Amazing Arachnids: Tarantulas

Adapted from pages 165-172 of Amazing Arachnids:

Tarantulas range in size from the largest spider in the world, Theraphosa blondi of South America, with a leg span of up to about 10 inches (25 cm), to Aphonopelma paloma, with a leg span of only 0.75 inches (2 cm).

Tarantulas also have a variety of lifestyles and behaviors, from the stereotypically solitary burrow dweller to the subsocial behavior of some communal species, such as the dwarf tarantula species Holothele (from South America) and Heterothele (from Africa). These communal spiders may cooperatively kill prey and young spiders share the kill. Circumstantial evidence suggests that even some species that live in underground burrows may have extended maternal care of young. In a number of instances, young tarantulas well beyond the third instar have been found  sharing an adult female’s burrow, leading to speculation regarding whether the mother shares food with her offspring.

Tarantula

Aphonopelma chalcodes adult male. These large males have a leg span of about 4 inches (10 cm) and are a common sight as they wander during the summer monsoon season (July and August) in southern Arizona.

The tarantulas of the southwestern United States belong to the genus Aphonopelma. These range in size from fairly large species such as Aphonopelma chalcodes, with a leg span of about 4 to 5 inches (10– 12.7 cm), to the tiny Aphonopelma paloma. A number of Aphonopelma are intermediate in size and are restricted to the mountains of southern Arizona. These tarantulas have a leg span of only about 2 inches (5 cm). The males mature in late fall or winter and may be seen as they wander in search of females even when there is snow on the ground. Because these mountain ranges are separated by barriers of low desert, many of the “sky island” populations have been geographically separated long enough that they are separate species.

One of the most common and conspicuous species is Aphonopelma chalcodes, also known as the desert blond tarantula. This handsome spider lives in an underground burrow in the low-elevation deserts of Arizona and may take about 10 years to reach maturity. The male looks markedly thinner and leggier than the female and, in addition, acquires a tibial spur on his front legs with his final molt. The males leave their burrows upon reaching maturity and go wandering in search of females. They are a familiar sight in the southern Arizona desert during the summer monsoon season, cruising at night or during the late afternoon, especially after a summer rain storm.

Hollywood has effectively exploited these fears, conjuring up giant tarantulas, deadly venomous tarantulas, and tarantulas that wipe out entire towns. But these animals have so much more to offer than cheap thrills. Their beauty and their diversity in both appearance and lifestyle defy the imagination and far surpass Hollywood’s wildest dreams. Certainly, they compel our respect, as does any predator capable of self-defense, but they also deserve our appreciation and protection.

We included a photo of one of the largest tarantulas – but what about the smallest? Head to our Instagram to see how tiny tarantulas can be. 

Amazing Arachnids coverAmazing Arachnids
By Jillian Cowles

The American Southwest is home to an extraordinary diversity of arachnids, from spitting spiders that squirt silk over their prey to scorpions that court one another with kissing and dancing. Amazing Arachnids presents these enigmatic creatures as you have never seen them before. Featuring a wealth of color photos of more than 300 different kinds of arachnids from eleven taxonomic orders–both rare and common species—this stunningly illustrated book reveals the secret lives of arachnids in breathtaking detail, including never-before-seen images of their underground behavior.

Amazing Arachnids covers all aspects of arachnid biology, such as anatomy, sociality, mimicry, camouflage, and venoms. You will meet bolas spiders that lure their victims with fake moth pheromones, fishing spiders that woo their mates with silk-wrapped gifts, chivalrous cellar spiders, tiny mites, and massive tarantulas, as well as many others. Along the way, you will learn why arachnids are living fossils in some respects and nimble opportunists in others, and how natural selection has perfected their sensory structures, defense mechanisms, reproductive strategies, and hunting methods.

  • Covers more than 300 different kinds of arachnids, including ones new to science
  • Features more than 750 stunning color photos
  • Describes every aspect of arachnid biology, from physiology to biogeography
  • Illustrates courtship and mating, birth, maternal care, hunting, and defense
  • Includes first-ever photos of the underground lives of schizomids and vinegaroons
  • Provides the first organized guide to macroscopic mites, including photos of living mites for easy reference
This post is part of a series, explore additional posts here<< Amazing Arachnids: Pirate SpidersAmazing Arachnids: The Lace-Weaver Spiders >>