David Bainbridge on Stripped Bare

For more than two thousand years, comparative anatomy—the study of anatomical variation among different animal species—has been used to make arguments in natural philosophy, reinforce religious dogma, and remind us of our own mortality. This stunningly illustrated compendium traces the intertwined intellectual and artistic histories of comparative anatomy from antiquity to today.

Stripped Bare brings together some of the most arresting images ever produced, from the earliest studies of animal form to the technicolor art of computer-generated anatomies. David Bainbridge draws on representative illustrations from different eras to discuss the philosophical, scientific, and artistic milieus from which they emerged. He vividly describes the unique aesthetics of each phase of anatomical endeavor, providing new insights into the exquisite anatomical drawings of Leonardo and Albrecht Dürer in the era before printing, Jean Héroard’s cutting and cataloging of the horse during the age of Louis XIII, the exotic pictorial menageries of the Comte de Buffon in the eighteenth century, anatomical illustrations from Charles Darwin’s voyages, the lavish symmetries of Ernst Haeckel’s prints, and much, much more.

Why The Art of Animal Anatomy?

Although my day job is teaching anatomy to veterinary students, it has taken me until my seventh book to write about it. All my other books have been about how very strange and unusual human biology is when compared to animals, but this time I thought I’d try something different. Animal structure has been a central artistic element since early humans were painting on cave walls, and I wanted to write a book that reflects how much it has permeated our artistic culture. To do this, the format had to be right – everything else I’ve written has been very text-heavy, but Stripped Bare had to let the images speak for themselves. I did have to weave it into a narrative, but just as important is the quality of the reproductions. Enormous effort and skill went into them, so we wanted to do them justice.

Has the artistic side of science always interested you?

I’ve always found that some of the most interesting aspects of science are when it interacts with language, culture and the arts. Right back when I was slogging through my science subjects to get into vet school, I was also lucky enough to be able to take a two-year course in Art History. I suppose that’s where I learnt the language – knowing my Cubists from my Fauvists, and so on – but also understood for the first time the very real ways that changes in the visual arts reflect, and are reflected by, changes in thought and society. It didn’t take long for me to realise that animal anatomy is not only depicted for its own practical sake, but has also become an eerie, visceral motif to which artists have returned again and again. It has the power to both shock and inspire, and often that’s just too good for artists to ignore.

So how important is it to be familiar with anatomy and art history to enjoy the book?

Not at all, I would say. I assumed nothing of the reader, other than an intelligent inquisitiveness. Comparative anatomy is so much more interesting than seeing the striking ways in which a human, a flamingo and a trout differ, and are similar. It’s a story which almost writes itself. In the book, I tried to highlight what I think are fascinating snippets of the science, but anatomy is a huge topic, and I couldn’t assume any prior knowledge of it. I guess I assumed slightly more foreknowledge of art history, but still not much. A general sense of the flow of the centuries and movements is beneficial, but that’s all. And if readers are teased into finding out more about Futurism or Hyperrealism, then that’s great.

Who is the most important character in the book?

It would have to be Carlo Ruini, an anatomist from Bologna who wrote the remarkable 1598 Anatomia del Cavallo (Anatomy of the Horse), what I like to think of as the Principia Mathematica of comparative anatomy. Before the Anatomia anatomical writings just looked ancient – rare, error-strewn, unscientific, fragmentary, and worst of all, often unillustrated. In contrast, for all its four centuries of existence, Ruini’s book looks recognisably modern: structured, enquiring and detailed. For example, Ruini discovered the one-way nature of the valves of the heart, an important component of later discoveries of the circulation of the blood. The anatomical precision in the book is amazing, especially as it seems to have sprung into existence as if from from nowhere, but most striking is its artistic beauty. There are hundreds of meticulous wood-block engravings, capturing not just the science of the animals’ structure, but also the emotional visual impact of gnarled bones, contorted intestines and convoluted brains. Most of all, the animals retain a remarkable dignity, despite their progressive ‘disrobing’ – they stand proud, or even sometimes trot gaily through renaissance landscapes.

And which artist brings you the most pleasure?

It would have to be Georgia O’Keeffe. In many ways she’s at the other end of the spectrum. Ruini’s book was a practical, scientific book, whereas O’Keeffe uses animal bones solely as elements, often central elements, in her compositions. Just like her paintings of libidinous flowers, her depictions of animal bones allowed her to explain her own feelings about her adopted environment in the American Southwest. Bleached skulls become the central band in the American red, white and blue, while a crumbling pelvis on the desert floor becomes a grand, eroded rock arch framing the distant sierra. I believe that the use of the dusty white skull as a symbol of the desert states (think of an Eagles album cover!) can be traced directly back to O’Keeffe’s decision to place them centre-stage in her compositions.

Has the art of animal anatomy run its course, do you think?

Not at all. If anything, there’s more happening now than ever before. Over recent decades it has become clear that biology is bewilderingly complex and detailed, and one of the major challenges we face is explaining and depicting the new superabundance of information in a comprehensible way. As soon as a neuroscientist generates a scan of the internal nervous pathways of the brain, they have to make artistic – yes, artistic – decisions, if they are to intelligibly represent the tangled and cascading neural superhighways they’ve discovered. Modern, computer-generated diagrams of animal structure and biology are usually beautiful, and always striking. Animal anatomy has even made its way into modern street art. One of the most inspiring images in the book is of a dog’s skull, spay-painted freehand apparently, by the artist SHOK1, onto a building-site hoarding in Walthamstow, North London. It’s one of the most anatomically accurate depictions in the book, a true memento mori for the modern age. The pace of anatomical art is hastening, not slowing – I’m sure there is much more to come.

 

David Bainbridge is University Clinical Veterinary Anatomist at the University of Cambridge. His books include Curvology: The Origins and Power of Female Body Shape and Beyond the Zonules of Zinn: A Fantastic Journey through Your Brain.

Galápagos: Finding Food

Adapted from pages 54-64 of Galápagos:

Galápagos Sea Lion.

Galápagos animals organize much of their lives around the search for food. Because there is so little food on these mostly barren islands, these animals display a remarkable set of adaptations for finding it. This chapter explores the behaviors of the hunters and the hunted, vegetarians, sand grazers, and food stealers. We will encounter underwater foragers who can excrete excess salt from seawater and omnivorous birds who drink the blood of baby sea turtles. But like so much in the Galápagos, our story of Galápagos animals finding food begins in the ocean.

Flightless Cormorant catching a Barberfish.

Mature Galápagos Sea Lions survive by catching and eating fish. They forage over enormous distances, swimming six or more miles per day to find food. Other animals know sea lions are good at fishing, and some birds employ the strategy of trying to steal a meal from them.

A Ghost Crab.

Many Galápagos animals live right at the water’s edge, either catching their prey along the coast or venturing farther out to sea to find a meal. But not all animals who depend on food from the sea eat fish. For example, Marine Iguanas are vegetarians, foraging exclusively on algae underwater and along the coastline. They sneeze to excrete the excess salt they ingest by swallowing seawater. And sea predators themselves sometimes become food; Galápagos Hawks sometimes eat Galápagos Sea Lion and Galápagos Fur Seal carcasses, placentas, and pups.

 

Galápagos: Life in Motion
by Walter Perez & Michael Weisberg

The Galápagos Islands are home to an amazing variety of iconic creatures, from Giant Tortoises, Galápagos Sea Lions, Galápagos Penguins, and Ghost Crabs to Darwin’s finches, the Blue-footed Booby, and Hummingbird Moths. But how precisely do these animals manage to survive on—and in the waters around—their desert-like volcanic islands, where fresh water is always scarce, food is often hard to come by, and finding a good mate is a challenge because animal populations are so small? In this stunning large-format book, Galápagos experts Walter Perez and Michael Weisberg present an unprecedented photographic account of the remarkable survival behaviors of these beautiful and unique animals. With more than 200 detailed, close-up photographs, the book captures Galápagos animals in action as they feed, play, fight, court, mate, build nests, give birth, raise their young, and cooperate and clash with other species.

Watch male Marine Iguanas fight over territory and females; see frigatebirds steal food and nesting materials from other birds; witness the courtship dance of a pair of Blue-footed Boobies; go underwater to glimpse a Galápagos Sea Lion pup playing with its mother; and observe a baby Pacific Green Turtle enter the water for the first time. These and dozens of other unforgettable senes are all vividly captured here—including many moments that even experienced Galápagos observers may never be lucky enough to see in person.

Complete with a brief text that provides essential context, this book will be cherished by Galápagos visitors and anyone else who wants to see incredible animals on the move.

Bird Fact Friday – Feral Pigeons

Adapted from pages 69-72 of How to Be an Urban Birder:

Photo credit: David Lindo

Feral Pigeons are sometimes referred to disparagingly as Flying Rats by city folk. The term ‘Flying Rat’ first appeared in a New York Times article in 1966, but was actually popularized by Woody Allen in his 1980 film Stardust Memories, in which he referred to these pigeons as rats with wings. Along with their non flying mammalian namesake, they have got to be the most hated feathered creature in the land, surely? Pigeons poop whenever the desire takes them, with little respect for the unfortunate souls who might be standing underneath at the time. They certainly foul the pavements below their nest sites: classically underneath railway bridges or in deserted buildings in cities.

There have been many studies and surveys conducted of urban birds, some of which have come back with surprising results. Pigeons are one such fascinating subject matter. For example, research has shown that they are able to recognize the faces of the people that feed them, even if those faces are in a crowd of others. In London, some have learnt to ride the tube system, seemingly purposefully disembarking a few stops later to continue nonchalantly pecking at the pavement. They are accused of being dirty and spreading diseases. But do they? Why do they come in so many colour variations? And how come we never see baby pigeons?

In terms of their propensity for spreading disease, you would be forgiven for thinking that Feral Pigeons harboured every ailment known to man, plus a few that we perhaps don’t yet know about. This is seemingly visually corroborated by the sight of some individuals sporting gammy legs, club feet and very dishevelled plumages. Pigeons are known to carry lurgies like chlamydiosis or psittacosis, a bacterial infection that has flu-like symptoms. The jury is still out as to how much of a health risk they pose to humans, as many experts believe that the chances of catching anything from them are minimal. It is the droppings that we really have to worry about. Fresh droppings plopped on your head, whilst being unpleasant and, contrastingly, a sign of good luck, pose no risk to health. It is when they become dried that things can get dodgy. Spores from these droppings can be carried on the wind and be inhaled as dust. This can cause a flu-like illness in healthy people and a much more serious reaction in those with low immunity. Additionally, accumulations of droppings, which are highly acidic, can cause long-term damage to buildings, much to the chagrin of council officials.

Far from being boring and not very intelligent, Feral Pigeons have a fascinating life history, one part of which often flummoxes members of the public – the often-posed question “how come we never see baby pigeons?” The answer is actually quite simple. Young pigeons, or squabs, remain in the nest until they are about the same size as an adult – so when they make their debut appearances on our streets they are often indistinguishable from their parents.

 

LindoHow to Be an Urban Birder
By David Lindo

Urban birding is fast becoming ornithology’s new rock ’n’ roll. Birds and birding have never been cooler—and urban birding is at the cutting edge.

How to Be an Urban Birder is the world’s first guide to the art of urban birding—which is so easy and great fun! Here, urban birding pioneer David Lindo tells you everything you need to know about birds and birding in towns and cities in the UK.

  • Includes a brief history of urban birding in the UK
  • Covers the best places to look for birds in towns and cities
  • Helps you get to know your urban birds
  • Gives useful tips on how to attract birds to your garden
  • Explains what gear you need and how to go about being an urban birde
  • Features hundreds of cool images and illustrations of birds in urban settings

Galápagos: The Islands’ Environment

Our newest blog series takes a look at the Galápagos Islands, as seen in Galápagos: Life in Motion, the lavish new photographic celebration that captures the fascinating behaviors of land and sea animals that call the islands home. Each week, Princeton Nature will highlight three gorgeous photos of the Galápagos wildlife. 

Adapted from pages 8-18 of the text:

Male Galápagos Land Iguana feeding on vegetation, Santa Cruz Island

In The Voyage of the Beagle, Charles Darwin called the Galápagos archipelago “a little world within itself.” But it would be more accurate to see it as many worlds—a large set of unique habitats, or environmental niches, located together in a small place. This chapter presents a journey through them, beginning with the occasionally lush, but mostly inhospitable, terrain of these volcanic islands. These inland areas give way to the coastal zone, with its own complement of animals eking out an existence, which in turn transition down the water column to the shallow parts of the Pacific Ocean’s floor.

Galápagos Dove nesting on a prickly pear cactus, North Seymour Island

On the surface, the Galápagos Islands look very different from the tropical paradise most visitors expect. These islands are volcanic in origin and relatively young, qualities that lead to many of their otherworldly features. Land-dwelling animals need to find a niche among the costal rocks, the scrubby plants just inland, or, on some islands, in the semitropical highlands.

The Pacific Green Turtle heading back to the water after building her nest, Santiago Island

Giant Tortoises may be the most easily recognized land-dwelling animals in the Galápagos, but they are far from the only ones. Lava lizards are widespread; there are nine species found throughout the islands. These lizards are an example of adaptive radiation, through which closely related but distinct species have evolved on different islands. The Galápagos is also home to three species of land iguanas, who live in the scrubby inland forests.

Galápagos: Life in Motion
by Walter Perez & Michael Weisberg

The Galápagos Islands are home to an amazing variety of iconic creatures, from Giant Tortoises, Galápagos Sea Lions, Galápagos Penguins, and Ghost Crabs to Darwin’s finches, the Blue-footed Booby, and Hummingbird Moths. But how precisely do these animals manage to survive on—and in the waters around—their desert-like volcanic islands, where fresh water is always scarce, food is often hard to come by, and finding a good mate is a challenge because animal populations are so small? In this stunning large-format book, Galápagos experts Walter Perez and Michael Weisberg present an unprecedented photographic account of the remarkable survival behaviors of these beautiful and unique animals. With more than 200 detailed, close-up photographs, the book captures Galápagos animals in action as they feed, play, fight, court, mate, build nests, give birth, raise their young, and cooperate and clash with other species.

Watch male Marine Iguanas fight over territory and females; see frigatebirds steal food and nesting materials from other birds; witness the courtship dance of a pair of Blue-footed Boobies; go underwater to glimpse a Galápagos Sea Lion pup playing with its mother; and observe a baby Pacific Green Turtle enter the water for the first time. These and dozens of other unforgettable scenes are all vividly captured here—including many moments that even experienced Galápagos observers may never be lucky enough to see in person.

Complete with a brief text that provides essential context, this book will be cherished by Galápagos visitors and anyone else who wants to see incredible animals on the move.

The Dog Days of Summer: Hybrid Dogs

Adapted from pages 180-181 of The Dog:

Data suggest that, on average, mixed breeds and crossbreeds have some health advantages over purebreds, probably because they are less inbred. As they have much higher genetic variation, they are less likely to suffer from inherited genetic diseases and more likely to live longer than purebreds.

Behavioral studies detected differences between mixed breeds and purebred dogs. Mixed-breed dogs were generally reported to be more disobedient, more nervous, more excitable, and more fearful. Excessive barking was also more frequent in their case.

They were also reported to be more aggressive toward unfamiliar people, more sensitive to touch, and had an increased risk of developing behavior problems (such as noise phobia) than purebreds. One may assume that most differences emerge because mixed-breed dogs experience less optimal early socialization and their genetic constitution also differs.

A whippet mix with a strong resemblance to the small greyhound is always ready to run. Photo credit: Grigorita Ko, Shutterstock

It is possible that a large proportion of present-day mixed breeds with unknown genetic histories originate from populations that have been under continuous selection for independent survival skills, making them more independent, assertive and more nervous/ alert. In contrast, dog breeders generally selectively breed dogs that make good human companions, focusing on favorable (calmer) behavior characteristics. Despite the different selective forces, numerous mixed-breed individuals obviously do make ideal companion dogs, as the magnitude of the differences between mixed breeds and purebreds are small.

Hybrid vigor is also known as heterosis or enhancement of outbreeding. The first generation of crossing dogs from two different breeds (or lines within a breed) produces hybrids with usually positive overall effects on health and biological functions. The explanation is that these individuals more likely inherit different gene variants (heterozygosity) that make them more resistant to environmental challenges, including pathogens.

Heterozygosity may be advantageous in other cases as well. Whippets with a single copy of a mutated gene that affects muscle composition are more muscular, and are among the fastest dogs in racing. However, whippets with two copies of the same mutation (homozygosity) develop too much muscle, which makes them rather slower.

The Dog: A Natural History
By Ádám Miklósi

As one of the oldest domesticated species, selectively bred over millennia to possess specific behaviors and physical characteristics, the dog enjoys a unique relationship with humans. More than any other animal, dogs are attuned to human behavior and emotions, and accordingly play a range of roles in society, from police and military work to sensory and emotional support. Selective breeding has led to the development of more than three hundred breeds that, despite vast differences, still belong to a single species, Canis familiaris.

The Dog is an accessible, richly illustrated, and comprehensive introduction to the fascinating natural history and scientific understanding of this beloved species. Ádám Miklósi, a leading authority on dogs, provides an appealing overview of dogs’ evolution and ecology; anatomy and biology; behavior and society; sensing, thinking, and personality; and connections to humans.

Illustrated with some 250 color photographs, The Dog begins with an introductory overview followed by an exploration of the dog’s prehistoric origins, including current research about where and when canine domestication first began. The book proceeds to examine dogs’ biology and behavior, paying particular attention to the physiological and psychological aspects of the ways dogs see, hear, and smell, and how they communicate with other dogs and with humans. The book also describes how dogs learn about their physical and social environments and the ways they form attachments to humans. The book ends with a section showcasing a select number of dog breeds to illustrate their amazing physical variety.

Beautifully designed and filled with surprising facts and insights, this book will delight anyone who loves dogs and wants to understand them better.

The Dog Days of Summer: Separation Anxiety

Adapted from pages 162-163 of The Dog:

Many social species, including humans and dogs, exhibit distress responses when separated from attachment figures. This is normal and natural behavior for both infants and puppies.

Separation anxiety is relatively rare among outside-living dogs (though they are also devoted to their owners), which implies that there could be something more in the phenomenon than simply being overly dependent on the owner. Separation anxiety is much more common in dogs living in flats and apartments in towns and cities.

Keeping a dog requires time and care; dogs are active animals who are not happy left alone for long.
Photo credit: James Kirkikis, Shutterstock.

Companion dogs with separation anxiety typically eliminate, vocalize, or engage in destructive behavior when left alone in the apartment. Some breeds and some breeding lines are more prone to show separation anxiety than others. The role of inheritance is of crucial importance here, because only the mild, nongenetically based cases can be remedied easily by applying the training methods published on many experts’ websites.

“Hyperattachment” to the owner has been assumed to be the main underlying cause of separation anxiety, but most results support a more complex explanation. For example, some dogs develop separation anxiety when they are 6–7 years old, while others seem to be born with it.

Since separation-related disorders in dogs seem to have considerably diverse underlying causes, the solution may need to include a specific combination of medication and behavioral therapy, which is adjusted for each individual case. Buying another dog might help reduce boredom, but usually does not solve the problem in the case of a true separation related issue. As a short-term management, if possible, the use of a human dog sitter, or leaving the dog at a daycare center or a neighbor’s, can reduce or solve the problem.

The Dog: A Natural History
By Ádám Miklósi

As one of the oldest domesticated species, selectively bred over millennia to possess specific behaviors and physical characteristics, the dog enjoys a unique relationship with humans. More than any other animal, dogs are attuned to human behavior and emotions, and accordingly play a range of roles in society, from police and military work to sensory and emotional support. Selective breeding has led to the development of more than three hundred breeds that, despite vast differences, still belong to a single species, Canis familiaris.

The Dog is an accessible, richly illustrated, and comprehensive introduction to the fascinating natural history and scientific understanding of this beloved species. Ádám Miklósi, a leading authority on dogs, provides an appealing overview of dogs’ evolution and ecology; anatomy and biology; behavior and society; sensing, thinking, and personality; and connections to humans.

Illustrated with some 250 color photographs, The Dog begins with an introductory overview followed by an exploration of the dog’s prehistoric origins, including current research about where and when canine domestication first began. The book proceeds to examine dogs’ biology and behavior, paying particular attention to the physiological and psychological aspects of the ways dogs see, hear, and smell, and how they communicate with other dogs and with humans. The book also describes how dogs learn about their physical and social environments and the ways they form attachments to humans. The book ends with a section showcasing a select number of dog breeds to illustrate their amazing physical variety.

Beautifully designed and filled with surprising facts and insights, this book will delight anyone who loves dogs and wants to understand them better.

Browse our 2018 Politics Catalog

Our new Politics catalog includes an examination of the intertwined lives and writings of a group of prominent twentieth-century Jewish thinkers who experienced exile and migration, a look at the troubling ethics and politics of philanthropy, and an  in-depth account of the 2016 presidential election that explains Donald Trump’s historic victory.

If you’ll be at ASPA 2018 in Boston, stop by Booth 316 to see our full range of political titles.

exile, statelessness, and migration cover

Exile, Statelessness, and Migration explores the intertwined lives, careers, and writings of a group of prominent Jewish intellectuals during the mid-twentieth century—in particular, Theodor Adorno, Hannah Arendt, Walter Benjamin, Isaiah Berlin, Albert Hirschman, and Judith Shklar, as well as Hans Kelsen, Emmanuel Levinas, Gershom Scholem, and Leo Strauss. Informed by their Jewish identity and experiences of being outsiders, these thinkers produced one of the most brilliant and effervescent intellectual movements of modernity.

just giving cover

Is philanthropy, by its very nature, a threat to today’s democracy? Though we may laud wealthy individuals who give away their money for society’s benefit, Just Giving shows how such generosity not only isn’t the unassailable good we think it to be but might also undermine democratic values and set back aspirations of justice. Big philanthropy is often an exercise of power, the conversion of private assets into public influence. And it is a form of power that is largely unaccountable, often perpetual, and lavishly tax-advantaged. The affluent—and their foundations—reap vast benefits even as they influence policy without accountability. And small philanthropy, or ordinary charitable giving, can be problematic as well. Charity, it turns out, does surprisingly little to provide for those in need and sometimes worsens inequality.

Identity Crisis cover

Donald Trump’s election victory stunned the world. How did he pull it off? Was it his appeal to alienated voters in the battleground states? Was it Hillary Clinton and the scandals associated with her long career in politics? Were key factors already in place before the nominees were even chosen? Identity Crisis provides a gripping account of the campaign that appeared to break all the political rules—but in fact didn’t.

Bird Fact Friday— Blackcap

For the next three weeks, David Lindo – author of How to Be an Urban Birder – will take over our Bird Fact Friday series. Check out these posts every week to learn about the different birds he’s encountered in his travels through the Concrete Jungle. In his latest entry, he highlights the Blackcap.

The Blackcap. Photo credit: Rubén Cebrián.

The Blackcap is one of Britain’s and indeed, Europe’s most familiar summer songsters. Its rich warbling is often cited as one of the best of any bird in the land. Its song led it to be referred to as the Northern Nightingale and the King of Warblers in the 1700’s during the days of Gilbert White – the pioneering English naturalist. With perhaps 1.2 million breeding pairs, this handsome warbler has steadily spread across the UK. Elsewhere, Blackcaps breed over much of Europe, western Asia and northwestern Africa favouring mature deciduous woodland. Nearly all winter around the Mediterranean and tropical Africa. However, it is well known that a steadily increasing number of Eastern European and, in particular, German birds are migrating west to winter in Britain. They are even evolving thicker bills to deal with the bird table food that we provide.

Listen to the singing males in Switzerland, Austria and southern Germany as they sometimes sing a different variant to their usual song. It is a very abbreviated warble ending in a repeated ‘tuuli, tuuli, tuuli’.

How to Be an Urban Birder
By David Lindo

Urban birding is fast becoming ornithology’s new rock ’n’ roll. Birds and birding have never been cooler—and urban birding is at the cutting edge.

How to Be an Urban Birder is the world’s first guide to the art of urban birding—which is so easy and great fun! Here, urban birding pioneer David Lindo tells you everything you need to know about birds and birding in towns and cities in the UK.

  • Includes a brief history of urban birding in the UK
  • Covers the best places to look for birds in towns and cities
  • Helps you get to know your urban birds
  • Gives useful tips on how to attract birds to your garden
  • Explains what gear you need and how to go about being an urban birde
  • Features hundreds of cool images and illustrations of birds in urban settings

The Dog Days of Summer: Dogs as Assistants

Adapted from pages 144 to 147 of The Dog:

Photo credit: picsoftheday, Shutterstock

The role of dogs as social companions and helpmates in the tasks of daily life dates back thousands of years, and many early civilizations regarded dogs in much the same way as we do today. Traditional ways of providing help (such as in herding or hunting), however, have gradually been supplemented with some new ways of cooperation during the last few hundred years. Dogs in modern society participate in new “coworker roles,” assisting security services with drug detection, security, and rescue operations.

Unfortunately, there is no universally accepted system for categorizing dogs that help humans in many ways. Some dogs act mainly as sensory aids, others warn their owner of some danger, and many dogs execute actions that lie beyond the capabilities of their owners.

Guide dogs for the blind assist their blind or visually impaired owner to stop at curbs and steps, to avoid obstacles, to cross roads in a safe manner, and to provide physical and emotional support in many different situations. Dogs are trained to work by the means of a harness with a U-shaped handle that promotes direct physical connection between the dog and his human partner. The owner’s role in the team is to provide directional  commands, while the dog’s role is to react with intelligent disobedience (disobeying an unsafe or dangerous command) in order to ensure the team’s safety.

Hearing dogs are trained specifically to alert their handlers who are deaf or hard of hearing to household sounds, such as a doorbell, telephone ring, alarm clock, or crying baby. The dog’s role is to physically contact the owner in case of hearing some significant sound and to lead his deaf partner to the source. Nudging and touching with the paws are common behaviors that dogs offer spontaneously as an attention-getting signal, and hearing-dog training relies on using this natural inclination.

Physical assistance dogs assist people with physical disabilities in a variety of ways. They retrieve out-of-reach objects, open and close doors, and turn lights on and off. These dogs can learn many other tasks, and after the general training they need to learn about the specific requirements of their job that depend on their owner’s actual disabilities. A well-trained dog may learn to execute 50–60 actions on a given verbal or gestural signal.

Seizure response dogs can provide help for people with epilepsy during a seizure. Their repertoire covers a variety of activities related to potential lifesaving duties. They are trained to alert family members, lie next to their owners to prevent injury, and to operate pushbutton devices to call the emergency services. Training of seizure response dogs differs greatly from the training of other assistant dogs. These dogs are socialized very extensively with their future owner from early on to allow the development of extreme dependence and perfect cooperation. They gradually become sensitive to small changes in human behavior and/or odor cues that precede an oncoming seizure. Some dogs may develop the ability to predict the occurrence of a seizure many minutes ahead, and alert the person in time.

The Dog: A Natural History
By Ádám Miklósi

As one of the oldest domesticated species, selectively bred over millennia to possess specific behaviors and physical characteristics, the dog enjoys a unique relationship with humans. More than any other animal, dogs are attuned to human behavior and emotions, and accordingly play a range of roles in society, from police and military work to sensory and emotional support. Selective breeding has led to the development of more than three hundred breeds that, despite vast differences, still belong to a single species, Canis familiaris.

The Dog is an accessible, richly illustrated, and comprehensive introduction to the fascinating natural history and scientific understanding of this beloved species. Ádám Miklósi, a leading authority on dogs, provides an appealing overview of dogs’ evolution and ecology; anatomy and biology; behavior and society; sensing, thinking, and personality; and connections to humans.

Illustrated with some 250 color photographs, The Dog begins with an introductory overview followed by an exploration of the dog’s prehistoric origins, including current research about where and when canine domestication first began. The book proceeds to examine dogs’ biology and behavior, paying particular attention to the physiological and psychological aspects of the ways dogs see, hear, and smell, and how they communicate with other dogs and with humans. The book also describes how dogs learn about their physical and social environments and the ways they form attachments to humans. The book ends with a section showcasing a select number of dog breeds to illustrate their amazing physical variety.

Beautifully designed and filled with surprising facts and insights, this book will delight anyone who loves dogs and wants to understand them better.

Five Books to Read in Honor of National Honey Bee Day

August 22nd is National Honey Bee Day and, in honor of the occasion, Princeton Nature would like to recommend five of our most recent titles that will get you buzzing about these vital bugs.

The Bee cover

Bees pollinate more than 130 fruit, vegetable, and seed crops that we rely on to survive. Bees are crucial to the reproduction and diversity of flowering plants, and the economic contributions of these irreplaceable insects measure in the tens of billions of dollars each year. Yet bees are dying at an alarming rate, threatening food supplies and ecosystems around the world. In The Bee, a richly illustrated natural history of the titular insect, Noah Wilson-Rich and his team of bee experts provide a window into the vitally important role that bees play in the life of our planet.

You can also check out Noah Wilson-Rich’s essay about the founding of his beekeeping company, The Best Bees Company, here.

Honeybees make decisions collectively–and democratically. Every year, faced with the life-or-death problem of choosing and traveling to a new home, honeybees stake everything on a process that includes collective fact-finding, vigorous debate, and consensus building. In fact, as world-renowned animal behaviorist Thomas Seeley reveals, these incredible insects have much to teach us when it comes to collective wisdom and effective decision making. A remarkable and richly illustrated account of scientific discovery, Honeybee Democracy brings together, for the first time, decades of Seeley’s pioneering research to tell the amazing story of house hunting and democratic debate among the honeybees.

You can read our Q+A with author Thomas Seeley here.

For centuries, the beauty of fireflies has evoked wonder and delight. Yet for most of us, fireflies remain shrouded in mystery: How do fireflies make their light? What are they saying with their flashing? And what do fireflies look for in a mate? In Silent Sparks, noted biologist and firefly expert Sara Lewis dives into the fascinating world of fireflies and reveals the most up-to-date discoveries about these beloved insects. From the meadows of New England and the hills of the Great Smoky Mountains, to the rivers of Japan and mangrove forests of Malaysia, this beautifully illustrated and accessible book uncovers the remarkable, dramatic stories of birth, courtship, romance, sex, deceit, poison, and death among fireflies.

You can read this op-ed about the importance of fireflies by author Sara Lewis here

Following the Wild Bees is a delightful foray into the pastime of bee hunting, an exhilarating outdoor activity that used to be practiced widely but which few people know about today. Thomas Seeley, a world authority on honey bees, vividly describes the history and science behind this lost pastime and how anyone can do it. Following the Wild Bees is both a unique meditation on the pleasures of the natural world and a guide to the ingenious methods that compose the craft of the bee hunter.

Check out some photographs from one of Thomas Seeley’s bee hunts here

The Bees in Your Backyard provides an engaging introduction to the roughly 4,000 different bee species found in the United States and Canada, dispelling common myths about bees while offering essential tips for telling them apart in the field.

The book features more than 900 stunning color photos of the bees living all around us—in our gardens and parks, along nature trails, and in the wild spaces between. It describes their natural history, including where they live, how they gather food, their role as pollinators, and even how to attract them to your own backyard. Ideal for amateur naturalists and experts alike, it gives detailed accounts of every bee family and genus in North America, describing key identification features, distributions, diets, nesting habits, and more.

Check out our Q&A with authors Joseph S. Wilson and Olivia J. Messinger Carril here.

The Dog Days of Summer: Bonding with Humans

Adapted from page 141 of The Dog:

The dog–human attachment relationship is bidirectional: Dogs tend to show emotional and behavioral signs of attachment toward humans, and in parallel humans readily perceive this relationship as attachment entailing the subjective impression of psychological connectedness. Individualized attachment to a human caregiver develops throughout the life of a dog and, unless drastic changes in the dogs’ social relationships happen, the adult dog’s attachment toward its owners is fairly stable over long periods of time.

Importantly, however, dogs do not need to be acquired in early puppyhood for an attachment to develop and even breaking the attachment relationship does not impair most dogs’ ability to form new attachment relationships later in life. Adult dogs from other families or from shelters may also be able to establish strong attachment to their new human caregiver. Such flexibility of establishing new attachment relationships even at a late age is unique to domestic dogs.

Although there is some disagreement over the evolutionary origin of dogs’ infant-like attachment behavior, domestication has probably contributed to the emergence of this social skill. Much of the recent scientific debate is about the relative contribution of domestication (genetic predispositions) and social experiences during life (socialization) to the phenomenon. Comparative  investigations of extensively socialized wolves and dogs indicate that, despite much experience with humans, the members of the former species do not develop doglike attachment behavior toward their caregiver. Thus, the domestic dog is not a tamed wolf; multifunctional psychological relationships do exist between people and dogs.

The infant-like attachment that bonds the dog to its human caregivers is apparently lacking in wolves and thus may reflect dogs’ evolutionary adaptation to the human social environment. Photo credit: DGLimages, Shutterstock

In dogs, patterns of attachment toward humans can be observed as early as 16 weeks of age, and dog puppies show very similar behavioral patterns as those described in adult dogs. Attachment behavior in dogs may be affected by experience during development, and also by the owner’s personality. Dogs showing separation-related behavior problems are more likely to belong to owners who would also describe themselves as being insecurely attached.

The Dog: A Natural History
By Ádám Miklósi

As one of the oldest domesticated species, selectively bred over millennia to possess specific behaviors and physical characteristics, the dog enjoys a unique relationship with humans. More than any other animal, dogs are attuned to human behavior and emotions, and accordingly play a range of roles in society, from police and military work to sensory and emotional support. Selective breeding has led to the development of more than three hundred breeds that, despite vast differences, still belong to a single species, Canis familiaris.

The Dog is an accessible, richly illustrated, and comprehensive introduction to the fascinating natural history and scientific understanding of this beloved species. Ádám Miklósi, a leading authority on dogs, provides an appealing overview of dogs’ evolution and ecology; anatomy and biology; behavior and society; sensing, thinking, and personality; and connections to humans.

Illustrated with some 250 color photographs, The Dog begins with an introductory overview followed by an exploration of the dog’s prehistoric origins, including current research about where and when canine domestication first began. The book proceeds to examine dogs’ biology and behavior, paying particular attention to the physiological and psychological aspects of the ways dogs see, hear, and smell, and how they communicate with other dogs and with humans. The book also describes how dogs learn about their physical and social environments and the ways they form attachments to humans. The book ends with a section showcasing a select number of dog breeds to illustrate their amazing physical variety.

Beautifully designed and filled with surprising facts and insights, this book will delight anyone who loves dogs and wants to understand them better.

The Dog Days of Summer: Transferring Information

Adapted from pages 122-123 of The Dog:

Dogs have been exposed to selection that favored the development of an understanding of the social world. Living in the anthropogenic environment, dogs must be able to acquire and store information coming from a range of social partners in order to work well among humans—a phenomenon called social learning.

Even though they are predators, dogs are able to learn socially about food, which affects their preference. Alongside genetically influenced preferences or disgust toward certain flavors, dogs can also follow the example of conspecifics in deciding what to eat. Dog embryos in the womb experience the mother’s diet (via the joint blood circulation) and as puppies when sucking her milk. Older dogs may sniff the breath of their dog (or even human) companion, and this can make them show a preference for what the other has just consumed at a later time.

Dogs gain information about each other by smelling the other’s face. Apart from recognizing the identity of a partner, dogs may also learn about what the other has just eaten. Photo credit: everydoghasastory, Shutterstock

Dogs may also use different mechanisms, such as direct observation, when relying on conspecifics’ examples in overcoming problems. In studies exploring how observation leads to learning and  knowing, a selected dog (the demonstrator) is trained to perform a task, such as using its paws to pull a tray containing food inside its cage. Following that, other, task-naïve dogs are allowed to observe the demonstrator dog solving the problem. Next, one of the observer dogs is confronted with the task to see how much it grasped by watching.

Results show that dogs have a tendency to reproduce the observed actions, and thus find the solution easier than by individual learning, relying on their trial-error skills. By doing so they may rely on different kinds of information. For example, it may be that the behavior of the demonstrator dog directs the observer’s attention to certain parts of the object or the environment and later this helps the learner to figure out the solution on its own. However, dogs may also be capable of recognizing the relationship between the demonstrator’s goal and action. In this case, the observer dogs may choose to act in the same way as they saw the demonstrator act.

The Dog: A Natural History
By Ádám Miklósi

As one of the oldest domesticated species, selectively bred over millennia to possess specific behaviors and physical characteristics, the dog enjoys a unique relationship with humans. More than any other animal, dogs are attuned to human behavior and emotions, and accordingly play a range of roles in society, from police and military work to sensory and emotional support. Selective breeding has led to the development of more than three hundred breeds that, despite vast differences, still belong to a single species, Canis familiaris.

The Dog is an accessible, richly illustrated, and comprehensive introduction to the fascinating natural history and scientific understanding of this beloved species. Ádám Miklósi, a leading authority on dogs, provides an appealing overview of dogs’ evolution and ecology; anatomy and biology; behavior and society; sensing, thinking, and personality; and connections to humans.

Illustrated with some 250 color photographs, The Dog begins with an introductory overview followed by an exploration of the dog’s prehistoric origins, including current research about where and when canine domestication first began. The book proceeds to examine dogs’ biology and behavior, paying particular attention to the physiological and psychological aspects of the ways dogs see, hear, and smell, and how they communicate with other dogs and with humans. The book also describes how dogs learn about their physical and social environments and the ways they form attachments to humans. The book ends with a section showcasing a select number of dog breeds to illustrate their amazing physical variety.

Beautifully designed and filled with surprising facts and insights, this book will delight anyone who loves dogs and wants to understand them better.