Şevket Pamuk discusses the first comprehensive history of the Turkish economy

The population and economy of the area within the present-day borders of Turkey has consistently been among the largest in the developing world, yet there has been no authoritative economic history of Turkey until now. In Uneven Centuries, Şevket Pamuk examines the economic growth and human development of Turkey over the past two hundred years.

Taking a comparative global perspective, Pamuk investigates Turkey’s economic history through four periods: the open economy during the nineteenth-century Ottoman era, the transition from empire to nation-state that spanned the two world wars and the Great Depression, the continued protectionism and import-substituting industrialization after World War II, and the neoliberal policies and the opening of the economy after 1980. Making use of indices of GDP per capita, trade, wages, health, and education, Pamuk argues that Turkey’s long-term economic trends cannot be explained only by immediate causes such as economic policies, rates of investment, productivity growth, and structural change.

What did you try to do in this book ? / What does this book try to do?

This book examines economic growth and human development in Turkey during the last two centuries from a comparative global perspective. It establishes in both absolute and relative terms Turkey’s record in economic growth and human development and evaluates both the proximate and deeper causes of this record.

Why did you choose to focus on the last two centuries?

The Industrial Revolution that began in Great Britain in the second half of the eighteenth century had far reaching consequences not only for Western Europe but also for the rest of the world. During the next two centuries, along with industrial capitalism, modern economic growth spread unevenly across the globe. Most of the patterns of development as well as the disparities we observe around the world today have emerged during the last two centuries.

What is your main argument?

After studying the case of Turkey, I came to the conclusion that economic variables are necessary for understanding long term economic development but they do not tell the whole story. Long term economic development cannot be fully understood without taking into account the social and political environment as well as the historical causes.

What relevance does the book have for those interested in the developing countries and the economic history of developing countries?

Turkey is one of the larger developing countries. Like other developing countries, Turkey’s institutions and economy have received their share of influences from the outside. In each of the four historical periods I examine in the book, governments in Turkey pursued economic policies similar to those of other developing countries. Moreover, Turkey’s long term economic performance has been close to both the world and developing country averages during the last two centuries. For these reasons and in contrast to the more successful developing countries, Turkey is a more representative case and offers more insights into the experiences of other developing countries. Yet, in contrast to the more successful cases, Turkey’s long term economic development has not been studied well. An economic history of Turkey during the last two centuries has not previously been available in any language.

What are Turkey’s special features, in your opinion?

As is the case of other developing countries, Turkey’s institutions and economy have certainly been influenced by global forces and institutions. One of the special features of Turkey is that it has not experienced colonial rule in history. The area within the present borders of Turkey was part of a large multi-ethnic empire until the end of World War I and modern Turkey emerged as one of the successor states after the end of the Ottoman Empire. As a result, Turkey’s institutions during the last two centuries were shaped, in addition to the global influences, by the interaction between the new institutions shaped by the elites of the new nation state and those that existed, including the Islamic-Ottoman institutions of the earlier era.

Şevket Pamuk is professor of economics and economics history at Bogaziçi University in Istanbul. His books include A Monetary History of the Ottoman Empire and The Ottoman Empire and European Capitalism, 1820–1913.