Bird Fact Friday – Iceland Gull

Adapted from page 118-119 of Gulls Simplified:

An adult Iceland Gull has a round head; gentle expression; very pale silver-gray back; short pink legs; and a short, slender, bullet-shaped bill. Photo credit: Lloyd Spitalnik.

The Iceland Gull is a smallish, plumpish-bodied, round-headed, petite-billed, short-legged, uniformly pale gull nestled amid the collage of contrastingly patterned Herring Gulls clustered on the beach.

This medium-large, pleasingly proportioned gull is smaller, plumper breasted, and shorter legged than Herring Gull, and typically distinctly smaller and less bulky than the similarly plumaged Glaucous Gull, from which Iceland may be distinguished by its longer wings that extend well beyond the tail of standing birds (generally a bill length beyond the tail). In adult birds, primaries range from white or light gray to charcoal gray, and to black in Thayer’s Gull, a subspecies of Iceland Gull.

Iceland’s bill ranges from petite and bullet shaped to fairly long, with a decurved tip on larger birds. The bill is mostly dark on immature/1st winter birds, but some birds can show a pinkish to yellowish bill with an ill-defined black tip at this age. Immature Glaucous Gull’s larger bill is richer pink and has a more sharply demarcated dark tip compared to that of immature Iceland. A round head, short neck, and shortish legs
impart a plumpish, pigeon-like impression to many Iceland Gulls (an attribute never applied to the bulky, barrel-chested Glaucous Gull). In winter, the head of adult Iceland shows limited to no streaking, except for the Thayer’s subspecies, which can show a heavily streaked head and neck. In a mixed flock with Herring Gulls, Iceland’s (Kumlien’s) smaller size and plain, pale, uniform plumage stand out.

Thayer’s subspecies of Iceland Gull (thayeri) averages intermediate in size and structure between large Kumlien’s Iceland Gull and small Herring Gull, but its adult plumage is much closer to that of Herring Gull with respect to the gray shading of its upperparts and black wing tips. While many adult Thayer’s have dark eyes, some birds on the Pacific coast have pale to dusky eyes, so this field mark is not absolute. Rather than including extensive ID criteria for the Thayer’s subspecies here, we ask that you please refer to captions in the Thayer’s subspecies section of Iceland Gull at the end of this account for characteristics that distinguish it from Kumlien’s Iceland Gull and Herring Gull.

Gulls Simplified
A Comparative Approach to Identification
By Pete Dunne and Kevin Karlson

This unique photographic field guide to North America’s gulls provides a comparative approach to identification that concentrates on the size, structure, and basic plumage features of gulls—gone are the often-confusing array of plumage details found in traditional guides.

Featuring hundreds of color photos throughout, Gulls Simplified illustrates the variations of gull plumages for a variety of ages, giving readers strong visual reference points for each species. Extensive captions accompany the photos, which include comparative photo arrays, digitized photo arrays for each age group, and numerous images of each species—a wealth of visual information at your fingertips. This one-of-a-kind guide includes detailed species accounts and a distribution map for each gull.

An essential field companion for North American birders, Gulls Simplified reduces the confusion commonly associated with gull identification, offering a more user-friendly way of observing these marvelous birds.

  • Provides a simpler approach to gull identification
  • Features a wealth of color photos for easy comparison among species
  • Includes detailed captions that explain identification criteria and aging, with direct visual reinforcement above the captions
  • Combines plumage details with a focus on size, body shape, and structural features for easy identification in the field
  • Highlights important field marks and physical features for each gull
This post is part of a series, explore additional posts here<< Bird Fact Friday – Traditional Gull ID ProblemsBird Fact Friday – Antpittas >>