Firefly Fact Friday – How fireflies are beautiful—and useful

Just in time for Firefly Fact Friday, a new adapted excerpt from Silent Sparks over at Ideas.Ted.com tells us how fireflies can actually be beneficial to the health of humans:

Firefly light isn’t just useful to fireflies. Before electricity, of course, firefly light had many uses. I’ve heard oldsters around the world tell stories about gathering fireflies to use at night for reading, for biking and for walking along forest paths. But scientific discoveries about the chemistry behind firefly bioluminescence have paved the way for even wider practical applications. Fireflies’ light-producing talent has provided invaluable tools for improving public health, for facilitating innovative research, and for advancing medical knowledge.

Lewis goes on to describe how the food industry has long used fireflies’ light reaction to detect food contamination, and have also helped scientists develop new forms of noninvasive imaging to see what’s happening inside living organisms.

Read the full piece online

Silent Sparks
The Wondrous World of Fireflies
Sara Lewis

LewisFor centuries, the beauty of fireflies has evoked wonder and delight. Yet for most of us, fireflies remain shrouded in mystery: How do fireflies make their light? What are they saying with their flashing? And what do fireflies look for in a mate? In Silent Sparks, noted biologist and firefly expert Sara Lewis dives into the fascinating world of fireflies and reveals the most up-to-date discoveries about these beloved insects. From the meadows of New England and the hills of the Great Smoky Mountains, to the rivers of Japan and mangrove forests of Malaysia, this beautifully illustrated and accessible book uncovers the remarkable, dramatic stories of birth, courtship, romance, sex, deceit, poison, and death among fireflies.

The nearly two thousand species of fireflies worldwide have evolved in different ways—and while most mate through the aerial language of blinking lights, not all do. Lewis introduces us to fireflies that don’t light up at all, relying on wind-borne perfumes to find mates, and we encounter glow-worm fireflies, whose plump, wingless females never fly. We go behind the scenes to meet inquisitive scientists who have dedicated their lives to understanding fireflies, and we learn about various modern threats including light pollution and habitat destruction. In the last section of the book, Lewis provides a field guide for North American fireflies, enabling us to identify them in our own backyards and neighborhoods. This concise, handy guide includes distinguishing features, habits, and range maps for the most commonly encountered fireflies, as well as a gear list.

A passionate exploration of one of the world’s most charismatic and admired insects, Silent Sparks will inspire us to reconnect with the natural world.

For more information, visit Sara Lewis’s website! To check out some cool firefly videos, find her on Vimeo.

Firefly Fact Friday – Energy Efficient Bugs

This week’s Firefly Fact is from Sara Lewis, author of Silent Sparks:

Fireflies make their light with higher efficiency than any other bioluminescent creature. Although often quoted as nearly 100%, recent measurements of quantum yield estimate fireflies’ efficiency to be closer to 40% (Niwa et al. 2010). This means that 4 photons of light get emitted for every 10 luciferin molecules chemically transformed. Compared to the typical incandescent light bulb, which shines with efficiency only around 10%, this is still quite impressive.

Silent Sparks: The Wondrous World of Fireflies
Sara Lewis

LewisFor centuries, the beauty of fireflies has evoked wonder and delight. Yet for most of us, fireflies remain shrouded in mystery: How do fireflies make their light? What are they saying with their flashing? And what do fireflies look for in a mate? In Silent Sparks, noted biologist and firefly expert Sara Lewis dives into the fascinating world of fireflies and reveals the most up-to-date discoveries about these beloved insects. From the meadows of New England and the hills of the Great Smoky Mountains, to the rivers of Japan and mangrove forests of Malaysia, this beautifully illustrated and accessible book uncovers the remarkable, dramatic stories of birth, courtship, romance, sex, deceit, poison, and death among fireflies.

The nearly two thousand species of fireflies worldwide have evolved in different ways—and while most mate through the aerial language of blinking lights, not all do. Lewis introduces us to fireflies that don’t light up at all, relying on wind-borne perfumes to find mates, and we encounter glow-worm fireflies, whose plump, wingless females never fly. We go behind the scenes to meet inquisitive scientists who have dedicated their lives to understanding fireflies, and we learn about various modern threats including light pollution and habitat destruction. In the last section of the book, Lewis provides a field guide for North American fireflies, enabling us to identify them in our own backyards and neighborhoods. This concise, handy guide includes distinguishing features, habits, and range maps for the most commonly encountered fireflies, as well as a gear list.

A passionate exploration of one of the world’s most charismatic and admired insects, Silent Sparks will inspire us to reconnect with the natural world.

For more information, visit Sara Lewis’s website! To check out some cool firefly videos, find her on Vimeo.

K. Niwa, Y. Ichino, and Y. Ohmiya. 2010. Quantum yield measurements of firefly bioluminescence using a commercial luminometer. Chemical Letters, Vol. 39: 291-293.

Protecting human subjects while doing global science

By Indira Nath and Ernst-Ludwig Winnacker

How are the ethical rules for the protection of human subjects globally defined? Accessibly written by an InterAcademy Partnership committee comprised of leading scientists from around the world, Doing Global Science is for anyone concerned about the responsible conduct of science in today’s global community.

Doing Global ScienceOne of the most exciting adventures of our time is the rapidly growing global research enterprise. It involves many highly trained professionals working across national borders and cultures and—perhaps more importantly—across traditional disciplines. Researchers form a global community that is producing new knowledge and transforming our society at an unprecedented rate. Curing disease through the use of new tools such as gene editing, discovering the origins of the universe, and gaining a better understanding of human behavior by analyzing social media data are some examples. Governments realize the potential of new knowledge and are investing large sums of money in science. Research collaborations form an important part of foreign policy for many nations and bring economic benefit. Large international projects hasten the production of knowledge with costs being shared by the participating countries. Moreover, internationally co-authored papers are cited more than work undertaken in one country (Adams,2013. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/ v497/n7451/full/497557a.html.).

The research landscape has thus become more diverse and complex and presents stakeholders with both opportunities and significant challenges, such as the need to promote and foster integrity in research. Recent high profile cases of research misconduct from around the world have drawn attention to the risks and threats posed by irresponsible behavior. With this in view, the InterAcademy Partnership (IAP), a global network of over 130 academies that reach governments representing 95% of the world’s population, tasked an international committee of experts with developing educational materials for use by the global research enterprise in promoting responsible conduct and avoiding misuse.

The IAP committee, which I co-chaired along with Ernst-Ludwig Winnacker of Germany, developed Doing Global Science: A Guide to Responsible conduct in Global Research Enterprise, which was released earlier this year. Doing Global Science is a resource to be used in educational and training settings by young researchers, educators and institutional managers. It states the broad principles underlying global science and explains the practical aspects of responsible conduct of research. This guidance is meant to be adapted to the requirements of different nations which may differ in specific regulations and laws. What sets Doing Global Science apart is its emphasis on harmonization of good practices by nations to be followed in a rapidly developing global science enterprise.

Doing Global Science follows the steps in the research process, from planning research and securing funding, to performing experiments and analyzing data, to publishing and communicating results. It includes hypothetical scenarios that raise difficult issues for group discussion and an extensive list of references that can be used for further study.

The seven fundamental principles of responsible conduct in science discussed in Doing Global Science are honesty, fairness, reliability, openness and accountability, objectivity and skepticism. Irresponsible research behavior that harms the research enterprise such as falsification, fabrification and plagiarism are defined and discussed. To maintain trust, everyone involved in research must work to ensure responsible conduct. Universities and other research institutions should sustain an environment that fosters good practices, and ensure that the next generation of researchers receives effective training and mentoring.

Given the importance of reliable data to the advancement of knowledge, researchers need to keep clear, accurate and, secure records. They should also clarify responsibilities for data integrity at the initial stages of research, particularly where the research team consists of multiple investigators and groups from different countries or institutions. Discussions on data sharing, authorship criteria, and primary responsibilities for various aspects of the work should also be agreed upon at an early stage. New technologies make it possible to share data for reuse by larger communities, pointing to the need for harmonization of national and disciplinary rules and practices related to data. In addition to supporting integrity, open sharing of data will contribute to the reproducibility of scientific results, an issue that has gained considerable attention recently.

Doing Global Science also covers the processes involved in peer review at the level of research funding and publication decisions, since evaluating interdisciplinary and international research is complex and requires broad expertise. Review panels should include experts from different disciplines as needed, and be inclusive of underrepresented groups. Incorporating international perspectives into peer review is an emerging practice that is needed in smaller countries where expertise in a particular area of research is limited, and can be useful even in larger countries with more research activity.

A central message of Doing Global Science is that preventing irresponsible behavior through training and education is preferable to having to take corrective action after such behavior has occurred. This is especially important in preventing misuse of research and related technologies. It is difficult to predict the future course or consequences of an emerging research field. Nuclear weapons emerged from basic research in subatomic particles, and genetic engineering arose from research into antibiotic resistance. Nevertheless, researchers need to take responsibility for trying to anticipate and minimize the possible risks of research that may cause harm if misused. The 1975 Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA and the 2016 International Summit on Human Gene Editing held in Washington, DC are examples of the research community exercising that responsibility. Challenges will continue to arise in the life sciences and in other disciplines that will possibly require new guidelines and codes of conduct.

Researchers also need to familiarize themselves with the laws and regulations governing the protection of human subjects and laboratory animals, laboratory safety, environmental protection, and the collection and transfer of biological resources. These laws and regulations differ among nations, and in international collaborations a shared understanding among the participating research groups is needed. For example, regulations covering biodiversity research in some countries may include detailed guidance to ensure that local indigenous communities approve of the collection of specimens and share in the benefits of any resulting commercialization activity.

Since research is competitive, and may produce results that can be commercialized, it is necessary to ensure that the financial and personal interests of researchers and research organizations are aligned with responsible conduct. Many research institutions, research sponsors, and journals require individual researchers to disclose possible financial conflicts of interest. Research institutions and even nations may find it difficult to objectively investigate allegations of research misconduct made against prominent researchers or impose appropriate penalties due to fear of damaging their reputations, losing financial support, or national pride. Corporate sponsorship of academic research is another area where tensions may develop if inappropriate influence is exercised on research activities. Funders of international projects should ensure that clear cut guidelines have been provided by the researchers and the collaborating institutions.

Scientific journals also have an important role to play in promoting responsible conduct by ensuring a fair and effective review process that avoids bias. When articles need to be retracted due to irresponsible behaviour or honest error, the retraction notices should be prominently displayed.

Doing Global Science builds on the efforts of many individuals and groups around the world who have contributed to promoting and fostering research integrity at the international level through the World Conferences on Research Integrity and in other forums (www.wcri2017.org). The release of the guide comes at a time when universities around the world are expanding education and training in the responsible conduct of research. Our IAP committee hopes that Doing Global Science contributes to this movement. In order for the global research enterprise to maximize its positive impact on society, universal awareness and adherence to the principles of good science and responsible conduct are needed.

Authors: Indira Nath, MD, FRCPath1, DSc (hc)  is Co-Chair of IAP project on Research Integrity and Former, Head, Department of Biotechnology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India. Ernst-Ludwig Winnacker, Ph.D. is Professor Emeritus at the University of Munich.

Women in Science: Who are they at Princeton University Press?

Women have made great strides in STEM fields, but there are still far too few women in science—a situation that remains both complex and troubling. Here at Princeton University Press, we are proud to publish numerous important books in the sciences by women, on topics ranging from de-extinction, to primitive stars, to fireflies. If you’re interested in learning more about the lives and ideas of #WomenInScience, DiscovHer—a site dedicated to showcasing these remarkable people—has put together a great list of blogs for you to follow. And check out some of the most fascinating PUP authors and their books here:

Shapiro Jacket Beth Shapiro, an evolutionary biologist
and pioneer in “ancient DNA” research, shows how
de-extinction might change the future of
conservation in
How to Clone a Mammoth.
The Cosmic Cocktail What is the universe made of?
Acclaimed theoretical physicist Katherine Freese
shares the most cutting edge research aimed at
answering that question in
The Cosmic Cocktail.
Frebel Anna Frebel, who discovered several of the oldest
and most primitive stars, tells the story of the
research behind stellar archeology in
Searching for the Oldest Stars.
Lewis Have you ever been curious about the fireflies
that light up our summer nights? Noted
biologist and firefly expert Sara Lewis
answers all your questions and
more in Silent Sparks.
5-9 Fairbairn_Odd Daphne J. Fairbairn, a professor of biology,
shows that the differences between men and
women are negligible when compared with
differences between males and
females in the animal kingdom in
Odd Couples.
Hough

Delve into the fascinating world of
earthquake prediction in
Predicting the Unpredictable by
seismologist Susan Elizabeth Hough.

Firefly Fact Friday – Winning the reproductive game

“Although [Photinus fireflies] mated only once each night, it turned out that both sexes took many different mates over their two-week adult lives. I understand how this might seem like an esoteric bit of knowledge. But while gallivanting males were no surprise, the discovery that firefly females had multiple mating partners had huge implications…. What difference does all this make? Quite a bit, as it turns out. Widespread female promiscuity challenged everything we thought we knew about sexual selection…. Discovery of female infidelity opened an exciting new frontier known as postcopulatory sexual selection. Over the past two decades, behavioral ecologists have unearthed some surprising strategies that animals use during and after mating to win this ongoing reproductive game.” p. 47

To find out how female fireflies engage in postcopulatory sexual selection, and what males do to increase their chances of siring offspring, read Silent Sparks! 

Silent Sparks: The Wondrous World of Fireflies
Sara Lewis

LewisFor centuries, the beauty of fireflies has evoked wonder and delight. Yet for most of us, fireflies remain shrouded in mystery: How do fireflies make their light? What are they saying with their flashing? And what do fireflies look for in a mate? In Silent Sparks, noted biologist and firefly expert Sara Lewis dives into the fascinating world of fireflies and reveals the most up-to-date discoveries about these beloved insects. From the meadows of New England and the hills of the Great Smoky Mountains, to the rivers of Japan and mangrove forests of Malaysia, this beautifully illustrated and accessible book uncovers the remarkable, dramatic stories of birth, courtship, romance, sex, deceit, poison, and death among fireflies.

The nearly two thousand species of fireflies worldwide have evolved in different ways—and while most mate through the aerial language of blinking lights, not all do. Lewis introduces us to fireflies that don’t light up at all, relying on wind-borne perfumes to find mates, and we encounter glow-worm fireflies, whose plump, wingless females never fly. We go behind the scenes to meet inquisitive scientists who have dedicated their lives to understanding fireflies, and we learn about various modern threats including light pollution and habitat destruction. In the last section of the book, Lewis provides a field guide for North American fireflies, enabling us to identify them in our own backyards and neighborhoods. This concise, handy guide includes distinguishing features, habits, and range maps for the most commonly encountered fireflies, as well as a gear list.

A passionate exploration of one of the world’s most charismatic and admired insects, Silent Sparks will inspire us to reconnect with the natural world.

For more information, visit Sara Lewis’s website! To check out some cool firefly videos, find her on Vimeo.

Happy Father’s Day with Donald Kroodsma

In Listening to a Continent Sing, Donald Kroodsma tells the story of the ten-week, ten-state cross-country bike tour he took with his son, David, to listen to the different birds that live all over the United States. In celebration of Father’s Day, here is a sampling of one of the many entries. Be sure to visit the author’s companion website to hear the birds for yourself.

Pacific

On July 7, Day 65 of the journey, Kroodsma and his son prepared to leave Dixie Summit for Dayville, Oregon.

Back at the campsite I find David eating breakfast. I join him, and we gradually pack up and ready our departure. “July 7, 7:52 a.m.,” I announce into my recorder. “We’re about the drop down off Dixie Pass, biking downhill for 53 easy miles beside the John Day River, dropping almost 2000 feet to where we’ll spend the night as guests at the Presbyterian church in Dayville.” To David’s playful, muted strains of “happy birthday to you,” we mount our bikes, aim them west, and begin coasting…. All around us are those exhumed bits and pieces of oceanic islands that were scraped off the Pacific plate…. Dayville arrives quickly, and with permission kindly granted we’re soon camped inside the church. After a quick visit to the nearby general store, David prepares a feast fit for any birthday, topped off with two brownies laden with 57 candles, enough to create a conflagration (wisely, I note, he has a bucket of water nearby, just in case). “Happy birthday, Pops,” smiles David as he unveils my birthday present: a second Super Soaker water cannon to match my Father’s Day present, which David still carries, but this new one is entrusted to me. p. 252-253

31-94_SilhouettesAtPacific

To learn more about the book, check out a Q&A with the author at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology blog, All About Birds.

From “rolling stone” to World’s Best Dad: Richard Bribiescas on fathers

How Men Age jacketWhy is paternal investment so rare in the animal world? Why do some human fathers choose the caring route, while others don’t? Biological anthropologist Richard Bribiescas, author of How Men Age: What Evolution Reveals About Male Health and Mortality, reveals how many of the physical and behavioral changes that we negatively associate with male aging may have actually facilitated the emergence of positive traits. These traits, including how we parent, have been crucial to our success as a species. We caught up with Richard for a special Father’s Day Q&A.

Many in the animal kingdom aren’t noted for being the best fathers. What’s the evolutionary significance?

Chimps aren’t very good fathers. They just aren’t. They don’t care for their offspring, provide food, or offer any assistance to moms. Don’t get me wrong, chimpanzees are noble creatures who merit our stewardship as well as the common courtesy of not destroying their forests. They’re just not the fatherly type. In fairness to our great ape cousins, most males in the natural world won’t be earning waffles in bed. With a few exceptions such as certain South American monkeys 1, most mammalian males are unlikely to earn a “World’s Best Dad” coffee mug on Father’s Day. Men however can be terrific dads with paternal care being one of the hallmarks of our species. Human males often invest significant amounts of time and resources in their offspring. This is true in modern industrialized societies as well as hunter/gatherer groups. Pass the butter and maple syrup.

Why is paternal investment so rare in the animal world? There are several evolutionary reasons but one especially salient explanation is that caring for offspring requires knowing who your offspring are. This is known as paternal uncertainty and is evident in all species that have internal fertilization. In humans, estimates of paternal misidentification when asking individuals to identify their fathers and then testing that assumption genetically ranges from one to around ten percent, depending on the study and population 2. Conservatively that means for every hundred readers, at least one of you was fathered by a man who is not the recipient of your Father’s Day card. But don’t freak out. This simply means that women are just as likely as men to evolve a range of reproductive strategies. Plus the odds are still in your favor of being correct so there’s no need to forward the mail.

A recent finding that illustrates the evolutionary significance of paternal investment is the capacity for men to display different reproductive states. This has long been observed in women since non-pregnant, pregnant, and lactating states are readily visible with numerous associated hormone changes. In men, different reproductive states are less obvious but evident when you look at reproductive hormones such as testosterone. Anthropologists Peter Gray and Lee Gettler have demonstrated this in numerous cross-cultural studies that show testosterone declines in response to fatherhood 3,4. This is more evident when men are in paired relationships with women.

Then what about male/male relationships and gay fathers?

Good question. We’ll get to that in a bit. So what is the significance of lower testosterone in association with fatherhood? It is still unclear but declines in testosterone may have behavioral, immunological, or metabolic effects that promote paternal investment. Stay tuned.

But fathering children is not the same as being fatherly. Again, hormones provide a spiffy way of getting at this subtle but important point. Anthropologist Martin Muller and colleagues looked at testosterone levels in association with fatherhood in two African societies, the Datoga who are cattle herding people in which the men do not commonly engage in childcare and the Hadza, an adjacent population of hunter/gatherers in which the men regularly hold and care for their children. Testosterone levels were not significantly different between the two populations even when looking at paternal status. But when Muller and colleagues looked at within group testosterone levels in association with having their children close by, interesting differences emerged. When their children were around, Hadza men were much more engaged with them compared to Datoga men who do not pay much attention to their children. Among the Hadza testosterone levels were significantly lower when children were in their household compared to when they were not around. The presence or absence of children among the Datoga had no influence on testosterone levels 5. This suggests that paternal engagement is important to any changes in testosterone. Caring and engagement makes a difference.

What does it mean to be a good father?

While human males are unique in their potential to be doting fathers, they also exhibit a much broader spectrum of paternal behaviors compared to other primates and mammals. Men can be extremely caring to simply providing food to being infanticidal. As a boy growing up in the Watts area of south central Los Angeles in the ‘60’s and 70’s, my friends and I listened to a lot of The Temptations. Among their hits was “Papa Was a Rolling Stone”, a song that tells the story of children asking their mother about their estranged, wandering father. “Papa was never much on thinkin’, spent much of his time chasing women and drinkin’…” Why some men choose the caring route while others do not is unclear. Evolutionary theory suggests that in environments with lots of hazards and a low probability of living a long life, caring for offspring may take a backseat to more risky reproductive strategies such as seeking out additional mates in lieu of investing in family. This is true of both men and women 6. Since humans have evolved the ability to thrive in a broad range of ecological and social settings, it makes sense that behavioral biology of fatherhood would be broad and malleable7,8.

Let’s go back to the question of gay dads. There is no reason to assume that caring for children should be limited to straight men but adding the variable of sexual orientation is an interesting question given the range of variability in reproductive behavior in humans. Researchers examined brain scans of gay men in association with interactions with their children. They found that areas of the brain that are commonly activated in mothers and heterosexual fathers in response to children were also evident in gay fathers suggesting that the neurobiological mechanisms associated with childcare transcend gender or sexual orientation 9. Compared to other mammals and certainly other great apes, humans seem to be biologically predisposed to care for children. Do gay fathers exhibit the same hormonal changes as heterosexual dads? We don’t know yet although Yale anthropology Ph.D. candidate Erin Burke, Dr. Pasquale Patrizio of Yale Medical School and I are hot on the trail of this question 10. There are many ways to be a dad and we’re only beginning to understand that fatherhood is as varied as the colors and patterns on a homemade necktie.

Richard G. Bribiescas is professor of anthropology and ecology and evolutionary biology at Yale University, where he also serves as deputy provost for faculty development and diversity. He is the author of Men: Evolutionary and Life History. He lives in Hamden, Connecticut.

References and Endnotes

 

1          Fernandez-Duque, E., Valeggia, C. R. & Mendoza, S. P. The biology of paternal care in human and nonhuman primates. Annual Review of Anthropology 38, 115–130, doi:10.1146/annurev-anthro-091908-164334 (2009).

2          Anderson, K. G. How well does paternity confidence match actual paternity? Evidence from worldwide nonpaternity rates. Curr Anthropol 47, 513-520, doi:Doi 10.1086/504167 (2006).

3          Gray, P. B. & Anderson, K. G. Fatherhood : evolution and human paternal behavior. (Harvard University Press, 2010).

4          Gettler, L. T., McDade, T. W., Feranil, A. B. & Kuzawa, C. W. Longitudinal evidence that fatherhood decreases testosterone in human males. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 16194-16199, doi:10.1073/pnas.1105403108 (2011).

5          Muller, M. N., Marlow, F. W., Bugumba, R. & Ellison, P. T. Testosterone and paternal care in East African foragers and pastoralists. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences 276, 347-354 (2009).

6          Quinlan, R. J. Human parental effort and environmental risk. Proc Biol Sci 274, 121-125, doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3690 (2007).

7          Bribiescas, R. G. Men: Evolutionary and Life History. (Harvard University Press, 2006).

8          Bribiescas, R. G. How Men Age: What Evolution Reveals about Male Health and Mortality. (Princeton University Press, 2016).

9          Abraham, E. et al. Father’s brain is sensitive to childcare experiences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111, 9792-9797, doi:10.1073/pnas.1402569111 (2014).

10        Burke, E. E. & Bribiescas, R. G. Hormones and behavior in same-sex male parents: implications for the evolution of paternal care in humans. Am J Phys Anthropol 159, 105 (2016).

 

Firefly Fact Friday – Japanese Fireflies: Harvested for Beauty

This week our firefly fact comes from Sara Lewis:

While fireflies were harvested for their light-producing chemicals in the U.S., in Japan fireflies were harvested for their beauty. In Japan’s Shiga Prefecture, many firefly merchants set up shop every summer from the early 1800s through the 1920s. They hired hunters to collect genji-botaru (Luciola cruciata) fireflies, which they sold to clients in Osaka, Tokyo, and Kyoto. Hotel and restaurant owners released these wild-caught fireflies into their gardens, where customers would pay to enjoy their luminous beauty. By some estimates, firefly vendors sold three million wild insects to city folk every June and July. Soon, firefly populations began to dwindle due to over-collecting, river pollution, and habitat loss. Silent Sparks describes the ecohistory of Japanese and U.S. fireflies, including some successful conservation efforts.

catching fireflies print

Silent Sparks: The Wondrous World of Fireflies
Sara Lewis

LewisFor centuries, the beauty of fireflies has evoked wonder and delight. Yet for most of us, fireflies remain shrouded in mystery: How do fireflies make their light? What are they saying with their flashing? And what do fireflies look for in a mate? In Silent Sparks, noted biologist and firefly expert Sara Lewis dives into the fascinating world of fireflies and reveals the most up-to-date discoveries about these beloved insects. From the meadows of New England and the hills of the Great Smoky Mountains, to the rivers of Japan and mangrove forests of Malaysia, this beautifully illustrated and accessible book uncovers the remarkable, dramatic stories of birth, courtship, romance, sex, deceit, poison, and death among fireflies.

The nearly two thousand species of fireflies worldwide have evolved in different ways—and while most mate through the aerial language of blinking lights, not all do. Lewis introduces us to fireflies that don’t light up at all, relying on wind-borne perfumes to find mates, and we encounter glow-worm fireflies, whose plump, wingless females never fly. We go behind the scenes to meet inquisitive scientists who have dedicated their lives to understanding fireflies, and we learn about various modern threats including light pollution and habitat destruction. In the last section of the book, Lewis provides a field guide for North American fireflies, enabling us to identify them in our own backyards and neighborhoods. This concise, handy guide includes distinguishing features, habits, and range maps for the most commonly encountered fireflies, as well as a gear list.

A passionate exploration of one of the world’s most charismatic and admired insects, Silent Sparks will inspire us to reconnect with the natural world.

For more information, visit Sara Lewis’s website! To check out some cool firefly videos, find her on Vimeo.

Firefly Fact Friday – The Firefly Genome Project

This week we have a special announcement from Sara Lewis:

Fireflies! Their silent summer fireworks fill us with wonder, yet so much about this fascinating creatures has been shrouded in mystery. But now a path-breaking scientific initiative promises to reveal the science behind the spectacle by unveiling the genetic blueprint of Photinus pyralis, the Big Dipper firefly. Last week the Firefly Genome Project was successfully funded through the crowd funding site Experiment. The popularity of Silent Sparks helped to spread the word, and more than 80 people from all over the world helped to fund this collaborative project. Scientists hope that sequencing the firefly genome will help to illuminate how firefly features like flashing and nuptial gifts have evolved, foster important advances in bioscience and medicine, and help guide future conservation efforts.

Silent Sparks: The Wondrous World of Fireflies 
Sara Lewis

LewisFor centuries, the beauty of fireflies has evoked wonder and delight. Yet for most of us, fireflies remain shrouded in mystery: How do fireflies make their light? What are they saying with their flashing? And what do fireflies look for in a mate? In Silent Sparks, noted biologist and firefly expert Sara Lewis dives into the fascinating world of fireflies and reveals the most up-to-date discoveries about these beloved insects. From the meadows of New England and the hills of the Great Smoky Mountains, to the rivers of Japan and mangrove forests of Malaysia, this beautifully illustrated and accessible book uncovers the remarkable, dramatic stories of birth, courtship, romance, sex, deceit, poison, and death among fireflies.

The nearly two thousand species of fireflies worldwide have evolved in different ways—and while most mate through the aerial language of blinking lights, not all do. Lewis introduces us to fireflies that don’t light up at all, relying on wind-borne perfumes to find mates, and we encounter glow-worm fireflies, whose plump, wingless females never fly. We go behind the scenes to meet inquisitive scientists who have dedicated their lives to understanding fireflies, and we learn about various modern threats including light pollution and habitat destruction. In the last section of the book, Lewis provides a field guide for North American fireflies, enabling us to identify them in our own backyards and neighborhoods. This concise, handy guide includes distinguishing features, habits, and range maps for the most commonly encountered fireflies, as well as a gear list.

A passionate exploration of one of the world’s most charismatic and admired insects, Silent Sparks will inspire us to reconnect with the natural world.

For more information, visit Sara Lewis’s website! To check out some cool firefly videos, find her on Vimeo.

Firefly Fact Friday – How you get the girl

“[F]emale Photinus [fireflies] are quite picky. Even the most ardent suitor is rarely favored with a reply: Photinus females typically answer fewer than half of the male courtship flashes they see on a given night. When a female likes a particular suitor, she’ll show this by responding more reliably to his flashes. And whichever male can elicit the highest rate of female responses is usually the one who gets the girl.” p. 41

Silent Sparks: The Wondrous World of Fireflies
Sara Lewis

LewisFor centuries, the beauty of fireflies has evoked wonder and delight. Yet for most of us, fireflies remain shrouded in mystery: How do fireflies make their light? What are they saying with their flashing? And what do fireflies look for in a mate? In Silent Sparks, noted biologist and firefly expert Sara Lewis dives into the fascinating world of fireflies and reveals the most up-to-date discoveries about these beloved insects. From the meadows of New England and the hills of the Great Smoky Mountains, to the rivers of Japan and mangrove forests of Malaysia, this beautifully illustrated and accessible book uncovers the remarkable, dramatic stories of birth, courtship, romance, sex, deceit, poison, and death among fireflies.

The nearly two thousand species of fireflies worldwide have evolved in different ways—and while most mate through the aerial language of blinking lights, not all do. Lewis introduces us to fireflies that don’t light up at all, relying on wind-borne perfumes to find mates, and we encounter glow-worm fireflies, whose plump, wingless females never fly. We go behind the scenes to meet inquisitive scientists who have dedicated their lives to understanding fireflies, and we learn about various modern threats including light pollution and habitat destruction. In the last section of the book, Lewis provides a field guide for North American fireflies, enabling us to identify them in our own backyards and neighborhoods. This concise, handy guide includes distinguishing features, habits, and range maps for the most commonly encountered fireflies, as well as a gear list.

A passionate exploration of one of the world’s most charismatic and admired insects, Silent Sparks will inspire us to reconnect with the natural world.

For more information, visit Sara Lewis’s website! To check out some cool firefly videos, find her on Vimeo

The bright world of fireflies: photographs from Silent Sparks

silent sparks jacketCharismatic, admired, and endlessly mysterious, fireflies have long been a source of intrigue. Sara Lewis has spent nearly thirty years examining the lives, surprising habits, and habitats of these beloved and frequently romanticized insects. As Memorial Day weekend winds down and fireflies start to make their debut in summer skies, take a peek inside the new book, Silent Sparks: The Wondrous World of Fireflies.

 

 

 

Firefly Fact Friday – Mating behaviors of male fireflies

“Male mate competition has led to the evolution of many extraordinary mating behaviors. For one thing, males often get a jump-start on metamorphosis, and turn into adults sooner than their corresponding females. This pattern of early male emergence is known as protandry, and it’s common among butterflies, mayflies, mosquitos, and fireflies. Male competition even compels some insect males to take child brides … [M]ales will jealously stand guard over an immature female, chasing off rival males and waiting patiently until she becomes sexually mature … Some male fireflies … use this child-bride tactic, guarding immature females and then mating when the female crawls out.” p. 38

Silent Sparks: The Wondrous World of Fireflies
Sara Lewis

LewisFor centuries, the beauty of fireflies has evoked wonder and delight. Yet for most of us, fireflies remain shrouded in mystery: How do fireflies make their light? What are they saying with their flashing? And what do fireflies look for in a mate? In Silent Sparks, noted biologist and firefly expert Sara Lewis dives into the fascinating world of fireflies and reveals the most up-to-date discoveries about these beloved insects. From the meadows of New England and the hills of the Great Smoky Mountains, to the rivers of Japan and mangrove forests of Malaysia, this beautifully illustrated and accessible book uncovers the remarkable, dramatic stories of birth, courtship, romance, sex, deceit, poison, and death among fireflies.

The nearly two thousand species of fireflies worldwide have evolved in different ways—and while most mate through the aerial language of blinking lights, not all do. Lewis introduces us to fireflies that don’t light up at all, relying on wind-borne perfumes to find mates, and we encounter glow-worm fireflies, whose plump, wingless females never fly. We go behind the scenes to meet inquisitive scientists who have dedicated their lives to understanding fireflies, and we learn about various modern threats including light pollution and habitat destruction. In the last section of the book, Lewis provides a field guide for North American fireflies, enabling us to identify them in our own backyards and neighborhoods. This concise, handy guide includes distinguishing features, habits, and range maps for the most commonly encountered fireflies, as well as a gear list.

A passionate exploration of one of the world’s most charismatic and admired insects, Silent Sparks will inspire us to reconnect with the natural world.

For more information, visit Sara Lewis’s website! To check out some cool firefly videos, find her on Vimeo.