Announcing the #PhotoBigDay

big day logoThe brainchild of Tom Stephenson and Scott Whittle, co-authors of The Warbler Guide, the Photo Big Day presents a fun, new challenge for birders of all levels. Big Days are established fundraising events — teams of four birders head out to spot as many birds as they can in the span of 24 hours. The big difference this time around is that every sighting has to be documented on film.

We are proud to be co-sponsoring and supporting this effort and we hope you will check out more information at the links below. Good luck to Team Warbler!!!

MORE INFORMATION:
http://www.bigbirdphotoday.org Find out about big photo days, start your own team, raise funds, and more!

http://www.listing.aba.org The official home of big day lists, allows ABA members to upload their totals and results and see records for any area, and will also be live blogging and tweeting the Big Photo Day!

http://www.warblerguide.com Scott Whittle and Tom Stephenson’s site, with info on the Big Photo Day, and much more

http://www.facebook.com/warblerguide For more updates and live posts from Team Warbler

Follow us on Twitter @thewarblerguide

And find out more with #PhotoBigDay

2014 Lawrence Stone Lecture Series to Feature Lorraine Daston

This year’s Lawrence Stone Lecture Series, featuring Lorraine Daston, will be held April 29 thru May 1. Entitled “Rules: A Short History of What We Live By,” the lecture will feature three different sessions:

April 29 — Rules of Iron, Rules of Lead: A Prehistory of an Indispensable and Impossible Genre

April 30 — Rules Go Rigid: Natural Laws, Calculations, and Algorithms

May 1 — Rules, Rationality, and Reasonableness

The events will be held in 010 East Pyne Building at 4:30 p.m.

The lecture series is co-sponsored by Princeton University Press, Princeton University’s History Department, and the Shelby Cullom Davis Center for Historical Studies. The Center was founded by former chair of the History Department, Lawrence Stone (1919-91). Each year, the lecture series features Princeton’s Lawrence Stone Visiting Professor, and the professor’s three lectures are then included in a book published by Princeton University Press.

Lorraine Daston is the executive director of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin as well as a visiting professor on the Committee on Social Thought at the University of Chicago.

april 15 lecture

Princeton University Press Europe at the Oxford Literary Festival 2014

 

By Hannah Dummett, Princeton University Press Europe intern

McCall SmithLast Sunday marked the end of the 2014 Oxford Literary Festival: “bigger, better and more ambitious than ever”. A whirlwind nine days of authors, talks, photographers, book signings and  lunches, and amongst all of it the Princeton authors met with full auditoriums and avid audiences, often followed by a glass of Prosecco in the green room.

The Soul of the World author Roger Scruton had the audience in stitches of laughter (perhaps not what you’d expect from a talk by a philosopher) as he shed light on his idea of the sacred, at the same time as shamelessly, and hilariously, plugging his new books. Meanwhile, David Edmonds entered a lively discussion with Nigel Warburton. The audience were eager to join in and soon the topic of moral dilemma had led to a debate on the fate of flight MH370.

As one of the festival’s better-known authors, Alexander McCall Smith was hounded by the ‘literary paparazzi’, and one of our publicists was even coerced into being used as a photographer’s assistant (read: prop-holder). Over at Christ Church, Averil Cameron took us back more than 2500 years in time and explained why Byzantium is key to our understanding of other historical periods. Michael Scott argued his own case for the Greek city of Delphi – and gave us all a reason to visit this summer.

His book may be over 800 pages long, but Robert Bartlett kept things succinct and made sure that his audience were keen to discover what the other 700 pages hold in store. He was even awarded a printed apology from the Oxford Mail’s Jeremy Smith after he commented on Bartlett’s “modest attire” while introducing the talk. Husband and wife astronomer/authors Jacqueline and Simon Mitton, both struck down with a virus picked up on a recent cruise, put on a brave face despite their illness and managed to plunge their audience into the depths of the history of the universe, visiting far-away galaxies via new-born stars and black holes.

The increasingly relevant topic of narcissism and self-love was examined by Simon Blackburn, discussing his new book Mirror, Mirror, and political journalist Edmund Fawcett kept the audience listening with an absorbing talk on differing forms of liberalism. To top it off, the “charming, charismatic” Ian Goldin gave an excellent lecture on how the recent financial crash could have an extreme effect on a wide range of factors in our everyday lives. We’ve been out of the office again this week, this time for London Book Fair – the fun is non-stop this month!

 

Bob Geddes to Give Talk, Tour, and Book Signing at the Institute for Advanced Study

Calling all Princeton-area architecture fans: Bob Geddes will be giving a lecture, tour, and book signing of Fit: An Architect’s Manifesto, at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, NJ, on Saturday, April 5th, from 10:00 AM to 1:30 PM (EDT), sponsored by DOCOMOMO Philadelphia and DOCOMOMO NY/Tri-State.

Tickets and full event details are available via Eventbrite ($20 for DOCOMOMO members / $25 for non-members / FREE for IAS faculty, scholars, and staff).

Photo: Amy Ramsey, Courtesy of Institute for Advanced StudyMake it New, Make it Fit

The architecture of Geddes, Brecher, Qualls, and Cunningham (GBQC) has been largely overlooked in recent years—despite a remarkable and influential body of work beginning with their runner-up submission for the Sydney Opera House (1956). As significant contributors (along with Louis Kahn) to the “Philadelphia School,” GBQC’s efforts challenged modernist conceptions of space, functional relationships, technology, and—with an urbanist’s eye—the reality of change over time.

To explore the thinking behind the work, founding partner Robert Geddes, FAIA, will speak about his recent publication, Fit: An Architect’s Manifesto. In addition, Geddes will guide a tour through the venue for his talk, the Institute of Advanced Study’s Simmons Hall—a GBQC masterwork of 1971. Geddes will also participate in an informal discussion with participants during lunch at the IAS Cafeteria.

Schedule
10:00-10:30am      Dilworth Room. Event check in. Coffee served.
10:30-11:15am        Make it New, Make it Fit Lecture by Bob Geddes
11:15-11:50am        Building Tour
11:50-12:10pm       Lunch at cafeteria where discussion continues
12:10-1:00pm         Lunch and discussion
1:00-1:30pm           Wrap up and book signing.

Parking
LOT ‘B’ enter through West Building. When you arrive at the site, please bring a copy of your tickets, either printed or displayed on your mobile phone.

About the speaker
Robert Geddes is dean emeritus of the Princeton School of Architecture and founding partner of GBQC—recipient of the AIA’s Firm of the Year Award in 1979. Educated under Walter Gropius at Harvard’s Graduate School of Design, Geddes returned to his native Philadelphia in 1950 where he began his work as an educator at the University of Pennsylvania.

The Princeton in Europe Lecture 2014

Diarmaid MacCulloch (c) Chris Gibbons SMALLER RESWe are delighted to announce that The Princeton in Europe Lecture 2014 will be given by Sir Diarmaid MacCulloch. Professor MacCulloch is at the Faculty of Theology and Religion, University of Oxford, and has a special interest in the history of Christianity. The author of numerous books on the history of religion, Diarmaid MacCulloch has also presented BBC documentaries, such as A History of Christianity and, most recently, How God Made the English. This year’s Princeton in Europe Lecture, which will be held at the British Academy, is entitled:

“What if Arianism had won?: A reformation historian looks at medieval Europe”

This event is open to the general public and is free to attend, but please register in advance by emailing Hannah Paul: hpaul@pupress.co.uk.

Wolfson Auditorium at the British Academy  *  Tuesday 8th April 2014  * Drinks will be served from 5.30pm, and the lecture will begin at 6.30pm * We look forward to seeing you there.

* Photograph (c) Chris Gibbons

 

Princeton authors speaking at Oxford Literary Festival 2014

We are delighted that the following Princeton authors will be speaking at the Oxford Literary Festival in Oxford, UK, in the last week of March. Details of all events can be found at the links below:images5L8V7T97

Jacqueline and Simon Mitton, husband and wife popular astronomy writers and authors of From Dust to Life: The Origin and Evolution of Our Solar System and Heart of Darkness: Unraveling the Mysteries of the Invisible Universe respectively, will be speaking  on Monday 24 March at 4:00pm  http://oxfordliteraryfestival.org/literature-events/2014/Monday-24/in-search-of-our-cosmic-origins-from-the-big-bang-to-a-habitable-planet

David Edmonds, author of Would You Kill the Fat Man? The Trolley Problem and What Your Answer Tells Us  about Right and Wrong will be speaking on Monday 24 March at 6:00pm http://oxfordliteraryfestival.org/literature-events/2014/Monday-24/morality-puzzles-would-you-kill-the-fat-man

Robert Bartlett, author of Why Can the Dead Do Such Great Things? Saints and Worshippers from the Martyrs to the Reformation will be speaking on Tuesday 25 March at 2:00pm http://oxfordliteraryfestival.org/literature-events/2014/Tuesday-25/why-can-the-dead-do-such-great-things

Michael Scott, author of Delphi: A History of the Center of the Ancient World will be speaking on Wednesday 26 March at 10:00am http://oxfordliteraryfestival.org/literature-events/2014/Wednesday-26/delphi-a-history-of-the-centre-of-the-ancient-world

Simon Blackburn, author of Mirror, Mirror: The Uses and Abuses of Self-Love will be speaking on Wednesday 26 March at 4:00pm http://oxfordliteraryfestival.org/literature-events/2014/Wednesday-26/mirror-mirror-the-uses-and-abuses-of-self-love

Roger Scruton author of the forthcoming The Soul of the World will be speaking Thursday 27 March 12:00pm http://oxfordliteraryfestival.org/literature-events/2014/Thursday-27/the-soul-of-the-world

Alexander McCall Smith, author of What W. H. Auden Can Do for You will be speaking about how this poet has enriched his life and can enrich yours too on Friday 28 March at 12:00pm http://oxfordliteraryfestival.org/literature-events/2014/Friday-28/what-w-h-auden-can-do-for-youMcCallSmith_Auden

Averil Cameron, author of Byzantine Matters will be speaking on Friday 28 March at 2:00pm  http://oxfordliteraryfestival.org/literature-events/2014/Friday-28/byzantine-matters

Edmund Fawcett, author of Liberalism: The Life of an Idea will be speaking on Saturday 29 March at 10:00am http://oxfordliteraryfestival.org/literature-events/2014/Saturday-29/liberalism-the-life-of-an-idea

In addition, Ian Goldin will be giving the inaugural “Princeton Lecture” at The Oxford Literary Festival, on the themes within his forthcoming book, The Butterfly Defect: How Globalization Creates Systemic Risks, and What to Do about It on Thursday 27 March at 6:00pm  http://oxfordliteraryfestival.org/literature-events/2014/Thursday-27/the-princeton-lecture-the-butterfly-defect-how-globalisation-creates-system

 

Pi Day: “Was Einstein Right?” Chuck Adler on the twin paradox of relativity in science fiction

This post is extracted from Wizards, Aliens, and Starships by Charles Adler. Dr. Adler will kick off Princeton’s Pi Day festivities tonight with a talk at the Princeton Public Library starting at 7:00 PM. We hope you can join the fun!

For more Pi Day features from Princeton University Press, please click here.


Tfts56[1]Robert A. Heinlein’s novel Time for the Stars is essentially one long in-joke for physicists. The central characters of the novel are Tom and Pat Bartlett, two identical twins who can communicate with each other telepathically. In the novel, telepathy has a speed much faster than light. Linked telepaths, usually pairs of identical twins, are used to maintain communications between the starship Lewis and Clark and Earth. Tom goes on the spacecraft while Pat stays home; the ship visits a number of distant star systems, exploring and finding new Earth-like worlds. On Tom’s return, nearly seventy years have elapsed on Earth, but Tom has only aged by five.

I call this a physicist’s in-joke because Heinlein is illustrating what is referred to as the twin paradox of relativity: take two identical twins, fly one around the universe at nearly the speed of light, and leave the other at home. On the traveler’s return, he or she will be younger than the stay-at- home, even though the two started out the same age. This is because according to Einstein’s special theory of relativity, time runs at different rates in different reference frames.

This is another common theme in science fiction: the fact that time slows down when one “approaches the speed of light.” It’s a subtle issue, however, and is very easy to get wrong. In fact, Heinlein made some mistakes in his book when dealing with the subject, but more on that later. First, I want to list a few of the many books written using this theme:

  • The Forever War, by Joe W. Haldeman. This story of a long-drawn-out conflict between humanity and an alien race has starships that move at speeds near light speed to travel between “collapsars” (black holes), which are used for faster-than-light travel. Alas, this doesn’t work. The hero’s girlfriend keeps herself young for him by shuttling back and forth at near light speeds between Earth and a distant colony world.
  • Poul Anderson’s novel, Tau Zero. In this work, mentioned in the last chapter, the crew of a doomed Bussard ramship is able to explore essentially the entire universe by traveling at speeds ever closer to the speed of light.
  • The Fifth Head of Cerberus, by Gene Wolfe. In this novel an anthropologist travels from Earth to the double planets of St. Croix and St. Anne. It isn’t a big part of the novel, but the anthropologist John Marsch mentions that eighty years have passed on Earth since he left it, a large part of his choice to stay rather than return home.
  • Larris Niven’s novel A World out of Time. The rammer Jerome Corbell travels to the galactic core and back, aging some 90 years, while three million years pass on Earth.

There are many, many others, and for good reason: relativity is good for the science fiction writer because it brings the stars closer to home, at least for the astronaut venturing out to them. It’s not so simple for her stay-at-home relatives. The point is that the distance between Earth and other planets in the Solar System ranges from tens of millions of kilometers to billions of kilometers. These are large distances, to be sure, but ones that can be traversed in times ranging from a few years to a decade or so by chemical propulsion. We can imagine sending people to the planets in times commensurate with human life. If we imagine more advanced propulsion systems, the times become that much shorter.

Unfortunately, it seems there is no other intelligent life in the Solar System apart from humans, and no other habitable place apart from Earth. If we want to invoke the themes of contact or conflict with aliens or finding and settling Earth-like planets, the narratives must involve travel to other stars because there’s nothing like that close to us. But the stars are a lot farther away than the planets in the Solar System: the nearest star system to our Solar System, the triple star system Alpha Centauri, is 4.3 light-years away: that is, it is so far that it takes light 4.3 years to get from there to here, a distance of 40 trillion km. Other stars are much farther away. Our own galaxy, the group of 200 billion stars of which our Sun is a part, is a great spiral 100,000 light-years across. Other galaxies are distances of millions of light-years away.

From our best knowledge of physics today, nothing can go faster than the speed of light. That means that it takes at least 4.3 years for a traveler (I’ll call him Tom) to go from Earth to Alpha Centauri and another 4.3 years to return. But if Tom travels at a speed close to that of light, he doesn’t experience 4.3 years spent on ship; it can take only a small fraction of the time. In principle, Tom can explore the universe in his lifetime as long as he is willing to come back to a world that has aged millions or billions of years in the meantime.

 

Was Einstein Right?

This weird prediction—that clocks run more slowly when traveling close to light speed—has made many people question Einstein’s results. The weirdness isn’t limited to time dilation; there is also relativistic length contraction. A spacecraft traveling close to the speed of light shrinks in the direction of motion. The formulas are actually quite simple. Let’s say that Tom is in a spacecraft traveling along at some speed v, while Pat is standing still, watching him fly by. We’ll put Pat in a space suit floating in empty space so we don’t have to worry about the complication of gravity. Let’s say the following: Pat has a stopwatch in his hand, as does Tom. As Tom speeds by him, both start their stopwatches at the same time and Pat measures a certain amount of time on his watch (say, 10 seconds) while simultaneously watching Tom’s watch through the window of his spacecraft. If Pat measures time ∆t0 go by on his watch, he will see Tom’s watch tick through less time. Letting ∆t be the amount of time on Tom’s watch, the two times are related by the formula

where the all-important “gamma factor” is

The gamma factor is always greater than 1, meaning Pat will see less time go by on Tom’s watch than on his. Table 12.1 shows how gamma varies with velocity.

Note that this is only really appreciable for times greater than about 10% of the speed of light. The length of Tom’s ship as measured by Pat (and the length of any object in it, including Tom) shrinks in the direction of motion by the same factor.

Even though the gamma factor isn’t large for low speeds, it is still measurable. To quote Edward Purcell, “Personally, I believe in special relativity. If it were not reliable, some expensive machines around here would be in very deep trouble”. The time dilation effect has been measured directly, and is measured directly almost every second of every day in particle accelerators around the world. Unstable particles have characteristic lifetimes, after which they decay into other particles. For example, the muon is a particle with mass 206 times the mass of the electron. It is unstable and decays via the reaction

It decays with a characteristic time of 2.22 μs; this is the decay time one finds for muons generated in lab experiments. However, muons generated by cosmic ray showers in Earth’s atmosphere travel at speeds over 99% of the speed of light, and measurements on these muons show that their decay lifetime is more than seven times longer than what is measured in the lab, exactly as predicted by relativity theory. This is an experiment I did as a graduate student and our undergraduates at St. Mary’s College do as part of their third-year advanced lab course. Experiments with particles in particle accelerators show the same results: particle lifetimes are extended by the gamma factor, and no matter how much energy we put into the particles, they never travel faster than the speed of light. This is remarkable because in the highest-energy accelerators, particles end up traveling at speeds within 1 cm/s of light speed. Everything works out exactly as the theory of relativity says, to a precision of much better than 1%.

How about experiments done with real clocks? Yes, they have been done as well. The problems of doing such experiments are substantial: at speeds of a few hundred meters per second, a typical speed for an airplane, the gamma factor deviates from 1 by only about 1013. To measure the effect, you would have to run the experiment for a long time, because the accuracy of atomic clocks is only about one part in 1011 or 1012; the experiments would have to run a long time because the difference between the readings on the clocks increases with time. In the 1970s tests were performed with atomic clocks carried on two airplanes that flew around the world, which were compared to clocks remaining stationary on the ground. Einstein passed with flying colors. The one subtlety here is that you have to take the rotation of the Earth into account as part of the speed of the airplane. For this reason, two planes were used: one going around the world from East to West, the other from West to East. This may seem rather abstract, but today it is extremely important for our technology. Relativity lies at the cornerstone of a multi-billion-dollar industry, the global positioning system (GPS).

GPS determines the positions of objects on the Earth by triangulation: satellites in orbit around the Earth send radio signals with time stamps on them. By comparing the time stamps to the time on the ground, it is possible to determine the distance to the satellite, which is the speed of light multiplied by the time difference between the two. Using signals from at least four satellites and their known positions, one can triangulate a position on the ground. However, the clocks on the satellites run at different rates as clocks on the ground, in keeping with the theory of relativity. There are actually two different effects: one is relativistic time dilation owing to motion and the other is an effect we haven’t considered yet, gravitational time dilation. Gravitational time dilation means that time slows down the further you are in a gravitational potential well. On the satellites, the gravitational time dilation speeds up clock rates as compared to those on the ground, and the motion effect slows them down. The gravitational effect is twice as big as the motion effect, but both must be included to calculate the total amount by which the clock rate changes. The effect is small, only about three parts in a billion, but if relativity weren’t accounted for, the GPS system would stop functioning in less than an hour. To quote from Alfred Heick’s textbook GPS Satellite Surveying,

Relativistic effects are important in GPS surveying but fortunately can be accurately calculated. . . . [The difference in clock rates] corresponds to an increase in time of 38.3 μsec per day; the clocks in orbit appear to run faster. . . . [This effect] is corrected by adjusting the frequency of the satellite clocks in the factory before launch to 10.22999999543 MHz [from their fundamental frequency of 10.23 MHz].

This statement says two things: first, in the dry language of an engineering handbook, it is made quite clear that these relativistic effects are so commonplace that engineers routinely take them into account in a system that hundreds of millions of people use every day and that contributes billions of dollars to the world’s commerce. Second, it tells you the phenomenal accuracy of radio and microwave engineering. So the next time someone tells you that Einstein was crazy, you can quote chapter and verse back at him!

Rutgers University to host Bernard Carlson for a lecture on Nikola Tesla, March 24, 2014

Carlson Poster - with tesla

Fantasy Physics: Should Einstein Have Won Seven Nobel Prizes?

This guest post from A. Douglas Stone is part of our celebration of all things Einstein, pi, and, of course, pie this week. For more articles, please click here. Please join Prof. Stone at the Princeton Public Library on March 14 at 6 PM for a lecture about Einstein’s quantum breakthroughs.

Cross-posted with the Huffington Post.

Thanks to RealClearScience for posting about this article!!


2014-03-12-Albert_Einstein_28Nobel291.pngAlbert Einstein never cared too much about receiving awards and honors, and that included the Nobel Prizes, which were established in 1901, at roughly the same time as Einstein was beginning his research career in physics. In 1905, at the age of 25, Einstein began his ascent to scientific pre-eminence and world-wide fame with his proposal of the Special Theory of Relativity, as well as a “revolutionary” paper on the particulate properties of light, his foundational work on molecular (“Brownian”) motion, and finally his famous equation, E = mc2. In 1910, he was first nominated for the Prize and was nominated many times subsequently, usually by multiple physicists, until he finally won the 1921 Prize (awarded in 1922). Surprisingly, he did not win for his most famous achievement, Relativity Theory, which was still deemed too speculative and uncertain to endorse with the Prize. Instead, he won for his 1905 proposal of the law of the photoelectric effect—empirically verified in the following decade by Robert Millikan—and for general “services to theoretical physics.” It was a political decision by the Nobel committee; Einstein was so renowned that their failure to select him had become an embarrassment to the Nobel institution. But this highly conservative organization could find no part of his brilliant portfolio that they either understood or trusted sufficiently to name specifically, except for this relatively minor implication of his 1905 paper on particles of light. The final irony in this selection was that, among the many controversial theories that Einstein had proposed in the previous seventeen years, the only one not accepted by almost all of the leading theoretical physicists of the time was precisely his theory of light quanta (or photons), which he had used to find the law of the photoelectric effect!

In keeping with his relative indifference to such honors, Einstein declined to attend the award ceremony, because he had previously committed to a lengthy trip to Japan at that time and didn’t feel it was fair to his hosts to cancel it. Moreover, when the Prize was officially announced and the news reached him during his long voyage to Japan, he neglected to even mention the Prize in the travel diary he was keeping. He had taken one practical note of it however, in advance. When he divorced his first wife, Mileva Maric in 1919, he agreed to transfer to her the full prize money, a substantial sum, in the form of a Trust for the benefit of her and his sons, should he eventually win.

However, while Einstein himself barely dwelt at all on this honor, it is an interesting exercise to ask how many distinct breakthroughs Einstein made during his productive research career, spanning primarily the years 1905 to 1925, that could be judged of Nobel caliber, when placed in historical context and evaluated by the standards of subsequent Nobel Prize awards. Admittedly, this analysis has a bit in common with fantasy sports, in which athletes are judged and ranked by their statistical achievements and arguments are made about who was the GOAT (“greatest of all time”). Well, why not spend a few pages on this guilty pleasure, at least partly in the service of illuminating the achievements of this historic genius, even if Einstein would not have approved?

Let’s start with the Prize he did receive, which was absolutely deserved, if the committee had had the courage to write the citation, “for his proposal of the existence of light quanta.” The law of the photoelectric effect, which they cited, only makes sense if light behaves like a particle in some important respects, and that is what he proposed in 1905. This proposal came at a time when the wave theory of light was absolutely triumphant and was even enshrined in a critical technology: radio. Not a single physicist in the world was thinking along similar lines as Einstein, nor were all of the important theorists convinced by his arguments for two more decades. Nonetheless, the photon concept was unambiguously confirmed in experiments by 1925, and now is considered the paradigm for our modern quantum theory of force-carrying particles. It is the first in a family of particles known as bosons, most recently augmented by the (Nobel-winning) discovery of the Higgs particle. So the photon is a Nobel slam dunk.

We can move next to two more “no-brainers,” the two theories of relativity, the Special Theory, proposed in 1905, and the General Theory, germinated in 1907 and completed in 1915. These are quite distinct contributions. The Special Theory introduced the Principle of Relativity, that the law of physics must all be the same for bodies in uniform relative motion. An amazing implication of this statement is that time does not elapse uniformly, independent of the motion of observers, but rather that the time interval between events depends on the state of relative motion of the observer. Einstein was the first to understand and explain this radical notion, which is now well-verified by direct experiments. Moreover, Einstein’s concept of “relativistic invariance” is built into our theory of the elementary particles, and so it has had a profound impact on fundamental physics. However, here it must be noted that the equations of Special Relativity were first written down by Hendrik Lorentz, the great Dutch physicist whom Einstein admired the most of all his contemporaries. Lorentz just failed to give them the radical interpretation with which Einstein endowed them; he also failed to notice that they implied that energy and mass were interchangeable: E = mc2. There are also a few votes out there for the French mathematician, Henri Poincare, who enunciated the Principle of Relativity before Einstein, but I can’t put him in the same category as Lorentz with regard to this debate. Einstein would have been happy to share Special Relativity with Lorentz, so let’s split this one 50-50 between the two.

General Relativity on the other hand is all Albert. Like the photon, no one on the planet even had an inkling of this idea before Einstein. Einstein realized that the question of the relativity of motion was tied up with the theory of Gravity: that uniform acceleration (e.g. in an elevator in empty space) was indistinguishable from the effect of gravity on the surface of a planet. It gave one the same sense of weight. From this simple seed of an idea arose arguably the most beautiful and mathematically profound theory in all of physics, Einstein’s Field Equations, which predict that matter curves space and that the geometry of our universe is non-Euclidean in general. The theory underlies modern cosmology and has been verified in great detail by multiple heroic and diverse experiments. The first big experiment, which measured the deflection of starlight as it passed by the sun during a total eclipse, is what made Einstein a worldwide celebrity. This one is probably worth two Nobel prizes, but let’s just mark it down for one.

Here we exhaust what most working physicists would immediately recognize as Einstein’s works of genius, and we’re only at 2.5 Nobels. But it is a remarkable fact that Einstein’s work on early atomic theory, what we now call quantum theory, is vastly under-rated. This is partially because Einstein himself downplayed it due to his rejection of the final version of the theory, which he dismissed with the famous phrase, “God does not play dice.” But if one looks at what he actually did, the Nobels keep piling up.

The modern theory of the atom, quantum theory, began in 1900 with the work of the German physicist, Max Planck, who, in what he called “an act of desperation,” introduced into physics a radical notion, quantization of energy. Or so the textbooks say. This is the idea that when energy is exchanged between atoms and radiation (e.g. light), it can only happen in discrete chunks, like a parking meter that only accepts quarters. This idea turns out to be central to modern atomic physics, but Planck didn’t really say this in his work. He said something much more provisional and ambiguous. It was Einstein in his 1905 paper—but then much more clearly in a follow-up paper on the vibrations of atoms in solids in 1907—who really stated the modern principle. It is not clear if Planck himself accepted it fully even a decade after his seminal work (although he was given credit for it by the Nobel Prize committee in 1918). In contrast, Einstein boldly applied it to the mechanical motion of atoms, even when they are not exchanging energy with radiation, and stated clearly the need for a quantized mechanics. So despite the textbooks, Einstein clearly should have shared Planck’s Nobel Prize for the principle of quantization of energy. We are up to 3.0 Nobels for Big Al.

The next one in line is rarely mentioned. After Einstein proposed his particulate theory of light in 1905, he did not adopt the view that light was simply made of particles in the ordinary sense of a localized chunk of matter, like a grain of sand. Instead, he was well aware that light interfered with itself in a similar manner to water waves (a peak can cancel a trough, leading to no wave). In 1909, he came up with a mathematical proof that the particle and wave properties were present in one formula that described the fluctuations of the intensity of light. Hence, he announced that the next era of theoretical physics would see a “fusion” of the particle and wave pictures into a unified theory. This is exactly what happened, but it took fourteen years for the next advance and another three (1926) for it all to fall into place. In 1923, the French physicist Louis de Broglie hypothesized that electrons, which have mass (unlike light) and were always previously conceived of as particles, actually had wavelike properties similar to light. He freely admitted his debt to Einstein for this idea, but when he got the Nobel Prize for “wave-particle” duality in 1929, it was not shared. But it should have been. Another half for Albert, at 3.5 and counting.

From 1911 to 1915 Einstein took a vacation from the quantum to invent General Relativity, which we have already counted, so his next big thing was in 1916 (he didn’t leave a lot of dead time in those days). That was three years after Niels Bohr introduced his “solar system” model of the atom, where the electrons could only travel in certain “allowed orbits” with quantized energy. Einstein went back to thinking about how atoms would absorb light, with the benefit of Bohr’s picture. He realized that once an atom had absorbed some light, it would eventually give that light energy back by a process called spontaneous emission. Without any particular event to cause it, the electron would jump down to a lower energy orbit, emitting a photon. This was the first time that it was proposed that the theory of atoms had such random, uncaused events, a notion that became a second pillar of quantum theory. In addition, he stated that sometimes there was causal emission, that the imposition of more light could cause the atom to release its absorbed light energy in a process called stimulated emission. Forty-four years later, physicists invented a device that uses this principle to produce the purest and most powerful light sources in nature, the LASER (Light Amplified by Stimulated Emission of Radiation). The principles of spontaneous and stimulated emission introduced by Einstein underlie the modern quantum theory of light. One full Prize please—now at 4.5.

After that 1916-1917 work, Einstein had some health problems and became involved in political and social issues for a while, leading to a Nobel batting slump for a few years. (He did still collect some hits, like the prediction of gravitational waves (a double) and the first paper on cosmology and the geometry of the Universe using General Relativity (a triple)). But he came out of his slump with a vengeance in 1924 when he received a paper out of the blue from an unknown Indian, physicist Satyendranath Bose. It was yet another paper about particles of light, and although Bose did not state his revolutionary idea very clearly, reading between the lines, Einstein detected a completely new principle of quantum theory, the idea that all fundamental particles are indistinguishable. This is the standard terminology in physics, but it is actually very misleading. Here, indistinguishability is not the idea that humans can’t tell two photons apart (like identical twins); it is the idea that Nature can’t tell them apart, and in a real sense interchanging the two photons doesn’t count as a different state of light.

When Bose applied this principle to light he didn’t get anything radically new; it was just a different way of thinking about Planck’s original discovery in 1900. But Einstein then took the principle and applied it to atoms for the very first time, with amazing results. He discovered that a simple gas of atoms, if cooled down sufficiently, would cease to obey all the laws that physicists and chemist had discovered for gases over the centuries, and to which no exception had ever been found. Instead, all gases should behave like a weird liquid or super-molecule known as a Bose-Einstein condensate. But remember, Bose had no clue this would happen; he didn’t even try to apply his principle to atoms. It turns out that Einstein condensation underlies some of the most dramatic quantum effects, such as superconductivity, which is needed to make the magnets in MRI machines and has been the basis for five Nobel Prizes. No knowledgeable physicist would dispute that Einstein deserved a full Nobel Prize for this discovery, but I am sure that Einstein would have wanted to share it with Bose (who never did receive the Prize).

So we are at 5.0 “units” of Nobel Prize but seven trips to Stockholm. And this leaves out other arguably Nobel-caliber achievements (Brownian motion as well as the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen effect, which underlies modern quantum information physics). And wait a minute—when someone shares the Nobel Prize do we refer to them as a “half- Laureate”? No way. Even scientists who get a “measly” third of a Prize are Nobel Laureates for life. Thus by the standard we apply to normal humans, Einstein deserved at least seven Nobel Prizes. So next time you make your fantasy scientist draft, you know who to take at number one.


Stone_EinsteinQuantum_jktA. Douglas Stone is author of Einstein and the Quantum: The Quest of The Valiant Swabian.

The complete line up for Princeton’s Pi Day Celebration

As noted earlier, we are partnering with the Princeton Public Library and the Princeton Tour Company on some author presentations this week. In fact, Chuck Adler is the kick-off for the entire weekend with a talk on Wizards, Aliens, and Starships at the Princeton Public Library on Thursday evening. Physicist Doug Stone will then present about Einstein’s under acknowledged contributions to quantum theory and quantum mechanics on Pi Day proper. We hope you will join the library in welcoming our authors and that you will check out the other fantastic, fun events scheduled over the weekend.

To really give you a sense of what to expect, read this excellent preview from the Princeton Packet.

An Infinitely Delightful Number of Events Planned for the 2014 Pi Day Princeton & Einstein Birthday Party Celebrations!

Adler_Wizards_jktThursday, 3.13.14             PI DAY EVE

7:00 p.m.

Academic Celebrity Pi Day Event with Charles Adler at Princeton Public Library

Friday, 3.14.14                 PI DAY & EINSTEIN’S BIRTHDAY

11:00 a.m.

Walking Tour of Einstein’s Neighborhood begins at 116 Nassau Street (the U-Store)

1:59 p.m.

Deadline to submit International Pi Day Princeton Video Contest

3:14 p.m.

Walk a Pi Event at YMCA

3:14 p.m.

Pizza Pi Competition at Princeton Pi – Mayor & Superintendent of Princeton Schools are judges!   Winner receives free pizza for a year!  (Email here to register your middle school aged competitor.)

3:14 p.m.

Launch of Free Smart Phone Tour of Princeton & EinsteinStone_EinsteinQuantum_jkt

6:00 p.m.

Academic Celebrity Pi Day Event with famed physicist A. Douglas Stone at Princeton Library

8:00 p.m.

Princeton Light Up The Night Event - Courtesy of Princeton University, Princeton Township and Princeton Pedestrian/Bicyclist Advisory Committee

8:00 p.m.

Outerbridge Ensemble, led by pianist, Steve Hudson at Arts Council of Princeton

Saturday, 3.15.14            OUR UNREAL CELEBRATION DAY

9:00 a.m.

Pie Eating Contest at McCaffrey’s at Princeton Shopping Center and moderated by Princeton comedic celebrity, Adam Bierman. Winner gets bragging rights and all the pie they can eat first thing in the morning!

10:00 a.m.

Kids’ Violin Exhibition at Princeton Library by Princeton Symphony Orchestra (Email here to register your 3yr – 6yr old child)

11:00 a.m.

Einstein Look A Like Contest at Princeton Library. Winner of 13yrs and younger category receives $314.15  (Email here to register your child.)

11:00 a.m.

“Happy Birthday Einstein!” party at Historical Society of Princeton (Email here to register your child)

12:00 p.m.

International Puzzle Celebrity Guest: Tetsuya Miyamoto, inventor of KENKEN at Princeton Library

12:00 p.m.

Dinky Rides with Einstein at Dinky Station

12:00 p.m

Academic Celebrity Book Signing with Jennifer Berne at Jazams

1:00 p.m.

KENKEN Tournament for Teens (and other teen-spirited humans) at Princeton Library

1:00 p.m.

Pi Recitation Contest at Princeton Library. Winner of Youth Category (aged 7yrs – 13 yrs) receives $314.15  (Email here to register your child.)

1:30 p.m.

Finding Pi – hands on activities for children 5yrs and up at Princeton Library

2:00 p.m.

Celebrity Book Party with Laura Overdeck at Labyrinth Books

2:15 p.m.

Rubik’s Cube Interactive Demonstration at Princeton Library

2:45 p.m.

Pie Judging Event at Nassau Inn Yankee Doodle Tap Room by Real Possibilities Accounting Firm  First 50 participants to arrive will decide the Best Apple Pie among select Princeton bakeries!

3:14 p.m.

Pie Throwing Event at Palmer Square Green

3:14 p.m.

World Premiere & Announcement of International Video Contest Winner on Facebook . Winning Middle School receives $314.15

3:30 p.m.

Guided Einstein Tour with Mimi Omiecinski of Princeton Tour Company  begins at Library

4:00 p.m.

“Happy Birthday Einstein!” party at Historical Society of Princeton (Email here to register your child)

4:00 p.m.

Mega Chess Champion Demo & Free Style Play featuring chess champion David Hua

5:00 p.m.

Pi Social & Concert at Princeton Library

ADVANCED REGISTRATION for Pi Day Competitions and EARLY ARRIVAL are preferred to guarantee participation.  All contests are free and open to the public.  Arts Council Performance and Historical Society Birthday Parties require a nominal fee.  See website for additional details.

A detailed description, rules and addresses for Pi Day 2014 Events can be found here!

Pi Day and Princeton as perfect as…well…pie

As you can well imagine, Einstein is kind of a big deal in Princeton. So, it’s not too surprising that Pi Day, the annual celebration of Einstein’s actual birthday on March 14 (3.14!) that has morphed into a celebration of all things scientific and mathematical, is practically a town-wide holiday. Princeton University Press is partnering with Princeton Public Library on some very exciting events with our authors.

j10070[1]Chuck Adler will kick things off at 7 PM on Pi Day Eve (yes, I may have just invented a new holiday) at the Princeton Public Library with a discussion of his new book Wizards, Aliens, and Starships. Chuck’s specialty is looking at the mathematical underpinnings of some of our favorite works of science fiction and fantasy literature. Why is Hogwart’s always so dark? Could the Weasleys’ flying car really exist? How much longer do we have to wait for Star Trek-style teleportation and/or space elevators? Chuck answers these questions and more with fun, accessible math.

j10068[1]The following day, Doug Stone headlines the Pi Day festivities with a talk about Einstein and the Quantum: The Quest of the Valiant Swabian, a new book that argues that Einstein’s contributions to science have not been fully realized. While we acknowledge Einstein as the father of relativity, we haven’t really understood the scope of the work he did on quantum theory and why he ultimately turned his back on this area of inquiry. Join Doug at the Princeton Public Library at 6 PM as he fills in the gaps and presents a more complete portrait of Einstein’s career than ever available before.

For a complete list of PiDay events in Princeton, including a mysterious pizza pi competition and Einstein walking tours, please visit the official Pi Day Princeton web site.

Emily Apter, Jacques Lezra, and Michael Wood discuss the Dictionary of Untranslatables [VIDEO]

Earlier this week, close to one hundred humanities lovers gathered for a discussion around the Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon with editors Emily Apter, Jacques Lezra, and Michael Wood, due out this month from Princeton University Press.

Please enjoy this video of the entire event, the first in this season’s Great New Books in the Humanities series co-sponsored by the Humanities Initiative and by the New York Institute for the Humanities at New York University: