The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein captures his journey to the Far East while dealing with the consequences of celebrity in turbulent political times — PUBLICATION DAY

THE COLLECTED PAPERS OF ALBERT EINSTEIN
Volume 13: The Berlin Years: Writings
& Correspondence, January 1922—March 1923, Documentary Edition

Edited by Diana Kormos Buchwald, József Illy, Ze’ev Rosenkranz, & Tilman Sauer

Princeton University Press, the Einstein Papers Project at California Institute of Technology, and the Albert
Einstein Archives at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
, are pleased to be publishing the latest volume in the massively authoritative Einstein Papers Project THE COLLECTED PAPERS OF ALBERT EINSTEIN: Volume 13: The Berlin Years: Writings & Correspondence, January 1922—March 23, Documentary Edition on September 25, 2012.  When in the fall of 1922 it was announced that Albert Einstein had won the Nobel Prize in Physics, after more than a decade of nominations, Einstein was on a steamer headed for Japan. Although he was unofficially made aware of the upcoming award, he decided to leave Berlin, and makes no mention of the award in his detailed and poetic Travel Diary of his trip to the Far East, Palestine, and Spain, published here in its entirety for the first time. Together with a correspondence of 1,000 letters—most of which were never published before—with numerous colleagues, friends, and family members, the volume presents a rich trove of documents, central to understanding this period in Einstein’s life and work, heavily marked by the assassination of Germany’s foreign minister, his friend Walther Rathenau. As Einstein himself professed, the trip was an escape from the tense atmosphere in Berlin and rumored threats against his own life, as well as the fulfillment of his long-held desire to visit Japan.

Aside from his personal and political activities documented here, among which are his visit to Paris and his involvement in the League of Nations, Einstein was still heavily engaged in major current issues in theoretical physics. Thus, from among the thirty-six writings covering these fifteen months, a paper on the Stern-Gerlach experiment, written with Paul Ehrenfest, shows with uncompromising clarity that the experiment posed a problem that could not be solved by contemporary quantum theory and anticipates, in a sense, what later would become known as the quantum measurement problem.  In relativity theory, Einstein continued to be concerned with its cosmological implications, and with the extent to which Mach’s principle would be vindicated in special solutions.  He also began to investigate the possibilities and restrictions that relativity implied for a unified field theory of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields.  During periods of leisure on board the steamer on his return trip from Japan, he completed a paper which further developed Arthur S. Eddington’s recent reinterpretation of relativity as being based solely on the concept of the so-called affine connection.

THE COLLECTED PAPERS OF ALBERT EINSTEIN

Diana Kormos Buchwald, General Editor

THE COLLECTED PAPERS OF ALBERT EINSTEIN is one of the most ambitious publishing ventures ever undertaken in the documentation of the history of science.  Selected from among more than 40,000 documents contained in the personal collection of Albert Einstein (1879-1955), and 20,000 Einstein and Einstein-related documents discovered by the editors since the beginning of the Einstein Papers Project,  The Collected Papers will provide the first complete picture of a massive written legacy that ranges from Einstein’s first work on the special and general theories of relativity and the origins of quantum theory, to expressions of his profound concern with international cooperation and reconciliation, civil liberties, education, Zionism, pacifism, and disarmament.  The series will contain over 14,000 documents and will fill close to thirty volumes.  Sponsored by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Princeton University Press, the project is located at and supported by the California Institute of Technology, and will make available a monumental collection of primary material. The Albert Einstein Archives is located at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

ABOUT THE SERIES

Thirteen volumes covering Einstein’s life and work up to his forty-fourth birthday have so far been published. They present more than 300 writings and 5,000 letters written by and to Einstein. Every document in The Collected Papers appears in the language in which it was written, while the introduction, headnotes, footnotes, and other scholarly apparatus is in English.  Upon release of each volume, Princeton University Press also publishes an English translation of previously untranslated non-English documents.

About the Editors:
At the California Institute of Technology, Diana Kormos Buchwald is professor of history; József Illy, Ze’ev Rosenkranz, and Tilman Sauer are senior researchers in history

If you’re ever in Brooklyn and want/need some drink and knowledge, check out the Secret Science Club as profiled in the New York Times

We were thrilled to read Jennifer Schuessler’s terrific story on the popular phenomenon of bar lecturing (and not in an intoxicated way, but a learned way!)  Check out her story here.  It looks like alcohol and science is a powerful (and successful) formula. 

The Press is pleased to have had the pleasure of working with the Secret Science Club as they’ve hosted talks for a handful of our science authors.  In particular, I was delighted to see friend-of-the-Press Dorian Devins at the SSC getting a mention!

New Physics & Astrophysics Catalog

We invite you to view our new 2012 physics and astrophysics catalog at:
http://press.princeton.edu/catalogs/physics12.pdf

Be sure to check out all of the wonderful series featured in this catalog, including In a Nutshell and Princeton Frontiers in Physics, as well as our great textbook options. New and forthcoming titles include How to Build a Habitable Planet by Charles H. Langmuir & Wally Broecker, Strange New Worlds by Ray Jayawardhana, Reinventing Discovery by Michael Nielsen, The Ultimate Book of Saturday Science by Neil A. Downie, and more. Many new paperbacks and ebooks are also available. It’s easy to download the catalog to your smartphone or tablet for browsing.

We’re at this year’s AAS meeting in Austin, TX. Stop by and visit us at booth #211.

Astronomer Ray Jayawardhana will discuss his new book STRANGE NEW WORLDS at the American Museum of Natural History/Hayden Planetarium on October 3

If you are in the New York City area this Monday, October 3, please come out to the Amercan Museum of Natural History’s Hayden Planetarium to see author and astronomer Ray Jayawardhana discuss his new book STRANGE NEW WORLDS: The Search for Alien Planets and life beyond Our Solar SystemThe event begins at 7:30 PM for the Hayden’s renowned Fronters in Astrophysics lecture series.

To whet your appetite, check out Ray’s recent talk at Google below.

Astronomer Avi Loeb describes how the first stars and galaxies formed

Before we get all the way back to the Big Bang, there may have been a time when stars like our Sun and galaxies like our Milky Way did not exist, because the Universe was denser than it is now. Harvard professor Avi Loeb explores how and when the first stars and galaxies formed in this talk taped at the Santa Barbara Museum of Science.

We are the publishers of Loeb’s recent book titled, appropriately enough, How Did the First Stars and Galaxies Form?

Jacob Schiach is almost as excited as we are about Reinventing Discovery

Even though the cover is reversed, that galley is easily recognizable as Reinventing Discovery by Michael Nielsen. We expect finished books in October, but so far most of the reactions have been, well, you can see for yourself…

Via our friends at Citizen Science Quarterly.

PGS Dialogue: David Weintraub, author of How Old Is the Universe?

David Weintraub’s most recent book, How Old Is the Universe?, is a readable investigation of the title question that explains how we have arrived at an approximate age of 13.7 billion years for the universe. Weintraub works his way from biblical chronology of the origins of the universe to the high-tech astronomy research taking place today in this accessible and entertaining history. We recently posed some questions to Prof. Weintraub by email and are pleased to present this dialogue.



PUP: I am not an astronomer, so I was relieved to discover I could actually read How Old Is the Universe? You clearly went to great efforts to make the text accessible. How difficult was it to break down these big scientific ideas, terms, and facts for general readers?

Professor David Weintraub: Making sure I was speaking to a non-professional audience in English rather than in the jargon-filled language of astronomy was a constant challenge.  A major goal with this book is to help general-audience readers understand the complicated and unfamiliar concepts described between the covers.  Consequently I focused on this issue quite literally with every word I wrote.  At the risk of being struck down by the gods for hubris, I do think I have done better at this than most astronomers who are trying to communicate with a non-professional audience.  Nevertheless, more than a few of my descriptions passed through my ‘language of the lay reader’ filter unnoticed by me.  Fortunately, Princeton University Press assigned my manuscript to an editor who asked me lots of excellent questions for clarification, and quite often her questions arose when she bumped into a piece of text in which the meaning was unclear to her because of my too-technical word choices.  I do think, in the end, the presentation of difficult concepts in this book is accessible to the general reader because we paid such close attention to language and because I continually reminded myself of whom the readership of the book is intended to be.  My editor was a humanist who knew no astronomy before beginning to edit the book.  So she was my test reader; if she didn’t understand my words, I flunked the test.  When we were done, she felt that she understood every word and had learned and now understood everything in the book.  Fortunately for her and all readers, unless you are in one of my classes, there is no test at the end of each chapter.


(blog editor note: But if you do like homework, you can find lots of extra course materials on Prof. Weintraub’s site: http://sitemason.vanderbilt.edu/site/gVfcE8/How_Old_is_the_Universe)

PUP: One of the scientific principles you describe so clearly in the book is the rate at which the universe is expanding. While we are often told to assume nothing, you note that in this case, there is a lot of evidence to support the assumption that the expansion rate of the universe has been nearly constant. Can you talk a little bit about the expansion of the universe and the role dark energy plays in the process?

DW: The rate at which the universe has been expanding has changed over the lifetime of the universe, but since it first reached its current expansion speed it has not changed by much.  For the first few moments after the universe’s birth, the expansion rate was dramatically higher.  But that period of time (known as the inflationary epoch) lasted only a tiny fraction of a second.  Thereafter, the rate of expansion was nearly constant for ten billion years.  For the last few billion years, the expansion rate has been increasing, but the rate of increase is so slow, it is only barely measureable. Thus, it is safe to say that the expansion rate of the universe has been nearly constant for almost the entire history of the universe.

The actual measurements indicate we now live in an accelerating universe; these words simply mean that the rate of expansion is increasing. Dark energy is the name we give to the physical process that is causing the expansion rate of the universe to increase.  The evidence for the accelerating universe comes from measuring the distances and velocities (away from us, in all cases) of extremely distant galaxies; those measurements come from observing exploding stars called supernovae.  Supernovae are among the brightest objects in the universe; because they are so bright, we can detect them even when they are very far away, and because supernovae are stars that live and die inside galaxies, the supernovae are like flags that wave and tell us the distance to the galaxies in which they reside.

PUP: From exploding to imploding stars…In chapter four, you describe what happens to stars once they have drained the number of protons in their core. The resulting bodies are called “red giants.” What would happen to the Earth if (or when) the Sun turns into a red giant? How would it affect the other planets and bodies in our solar system?

DW: In about three billion years, the Sun will begin to evolve into a red giant.  So the question is not “if” but “when” this will happen.   During this red-giant phase of a star’s lifetime, the star puffs up.  The outer layers of the Sun likely will expand outward and fill up most of the volume of the solar system inside of the Earth’s orbit.  While the surface of the Sun will actually be cooler than it is now, it will still have a temperature of several thousand degrees, and that surface layer will be so close to the Earth that the heat received by the Earth will increase so much that the atmosphere and oceans will literally boil off into space.  The Earth itself might eventually turn molten before it is swallowed by the Sun.  Before the Earth is destroyed by the dying Sun, the planets Mercury and Venus, both of which are closer to the Sun than is the Earth, will suffer similar fates.  Mars is probably far enough away from the Sun that it might survive, but it also will lose what little atmosphere it has.  The outer solar system would be affected in less extreme ways.

PUP: This is the stuff of childhood nightmares, which leads naturally to childhood daydreams, or in this case, star-gazing. A good part of what we know about the universe, we know because of the close observation of identifiable stars. But there are hundreds of millions of stars; how is it possible to keep track of individual stars?

DW: Imagine sitting in the stands at a football game; you look across at the 40,000 fans sitting on the opposite side of the stadium from you.  You make a map of where each fan is sitting and identify each one with a section, row, and seat number.  With your binoculars, you carefully make some observations of each and every fan (long brown hair or bald headed? baseball cap or no hat?  glasses? beard? windbreaker or raincoat?) so that each person can be distinguished from his or her closest neighbors.  Now the rules for movement: no fan is allowed to move more than 1 inch per century.  Yes, per hundred year interval of time.  Now you go home, sleep like Rip van Winkle, eat, work, come back in fifty years and look again across the stadium.  You will be able to identify each and every football fan, both from their locations and their particular characteristics (provided they’ve been fed well and don’t age much). The stars are so far away from us that the rates at which they change positions are almost immeasurable, even in a human lifetime.  The stars do move, and astronomers can measure their motions, but their motions are so small that year after year we are able to easily find and re-find the same stars.

PUP: Another fascinating fact I took away from the book is that stars come in different colors. You note that some stars are blue and others are red, but that they may not be visible to the naked human eye. Why is this?

DW: Most stars emit light in fairly similar amounts across the spectrum of visible light (what our eyes can perceive) and thus appear white.  But red stars and blue stars do exist and are visible to the naked human eye.  Red stars emit light in all colors, but they emit more red light than any other color; similarly, blue stars emit all colors of light, but they emit more blue light than green or yellow or orange or red.

My eyes are not very sensitive to colors — I fail all the color-blindness tests — so to my eyes, red giants are barely different in color from most other stars (that appear white) and blue supergiants are only a bit bluer, as seen by me, than most other stars.  But to observers whose eyes are sensitive to subtle color differences, red stars and blue stars are easily distinguished from the rest of the stars.  Clear skies help; patience in observing the night sky helps; and knowing where to look helps.  But once a red star or blue giant star is pointed out to you, you would immediately recognize their colors.   Most of us simply have not spent enough time looking up at night, under dark skies, to notice the color differences among stars.

PUP: It seems as if any discussion of astronomy almost always leads to the great Hollywood question – “Is there extra-terrestrial life in the universe?” What are your thoughts on the possibility of finding ET?

DW: I find the universe to be incomprehensibly immense and lonely.  I almost long for the olden days — before Copernicus — when humans “knew” that the entire universe was small and we were of central importance to the workings of the universe.

I am not convinced, as most of my professional colleagues and Hollywood producers seem to be, that the universe must be populated with life, including intelligent life.  I also am not convinced that we are alone.  I think we lack the knowledge to make any claims, one way or another, about life beyond the Earth.  But I do find Enrico Fermi’s question “Where are they?” the one I think about the most.  Wherever they are, if someone else is out there, we haven’t found them yet and they haven’t found us yet and we see no evidence of their presence in or impact on at least our part of the Milky Way galaxy.  Our solar system is fairly hostile to life.  Venus and Mars, the most Earthlike planets in our solar system, did not survive for long enough as habitable planets for advanced life forms like us to make them home.  The Earth, in fact, may be a very special place.

This suggests to me that life may be rare, if not unique, at least in our part of the universe and that humanity must take more responsibility for ensuring the survival of life.  Not the survival of life on Earth but life itself.  We may have an incredibly important responsibility.  If we’re it, then if we screw this planet up, the grand experiment of life in the universe might end with us.

I do think that all the wild speculation about life beyond the Earth permits us to be very casual about life on Earth; it permits is to be cavalier about our stewardship of our planet.  Many religious beliefs also lead us to acting selfishly about life and our planet.  I don’t think such carefree attitudes about the health of our planet are good ones.

PUP: That segues somewhat neatly into my next questions. It may surprise some readers that you start your “popular science book” with an account of biblical chronology.  In fact, chapter two (titled “4004 BCE”) opens with a famous quote from The Annals of the World in which James Ussher determines that the universe was born on “the twenty third day of October in the year of the Julian calendar, 710.” Why did you select this quote? And why engage with a religious account that is at odds with scientific research?

DW: The quote, or at least a poor paraphrase thereof, from Bishop Ussher is well-known.  I placed an important quote at the beginning of each chapter that is related to the most important concept presented in that chapter, and I thought it would be of some value to place in front of readers an accurate quote from Bishop Ussher.

As for why the chapter is in the book, I wanted to recognize the role that biblical chronology and scholarship played in understanding the age of the universe.  For a short period of time, in the seventeenth century, scholars like James Ussher and John Lightfoot were at the intellectual forefront in this field.  Most scholars, let alone non-professionals, don’t recognize that fact and often laugh at this quote.  My goals with this chapter were to recognize the important role that biblical chronology played, as an attempt to answer questions about the age of the Earth and the universe, in the seventeenth century, but also to point out that this method of scholarship was quickly found to be flawed and thus was left behind.  As a scholarly discipline, biblical chronology never achieved scholarly success, and in addition, it was supplanted by modern science.  The history of science reveals progress in our knowledge; this chapter presents a good illustration of such progress.  Biblical chronology was cutting edge in 1650, but it was quickly supplanted by better ideas, scientific ideas.

My hope, with this chapter, is that I would engage some readers who might put some credence in biblical chronology as an accurate chronometer for the universe, but to do so without insulting them.

PUP: How did your fascination with astronomy begin?

DW: I have no idea.  I flunked out of boy scouts at age 11 because I failed, multiple times, the test for identifying constellations and simply gave up thinking I could ever achieve the rank of first-class scout.  I know that I was never interested in looking up and memorizing the patterns of stars.  But I was a youth and a young teenager when some big discoveries were made in astronomy — the cosmic background radiation in 1965, pulsars in 1968 — and I grew up in the early days of space exploration — the race to the moon, the Pioneer and Voyager missions to the outer solar system, the Viking mission to Mars.  So my youth was peppered with news and excitement about space.  I also read science fiction, and I know that certain stories (Arthur C. Clarke’s The Nine Billion Names of God, The Star, and 2001, foremost among them) had a big impact on me.  I found myself interested in what stars and galaxies are and how they worked, but mostly I found myself interested in planets and the question “how do planets form?”

PUP: What advice would you offer a person who is thinking about pursuing astronomy?

DW: Astronomy is fun and being an astronomer is a wonderful way to be spending my life.  I would encourage a young person interested in astronomy to follow that interest as far as it takes him or her.  Astronomy is a tremendously successful vehicle for getting our youth interested in science.  With apologies to my friends who are chemists, I think it is obvious that learning about black holes and dark matter is more exciting to most young people, at first blush, than studying about covalent and ionic bonds.  Once youth become excited about astronomy, however, they discover that they need to know some fundamental science and math in order to further pursue their love of astronomy.  As a result, it’s a short hop, skip, and jump into the serious study of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, and computer science, all of which are important as foundational disciplines for astronomy.  Most of those who start out interested in astronomy will discover that these or other related disciplines (geology, engineering) or more distant ones that they discover (neuroscience, anthropology) through their studies of these fundamental disciplines become their passion.

PUP: What are your hopes for those who read this book?

DW: I would like readers to share in the wonder of knowing that humans have discovered the age of the universe.  This is a phenomenal, almost outlandish achievement.  Rather than sitting back and saying “Astronomers claim this is so and I guess I should believe them,” I want readers to say “Astronomers have explained to me, step by step, how they obtained the age of the universe, and I understand what they have done and I agree with their answer.”

PUP: Do you have any future projects in mind? Perhaps another book?

DW: Yes, I am working on current projects and have future projects in mind.  My research, primarily on why very young stars produce X-rays and whether those X-rays can tell us anything about the formation of planetary systems around those stars continues.  But like all baseball players, I believe in jinxes.  So I would prefer not to jinx myself by telling you much more than that or by answering the second question.



Watch Prof. Weintraub’s recent lecture series hosted at Vanderbilt (Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

We’re at the APS March Meeting in Dallas

catalog coverWe would like to see you at the American Physical Society meeting in Dallas.
Stop by booth no. 719 to say hello and browse new books:

Physics and Technology for Future Presidents:
An Introduction to the Essential Physics Every World Leader Needs to Know

By Richard A. Muller

Condensed Matter in a Nutshell
By Gerald D. Mahan

Statistical and Thermal Physics:
With Computer Applications

By Harvey Gould & Jan Tobochnik

Principles of Laser Spectroscopy and Quantum Optics
By Paul R. Berman & Vladimir S. Malinovsky

Engineering Dynamics:
A Comprehensive Introduction

By N. Jeremy Kasdin & Derek A. Paley

Check out our 2011 Physics & Astrophysics catalog for more new and forthcoming titles:
http://press.princeton.edu/catalogs/physics11.pdf

Hope to see you there!
#apsmarch

Princeton Global Science, Issue 10

Recent articles in Princeton Global Science include:

A response from Louise Barrett to Nicholas Wade’s article for the New York Times on dog cognition. Louise is the author of the forthcoming book Beyond the Brain: How Body and Environment Shape Animal and Human Minds which will revolutionize how we think about and define intelligence.

Richard Crossley Unplugged provided some hints on becoming a better birder and tips on identifying birds by size. We also saw some early reviews for this revolutionary bird ID guide.

PUP author Roland Kays (Mammals of North America, 2nd edition) began his stint as a guest-blogger for the New York Times.

David Weintraub, author of How Old Is the Universe?, is interviewed by Sean Moncrieff on Ireland’s Newstalk radio.

Josh Bloom has a book launch for What Are Gamma-Ray Bursts? at the American Astronomical Society conference.

Our jacket designers give us a glimpse into the creativity that goes into a striking cover like the one for The Silicon Jungle by Shumeet Baluja, a novel of deception and mystery that gets at the heart of privacy issues and the googlization of information.

And lastly, Eugene Kaplan, author of What’s Eating You?: People and Parasites, invites you to become an adventurous eater.

Like Princeton Global Science? Subscribe to our RSS Feed here: http://blog.press.princeton.edu/category/pgs/feed/.

What Are Gamma-Ray Bursts? by Joshua Bloom

This picture was taken at the book party for What Are Gamma-Ray Bursts? at the recent meeting of the American Astronomical Society.

Gamma-ray bursts have been accused of causing mass extinctions here on Earth, but do we really have a good understanding of what they are? In the new book What Are Gamma-Ray Bursts? (part of the new Princeton Frontiers in Physics series), Joshua Bloom gives us the most comprehensive and up-to-date explanation of the discovery and physics of gamma-ray bursts.

Chapter 1 of the book is available online now.

Princeton Global Science, Issue 9

We enjoyed a nice long break for the New Year, but we’re happy to present Issue 9 of Princeton Global Science.

Richard Crossley, author of The Crossley ID Guide, explains in two videos how you can make your backyard more bird-friendly by incorporating bird baths and bird feeders (Check out the gorgeous birds in this video!).

We have sneak peeks of two catalogs — Physics and Astrophysics and Mathematical Sciences.

And lastly we have two new PGS Dialogues — Robert Kurzban who is author of Why Everyone (Else) Is a Hypocrite, and Mircea Pitici who is editor of the The Best Writing on Mathematics 2010.

Like Princeton Global Science? Subscribe to our RSS Feed here: http://blog.press.princeton.edu/category/pgs/feed/.

New and Forthcoming Titles in Physics & Astrophysics

catalog coverIntroducing our new 2011 Physics and Astrophysics catalog at:
http://press.princeton.edu/catalogs/physics11.pdf

See page 2 for our new series, The Princeton Frontiers in Physics.  The series offers short introductions to some of today’s most exciting and dynamic research across the physical sciences.  Abraham Loeb’s How Did the First Stars and Galaxies Form? and Joshua S. Bloom’s What are Gamma-Ray Bursts? launch the series.  Great books for students, scientists, and scientifically minded general readers.

Additions to the Princeton Series in Astrophysics include Bruce T. Draine’s Physics of the Interstellar and Intergalactic Medium and Sara Seager’s Exoplanet Atmospheres. Professors, make sure to check out pages 3-5 for more textbooks.

The catalog is full of new titles by leading experts.  We invite you to browse and download the catalog.  If you’re at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Seattle, please stop by booth 301 and say hello.  Hope to see you there.