agencies in the administrative state are independent. On both sides of the Atlantic, many are under the control of cabinet ministers or subject to annual budget approvals from the legislature, which makes them sensitive to politicians’ sentiments and whims. Independent agencies are distinctive in that politicians can control them only by amending or repealing legislation.

That sounds problematic in a democracy. Is it?

That’s the point of the book. The way I’ve just described them it could be a hell of a problem. Imagine an independent agency that had lots of powers but only the vaguest purpose and objective. Who would be able to tell whether it had succeeded in its mission if it set its own goal posts?! That’s at odds with some of our deepest values: just as “no taxation without representation” was a rallying cry a couple of centuries’ ago, we might just as well demand “no regulation without representation.”

Are central banks a particular problem?

They have become the poster boys and girls of today’s unelected power. Compared with what happened after the Great Depression in the 1930s, when it was politicians who did the heavy lifting, this time it has been central banks that have led the way in reviving the economy and redesigning the financial system. They have used their balance sheets on a truly gigantic scale to influence credit conditions in lots of markets, and have been given lots of new regulatory powers. They are more powerful than ever before, ranking with the judiciary and military as a third core pillar of unelected power.

Do people object to all this?

Yes, but in rather different ways in different countries. In the US, since the New Deal there have been critics who object that regulatory agencies violate the values associated with the separation of powers or even the Constitution itself. In France, not long ago the parliament passed legislation to put more structure around such agencies. In the UK, there is episodic antagonism to government by ‘experts.’

And on central bank independence, there have been challenges in the German constitutional court and attempts to pass reforming legislation in the US Congress.

So what is the solution?

Our democracies need norms for whether and how to delegate to independent agencies that measure up to the deep political values of our democratic, liberal republics: the various values of democracy, rule of law, constitutionalism. My book proposes and defends just such a set of Principles for Delegation, as I call them. They come in two broad parts: criteria for whether to delegate, and precepts for how to delegate.

Criteria for whether to delegate: I argue that a policy function should not be delegated to a truly independent agency unless (1) society has settled preferences; (2) the objective is capable of being framed in a reasonably clear way; (3) delegation would materially mitigate a problem of credible commitment; and (4) the policymaker would not have to make big choices on society’s values or the distribution of its resources.

Precepts for how to delegate: (1) the agency’s purposes, objectives and powers should be clear and set by elected legislators; (2) its decision-making procedures should be set largely by legislators and should accord with the values of the rule of law; (3) the agency itself should publish the operating principles that will guide its exercise of discretion within the delegated domain; (4) there should be transparency sufficient to permit accountability to the legislature for the agency’s stewardship of the regime and, separately, for politicians’ framing of the regime; and (5) it should be clear what (if anything) will happen, procedurally and/or substantively, when the edges of the regime are reached but the agency could do more to avert or contain a crisis. 

Perhaps the biggest thing is that elected legislators should set a monitorable objective. Independent agencies really can improve the credibility of commitments made by government, but only if we know what we want them to do and can track whether or not they are doing it.

Would those Principles affect anything much?

Yes. Here are just three examples.

They would challenge the acceptability of judges completely having completely overhauled the principles of competition policy a few decades ago. The legislation was vague and the views of economists had moved on, so the courts had room and reason to act. But, given our democratic values, this should have been work for elected politicians.

They suggest that role of some financial-market regulators in preserving a stable financial system needs either to be better insulated from politics (such as the SEC in the US) or subject to much clearer objectives (UK).

And they would restrict the roles and activities of central banks rather more than we have seen in recent years.  

Is any of this realistic in actual democratic states?

Well, that’s the point of the book. There are no deep constitutional blockages, so it’s a question of whether we want to be governed in a way that’s consistent with our values. I’m hoping that people who see merit in my Principles for Delegation (or something like them) will cite many more examples than I can (or even know about), generating the kind of debate that is badly needed about how state power is allocated.

Anyway, surely something has to be done to bring the role of experts in government in line with our democratic commitments.

Why did you write the book?

I spent a good part of my central banking career helping to design regulatory and monetary regimes, none more important than the expansion of the Bank of England’s powers after the Great Financial Crisis. We resisted some powers, wanted others constrained, and had strong views on how the different responsibilities should be assigned to distinct committees so as to disperse power and focus incentives. I wanted to try to write down the values and considerations lying behind that. When I moved to Harvard in late-2013, I had the opportunity to do so.

Paul Tucker is a fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School and chair of the Systemic Risk Council. For more than thirty years, he was a central banker and regulator at the Bank of England and the Bank for International Settlements. He lives in London.