TigerTalks discuss Princeton faculty ‘Breakthrough Books’

Last month, we partnered with the Princeton Entrepreneurship Council on a TigerTalk in the New York City, featuring four PUP authors—Dalton Conley, Sir Angus Deaton, Nancy Malkiel, and Alexander Todorov—to highlight their ‘breakthrough books.’ The series brings Princeton authors to New York, connecting their ideas and their scholarship with new readers. One takeaway from the event came during the Q&A portion:

[O]ne audience member observed that inequality in one form or another seemed to be a recurring theme in each of the panelists’ research. From economic and educational inequities to genetic and physiognomic disparities, “Inequality is going to be on our agenda forever,” Deaton remarked. But the innovative insights in these books have the potential to inspire “risk-taking actions and value-creating organizations” from the ranks of entrepreneurs across the globe, who will hopefully develop solutions that continue to propel humanity forward.

To learn more about the event, the participants, and their books, visit the Princeton University website.

Conley

The Genome Factor
Dalton Conley & Jason Fletcher

Deaton

The Great Escape
Sir Angus Deaton

Malkiel

“Keep the Damned Women Out”
Nancy Malkiel

Face Value

Face Value
Alexander Todorov

Tuesday’s Trot – Arabian

From page 374 in Horses of the World:

5 things to know about the Arabian horse:

1. This is one of the most ancient breeds in the world, existing probably for three thousand years and prized for its beauty and great sporting abilities.

2. It has had an extraordinary influence on a great number of horse breeds, and has been the most used “improver” in the world.

3. The Arabian is intelligent, sensitive, lively but docile, and bold. It is easily handled, can carry heavy loads, has exceptional endurance, and is fast. It is undemanding, and lives a long time.

4. An animal forged by the desert, it can withstand high temperatures.

5. This is the endurance horse par excellence, but it is versatile and suited to many equestrian disciplines, both for recreation and competition, as well as to light harness work. There are speed races especially conceived for the Arabian.

Horses of the World
Élise Rousseau
Illustrated by Yann Le Bris
Translated by Teresa Lavender Fagan
Sample Entry

Horses of the World is a comprehensive, large-format overview of 570 breeds of domestic and extant wild horses, including hybrids between the two and between domestic breeds and other equids, such as zebras. This beautifully illustrated and detailed guide covers the origins of modern horses, anatomy and physiology, variation in breeds, and modern equestrian practices. The treatment of breeds is organized by country within broader geographical regions—from Eurasia through Australasia and to the Americas. Each account provides measurements (weight and height), distribution, origins and history, character and attributes, uses, and current status. Every breed is accompanied by superb color drawings—600 in total—and color photographs can be found throughout the book.

Describing and depicting every horse breed in existence, Horses of the World will be treasured by all who are interested in these gorgeous animals.

Big Pacific – Violent Pacific

Watch the second episode of Big Pacific, “Violent Pacific,” on your local PBS station at 8pm Eastern, Wednesday, June 28th. The companion book is now available from Princeton University Press.

Drowned Forest

The stumps of these spruce trees are remnants of the forest drowned by the 1700 earthquake

Although its name suggests calm and tranquility, the Pacific Ocean is riven by powerful natural forces: violent tropical storms, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes are common occurrences across this mighty ocean. The ocean sits within the Ring of Fire, a zone of intense tectonic activity where multiple plates meet, grinding and driving against each other with sometimes cataclysmic results. Running in a horseshoe shape from New Zealand along the western Pacific to the Aleutians and back down the western coast of the Americas, the Ring of Fire is home to 90% of the world’s earthquakes. All but three of the 25 largest volcanic eruptions in the last 12000 years have occurred in the Ring of Fire, the eruptions of Tambora and Krakatoa among them. The power and destructiveness of these eruptions and quakes is monumental—in 1700 an earthquake in Cascadia caused the coastline to drop by as much as ten feet in a matter of seconds, instantly submerging wide swathes of forest beneath the water. The shockwave took only ten hours to cross the thousands of miles of ocean to reach the coast of Japan in the form of a massive tsunami.

humpback whales

The long pectoral fins of the humpback whale can be used as weapons by battling males.

The life of animals in the Pacific can be no less violent. The struggle for survival manifests both as competition within species, and between species. It is easy to think of humpback whales as placid animals, drifting through the ocean in search of the minuscule plankton on which they feed. Their mournful song is a cliché of New Age relaxation tapes. But competition between male humpbacks over females often turns to battle: during their “heat run” contending males will swipe each other with their long pectoral fins, ram each other, and even breach the surface of the ocean to land on each other. Despite the huge bulk of these animals, mature males weighing in at up to 36 tonnes, they can move surprisingly quickly, reaching speeds of 18 miles an hour. The impact of their collisions is comparable to that of fully-loaded eighteen wheeler trucks. The victorious male earns the right to mate with the female.

Shedao Island pit viper

A Shedao Island pit viper claims another victim

But the archetypal struggle in the animal kingdom is that between predator and prey. Evolutionary adaption has made the predators at the top of the food chain near-perfect killers. The Shedao Island pit viper is found only on one tiny island in the Yellow Sea off the coast of China, where it has so effectively dominated the ecosystem that it is estimated that there is one viper for every square meter of land on the island. The sole source of food for these snakes is migratory birds: twice a year, in spring and fall, birds use Shedao Island as a staging post on the journey to and from their breeding grounds in Siberia. These two six-week periods are the only point in the year at which the viper eats. Motionless and near invisible on the branches of a tree, the viper waits for a bird to land. Its strike is near instantaneous and its victim quickly succumbs to the snake’s powerful venom. The viper will slowly swallow its meal whole, then seek another; it must consume several birds to survive the long fast between migrations.

Discover more of the violent side of the Pacific in Wednesday’s episode of Big Pacific.

Summer Vacation: Archaeologist-style

by Eric Cline

Each summer in June, the annual migration of archaeologists begins. Summertime is when most university excavations take place, because the academics that run them are on summer vacation, as are the post-grads and graduate students who make up the staff. The undergraduate students and the volunteers from all walks of life, most of them checking off an item on their bucket list, are similarly free, or are at least able to take their vacation days to participate for a few days or even a week or two.

In a few days, I’ll be heading for our dig at Tel Kabri, located in northern Israel, where we are excavating a Canaanite palace dating back almost four thousand years, with the oldest and largest wine cellar yet found in the ancient Near East. We’ll have about a dozen staff members and almost seventy volunteers (or team members, as we call them) working over the course of six weeks, and we’re on the small side—some digs have closer to two hundred team members who participate over the course of a single season.

Each team member covers the costs of their room and board, as well as their round trip airfare, for the opportunity to participate in what will be, for most of them, a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity. Some will enjoy it so much that they return the next season; others will be glad to return home after realizing that it involves much more dirt, sweat, and labor that is both much more intensive (think picks, shovels, and wheelbarrows) and painstaking (think dental tools and small brushes) than they ever expected.

The day will begin at 4:45 am, when the team members board the bus that will take them from the field school where we live to the site, which is located about ten minutes away. Retrieving our tools from the storage unit—which is essentially an old railway car minus the wheels—we are digging by 5:00 am, while it is still chilly enough to wish for a sweatshirt or fleece jacket, but those are soon shed as the temperature climbs and perspiration creates damp patches on t-shirts and tank tops.

The first potsherds appear almost as soon as the first pickaxes dig into the soil and are tossed into a plastic bucket; much later, in the afternoon, they will be washed and laid out to dry, so that the experts in the staff can examine and date them, based on a variety of characteristics including color, tempering, decoration, and so on. Our sherds indicate that we are digging in levels from the Middle Bronze Age, dating to the 18th through 16th centuries BC.

Soon a patch of plaster appears in one trench and trowels and patishes—small hand picks—replace the larger pickaxes, as more delicate work is now necessary. The potsherds continue to appear—for each ancient vessel shatters into dozens of pieces when it breaks, all of which remain to be found, for they are non-biodegradable once fired in a kiln. The pottery buckets fill up at an astonishing pace, to the eventual chagrin of the team members, who know they will have to wash each piece separately and by hand that afternoon.

Eventually, after what seems an eternity, a half-hour break is called at 8:00 am, so that staff and team members alike can fill their growling stomachs with eggs, cheese, tuna, tomatoes, and/or chocolate spread on large rolls. The largest line is for coffee, with team members working in different areas of the site good-naturedly exchanging details of their morning’s activities and discoveries with each other.

Soon enough the breakfast break is over and the team members will return to their areas, working until 1:00 pm before climbing back on board the bus and returning to the field school for a hot lunch and a few hours of free time. Most will nap in their air conditioned rooms, though some will venture to the swimming pool and sunbathe, as if they hadn’t already gotten enough sun during the morning.

Late afternoon sees the pottery washing, as well as data entry on the laptop computers, and various other assorted tasks. Dinner is at 7:00 pm, followed by a lecture, for many of the students are doing this for college credit, and the older team members are simply interested in learning about the history and archaeology of the area, or the nuances of how the various specialists do their work and analyses. Lights are out by 10:30 pm, for a much-needed six hours of sleep before the whole routine begins again for another day.

To some this will seem abject misery; for me it is heaven. I’ve been doing this almost every summer for more than thirty years and it never gets old, even though I have. There is nothing else like the thrill of excavation and discovery—not knowing what you will find in the next minute, hour, day, or week. At Kabri we’ve found fragments of wall paintings, large jars that once held wine, bits and pieces of ivory, gold, and other materials, and are slowly beginning to reconstruct the life of people who once lived in this palace nearly four thousand years ago.

What will this summer bring? I have no idea, and that’s the best part about it. I’ll let you know in August what we found. What I do know is that what we are doing is fun, exciting, AND important. We, and the other teams of archaeologists who will be in the field this summer, are excavating and rescuing the remains of past civilizations—the details of our story, the human story.

 

ClineEric H. Cline is professor of classics and anthropology and director of the Capitol Archaeological Institute at George Washington University. An active archaeologist, he has excavated and surveyed in Greece, Crete, Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, and the United States. His many books include 1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed and Three Stones Make a Wall: The Story of Archaeology.

 

Eric Cline departed on his travels on June 14. Check this space for updates from the field.

Bird Fact Friday – Mashers and Gulpers

From page 163 in The New Neotropical Companion:

This Toco Toucan is plucking a fruit that it will then gulp down whole. Photo by John Kricher.

In dense interior rain forests where wind is attenuated, birds are essential for seed dispersal. There are two basic methods by which birds devour fruit. Some birds (mashers) mash up the fruit, dropping the seeds as they do, while others (gulpers) gulp the fruit whole, subsequently either regurgitating or defecating seeds. Mashers are mostly finches and tanagers, and gulpers are toucans, trogons, and manakins. Mashers appear more sensitive to taste than gulpers, showing a distinct preference for fruits rich in sugars. Gulpers swallow fruit whole and appear taste insensitive.

This Grayish Saltator is an obvious example of a masher. Photo by John Kricher.

The New Neotropical Companion
John Kricher
Chapter One

The New Neotropical Companion is the completely revised and expanded edition of a book that has helped thousands of people to understand the complex ecology and natural history of the most species-rich area on Earth, the American tropics. Featuring stunning color photos throughout, it is a sweeping and cutting-edge account of tropical ecology that includes not only tropical rain forests but also other ecosystems such as cloud forests, rivers, savannas, and mountains. This is the only guide to the American tropics that is all-inclusive, encompassing the entire region’s ecology and the amazing relationships among species rather than focusing just on species identification.

The New Neotropical Companion is a book unlike any other. Here, you will learn how to recognize distinctive ecological patterns of rain forests and other habitats and to interpret how these remarkable ecosystems function—everything is explained in clear and engaging prose free of jargon. You will also be introduced to the region’s astonishing plant and animal life.

Paul Strode: Teaching The Serengeti Rules

CarrollIn January of 2016 I was asked by Laura Bonetta at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) to write a teacher’s guide for the short film Some Animals Are More Equal than Others: Keystone Species and Trophic Cascades. At the same time, Molecular Biologist Sean B. Carroll, the HHMI Vice President of Science Education, was putting the finishing touches on his new book, The Serengeti Rules. To help expedite my research for writing the teacher’s guide for the short film, Laura sent me a pre-pub copy of the book and suggested I read Chapter Six: “Some Animals Are More Equal than Others.”

Instead of going straight to Chapter Six, I started reading from the beginning.

Before I was even halfway through the first chapter, I thought to myself, this book is going to change the way I teach. At the core of Carroll’s storytelling is the observation that everything is regulated, from molecules to megafauna. Indeed, for most of my career teaching biology I have kept my focus on Theodosius Dobzhansky’s argument that “nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution.” But Carroll has now made it clear that nothing in biology also makes sense except in the light of regulation.

To make a long story short, I wrote the short film teachers guide with the help of Chapter Six in The Serengeti Rules and immediately followed that task by reviewing the book for The American Biology Teacher so that other teachers might benefit from reading the book. In my review, I argued that The Serengeti Rules “should be required reading for students in all fields of science, but especially those pursuing careers in biology education.” My review caught the attention of Carroll’s editor at Princeton University Press, Alison Kalett. Alison was curious to know if teachers like me that planned to use Carroll’s book to enhance their biology courses would find it useful if educational supplementary materials were made available… for free. Alison and I came up with a plan and I began to write.

The Serengeti Rules came out in March of 2016 and one of Carroll’s first public discussions about the book was at the annual Professional Development Conference of the National Association of Biology Teachers in Providence, Rhode Island. Several hundred teachers showed up to hear from Dr. Carroll and it was standing room only. As word got out that supplementary materials were being prepared for Carroll’s book, inquiries began to pop up on social media.

Carroll

The Educational Supplement was released in May and is a document that a teacher can use immediately in the classroom.

Carroll

The questions come in various styles and are designed to invoke classroom discussion, require students to synthesize and connect various biological concepts, get students to engage with ecological data from the published journal articles, and have students analyze and graph data that relate to what they are reading in The Serengeti Rules. For example, the question below relates to Chapter Four of The Serengeti Rules, “Fat, Feedback, and a Miracle Fungus.” The question can be used as a formative assessment question that marries real data with the nature of science and covers several components of the Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate biology course content.

Carroll

Teachers have already begun planning to use The Serengeti Rules to enhance their courses and since the release of the supplement have expressed their gratitude that it is available and free!

Carroll

And of course, I have assigned The Serengeti Rules as summer reading for my 65 AP/IB biology students and I am looking forward to using the questions in the fall to incite discussion and enhance learning and understanding.

Thank you, Sean B. Carroll, for giving us The Serengeti Rules!

Big Pacific – Mysterious Pacific

Watch the first episode of Big Pacific, “Mysterious Pacific,” tonight on PBS at 8pm Eastern. The companion book is now available from Princeton University Press.

The scale of the Pacific Ocean is almost incomprehensible. This single body of water covers a greater area than all six continents combined; its deepest point, the Marianas Trench, lies far further below the surface than the summit of Everest stands above it. Much of this vast realm is unexplored, inaccessible to the human eye, and even the shallow waters with which we are familiar are home to many strange and mysterious things.

Horseshoe Crab

The horseshoe crab – one of the planet’s “living fossils”

Among them are species that predate humankind, and indeed all mammals, by hundreds of millions of years. The four species of horseshoe crabs are the last remaining members of a family that first appears in the fossil record some 450 million years ago. Horseshoe crabs are not true crabs, being more closely related to arachnids such as spiders and scorpions. Despite their long tenure on this planet, horseshoe crab populations are in decline. Pollution, overfishing, and development along the Pacific shorelines where they mate are all taking a toll on these living fossils, and efforts are underway to protect them and improve their survival rate.

Nan Madol

The abandoned city of Nan Madol

Even the short span of human history presents enigmas. Off the eastern shore of the Micronesian island of Pohnpei lies the magnificent complex of Nan Madol. Comprised of over ninety artificial islets linked by a network of canals, Nan Madol is thought to have been home to the political and religious elite of Pohnpei. Construction of the complex was a monumental task: some 750,000 tonnes of black basalt were transported from the far side of Pohnpei to build monumental structures with walls up to 49 feet in height and 16 feet in thickness. More remarkable still, it seems to have been achieved without even the benefit of simple machines such as pulleys or levers—the building methods used remain unknown. Despite the enormous efforts that went into the building of Nan Madol in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the site was abandoned in the sixteenth century after the Saudeleur dynasty was toppled by invasion from without. Today it is a UNESCO heritage site.

Pufferfish circle

The tiny white spotted pufferfish at the center of his circle

Recent years have brought to light a smaller but no less fascinating construction project. In 1995 divers off the coast of Japan noticed unusual circular patterns in the seabed. Formed too perfectly to be the work of chance, these circles featured concentric rings of sand with furrows radiating from the central point like the spokes of a bicycle wheel. It was not until nearly twenty years later, in 2013, that the mysterious architect of these circles was identified. Despite the scale of the circles, up to six feet in diameter, they are the work of a species of small pufferfish, only a few inches in length. The male pufferfish works diligently, fanning the sand with his fins or using his body to shovel it aside, in order to construct his circle, which he then maintains carefully in the hope of attracting a mate. Even if he is successful in doing so, the female pufferfish does not stick around to admire his homemaking skills—having laid her eggs, she quickly departs leaving the male to care for and defend them.

With the vast depths of the Pacific largely unexplored, we can be sure that it has many more mysteries to offer us.

Watch the trailer to learn more.

Tuesday’s Trot – Shetland Pony

From page 34 in Horses of the World:

5 things to know about the Shetland Pony:

1. The Shetland Pony is one of the smallest breeds in the world, with such a particular look that it can’t be confused with any other breed. The winter coat is very thick and very long, giving it the look of a big stuffed animal.

2. Its origins are largely unknown, but it is extremely ancient, probably the direct descendant of primitive Celtic ponies.

3. Due to its isolation, it has not undergone crossbreeding. Its small size is the result of natural selection in a difficult environment, and of good adaptation to the cold and vegetation that offers little nutrition.

4. It has excellent endurance and is powerful for its size, capable of pulling and transporting heavy loads.

5. Of exceptional rusticity, this hardy pony has a tendency to get fat quickly, which is dangerous for its health.

Horses of the World
Élise Rousseau
Illustrated by Yann Le Bris
Translated by Teresa Lavender Fagan
Sample Entry

Horses of the World is a comprehensive, large-format overview of 570 breeds of domestic and extant wild horses, including hybrids between the two and between domestic breeds and other equids, such as zebras. This beautifully illustrated and detailed guide covers the origins of modern horses, anatomy and physiology, variation in breeds, and modern equestrian practices. The treatment of breeds is organized by country within broader geographical regions—from Eurasia through Australasia and to the Americas. Each account provides measurements (weight and height), distribution, origins and history, character and attributes, uses, and current status. Every breed is accompanied by superb color drawings—600 in total—and color photographs can be found throughout the book.

Describing and depicting every horse breed in existence, Horses of the World will be treasured by all who are interested in these gorgeous animals.

Francisco Bethencourt: Exhibition ‘Racism and Citizenship’

Exhibition ‘Racism and Citizenship’, Padrão dos Descobrimentos, Lisbon
6th May to 3rd September 2017
Curator: Francisco Bethencourt, Charles Boxer Professor, King’s College London,
and author of Racisms: From the Crusades to the Twentieth Century

When Racisms: From the Crusades to the Twentieth Century was translated into Portuguese I was invited by the director of Padrão dos Descobrimentos to organize an exhibition on that subject there. The monument had been created in 1960 by the Salazar regime to commemorate Portuguese overseas exploration and colonialism, obviously ignoring the suffering inflicted on other people. I immediately accepted the challenge to transform a comprehensive book into an exhibition naturally based on images and focusing on the Portuguese case. I needed an argument, a narrative, and a structure.

I decided to focus this exhibition on two interlinked realities: racism, understood as prejudice against those of different ethnic origins, combined with discriminatory actions; and citizenship, seen as the right to live, work, and participate in the political life of a country, equally involving duties and responsibilities. The tension between exclusion and integration lies at the heart of this exhibition. I invite viewers to reflect on various historical realities and recent developments, with the help of objects—paintings, sculptures, engravings, shackles, manillas, ceramics, posters, photographs, and videos. Images are presented in a crude way, but they also reveal subtle contradictions, hinting at what lies beyond outward appearances.

The exhibition is arranged into two parts, early modern and modern, and six sections: a) the hostility towards Jews and Moors living in medieval Portugal, which was renewed after forced conversions; b) a focus on people of African origin who were enslaved and transported to Portugal, Brazil, and Asia; c) the representations of native peoples of the New World and Asia, which led to the first European conception of a hierarchy of the world’s people; d) the Portuguese colonies, where slave labor was replaced by forced labor; e) the contradictory realities of the 20th century, in the colonies and Portugal alike; f) the dynamics involved in the attempt to repair the fractures in the contemporary and post-colonial period.

Racism was always confronted with informal forms of integration, which became predominant in the postcolonial period. The assertion of citizenship followed the Revolution of April 1974 and the independence of the colonies in 1975. It is a new period, still under the shadow of informal racism, but in which new values of legal equality have been supported by the state. The anti-racist norm became a reality, still to be systematically implemented. The last section of the exhibition shows the recent work of Portuguese and African artists, who use colonial memory to reflect on new issues of collective identity.

During the period under consideration, Muslim expulsion took place, as did the forced conversion of Jewish people, the slave trade, the colonization of territories in Africa, America and Asia, the abolition of slavery, decolonization, and immigration.

The exhibition aims to encourage the public to question past and present relations between peoples, combining emigration with immigration, exclusion and integration, lack of rights and access to citizenship.

BethencourtFrancisco Bethencourt is the Charles Boxer Professor of History at King’s College London, and the author of The Inquisition: A Global History, 1478–1834.

Steven and Ben Nadler: Happy Father’s Day

by Ben Nadler

Nadler

It’s now been two years since I began a collaboration with my dad, a philosophy professor, on a graphic book. He was wanting to do a philosophy book that would reach a wide readership, especially high school and college students, and I was fresh out of art school and looking for something big to do. When he suggested we do a project together, I didn’t hesitate at all. With his knowledge of seventeenth-century philosophy and my training in illustration, we could do something really original and exciting. Although he was in Madison, Wisconsin, and I was living in Seattle, we were able to work through hundreds of emails and phone calls. He would send me the text for the book, and I’d give him some comments and suggestions on what seemed to work and what didn’t. Then I would send him my pencil sketches and he would give me feedback as I tried to make these philosophers and their abstract ideas into a visually engaging and philosophically and historically informative story. Now, when people ask me what it was like working with my dad, it is hard to come up with even one example of friction or disagreement that took place during the process. We are both really happy with the final result, a 200-page graphic book that makes seventeenth-century philosophy—perhaps the most important and fascinating period in the history of philosophy—accessible and entertaining. In addition to having this book to show for our work, which I am incredibly proud of, I now have a far greater understanding of what my dad does for a living. And because he has an understanding of what it is about comics I find so compelling, we’re even closer now than before we worked together.

 

NadlerSteven Nadler is the William H. Hay II Professor of Philosophy and Evjue-Bascom Professor in the Humanities at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. His books include Spinoza: A Life, which won the Koret Jewish Book Award, and Rembrandt’s Jews, which was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize. He lives in Madison. Ben Nadler is a graduate of the Rhode Island School of Design and an illustrator. He lives in Chicago. Follow him on Instagram at @bennadlercomics. They are the author and illustrator of Heretics!: The Wondrous (and Dangerous) Beginnings of Modern Philosophy.