Bird Fact Friday— Mediterranean Gull

Adapted from pages 68-71 of Gulls of the World:

The Mediterranean Gull is a three-year gull. They are medium-sized and compact with large squarish head, a deep parallel-edged bill with drooping tip, dark eyes and long legs. The largest males of this species are almost size of Common Gull and have the heaviest bills. Meanwhile, the smallest females are Black-headed Gull-sized with shorter, stubby bills. Settled birds look stocky with long legs; when relaxed, often appear compact and neckless with flat back. Swimming birds sit high on water.

In flight, these gulls are full-bodied with a short neck, ‘well-fed’ belly and shortish-looking wings, appearing rounded and in adults very pale. Flight with stiffer wing-beats than Black-headed and Common Gulls, somewhat recalling that of small egrets (particularly in the case of palewinged adults). May feed with short dips, but will also chase flying insects like Black-headed Gull.

A Mediterranean Gull.

Their most common call is a mellow yelping ee-ar or yee-ah, slightly reminiscent of male  Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope, or small barking dog.

These gulls nest along coasts and lagoons with sparse vegetation, generally avoiding barren sand. They breed mainly from Black Sea region westwards; extension of breeding range from 1940s to scattered regions of S Europe northwards to Denmark and westwards to southern England.

Migration takes place mainly coastal with large concentrations around W Black Sea in September before leaving for winter quarters in S Black Sea and Mediterranean. Most of W European population gathers in N France following breeding season. They are regular visitors to Europe north of breeding range. Vagrant to Iceland, Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Macaronesia, Africa S to Senegal, The Gambia and Kenya, and Jordan, Iraq, Arabian Gulf and Kazakhstan.

Gulls of the World
By Klaus Malling Olsen

With more than 50 gull species in the world, this family of seabirds poses some of the greatest field identification challenges of any bird group: age-related plumage changes, extensive variations within species, frequent hybridization, and complex distribution. 

Gulls of the World takes on these challenges and is the first book to provide a comprehensive look at these birds. Concise text emphasizes field identification, with in-depth discussion of variations as well as coverage of habitat, status, and distribution. Abundant photographs highlight identification criteria and, crucially, factor in age and subspecific field separation. Informative species accounts are accompanied by detailed color range maps.

Gulls of the World is the most authoritative photographic guide to this remarkable bird family.

  • The first book to provide in-depth coverage of all the world’s gull species
  • More than 600 stunning color photographs
  • Concise text looks at variations, habitat, status, and distribution
  • Informative species accounts and color range maps
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