From page 132 of Bird Brain:
A famous fable attributed to Aesop is “The Crow and the Pitcher.” A thirsty crow comes across a pitcher of water, but the water is so low that she cannot reach it with her beak. She comes up with the idea of adding stones to the pitcher to bring the water higher where she can reach it. In studies that recreate these conditions with crows, it has been found that they are intelligent enough to figure out how to do this in real life. In fact, they quickly figure out that adding large stones to the pitcher will bring the water up faster than small stones.
Birds have not been known for their high IQs, which is why a person of questionable intelligence is sometimes called a “birdbrain.” Yet in the past two decades, the study of avian intelligence has witnessed dramatic advances. From a time when birds were seen as simple instinct machines responding only to stimuli in their external worlds, we now know that some birds have complex internal worlds as well. This beautifully illustrated book provides an engaging exploration of the avian mind, revealing how science is exploding one of the most widespread myths about our feathered friends—and changing the way we think about intelligence in other animals as well.
Bird Brain looks at the structures and functions of the avian brain, and describes the extraordinary behaviors that different types of avian intelligence give rise to. It offers insights into crows, jays, magpies, and other corvids—the “masterminds” of the avian world—as well as parrots and some less-studied species from around the world. This lively and accessible book shows how birds have sophisticated brains with abilities previously thought to be uniquely human, such as mental time travel, self-recognition, empathy, problem solving, imagination, and insight.
Written by a leading expert and featuring a foreword by Frans de Waal, renowned for his work on animal intelligence, Bird Brain shines critical new light on the mental lives of birds.