Global Math Week: The Universal Language

by Oscar Fernandez

FernandezFill in the blank: Some people speak English, some speak French, and some speak ____. I doubt you said “math.” Yet, as I will argue, the thought should have crossed your mind. And moreover, the fact that mathematics being a language likely never has, speaks volumes about how we think of math, and why we should start thinking of it—and teaching it—as a language.

To make my point, consider the following fundamental characteristics shared by most languages:

  •  A set of words or symbols (the language’s vocabulary)
  •  A set of rules for how to use these words or symbols (the language’s rules of grammar)
  •  A set of rules for combining these words or symbols to make statements (the language’s syntax)

Now think back to the math classes you have taken. I bet you will soon remember each of these characteristics present throughout your courses. (For instance, when you learned that 𝑎2 means 𝑎 × 𝑎, you were learning how to combine some of the symbols used in mathematics to make a statement—that the square of a number is the number multiplied by itself.) Indeed, viewed this way, every mathematics lesson can be thought of as a language lesson: new vocabulary, rules of grammar, or syntax is introduced; everyone then practices the new content; and the cycle repeats. By extension, every mathematics course can be thought of as a language course.

Now that I have you thinking of mathematics as a language, let me point out the many benefits of this new viewpoint. For one, this viewpoint helps dispel many myths about the subject. For instance, travel to any country and you will find a diverse set of people speaking that country’s language. Some are smarter than others; some are men and some women; perhaps some are Latino and some Asian. Group them as you wish, they will all share the capacity to speak the same language. The same is true of mathematics. It is not a subject accessible only to people of certain intelligence, sex, or races; we all have the capacity to speak mathematics. And once we start thinking of the subject as a language, we will recognize that learning mathematics is like learning any other language: all you need are good teachers, and lots of practice. And while mastering a language is often the endpoint of the learning process, mastering the language that is mathematics will yield much larger dividends, including the ability to express yourself precisely, and the capacity to understand the Universe. As Alfred Adler put it: “

Mathematics is pure language – the language of science. It is unique among languages in its ability to provide precise expression for every thought or concept that can be formulated in its terms.” Galileo—widely regarded the father of modern science—once wrote that Nature is a great book “written in the language of mathematics” (The Assayer, 1623). Centuries later, Einstein, after having discovered the equation for gravity using mathematics, echoed Galileo’s sentiment, writing: “pure mathematics is, in its way, the poetry of logical ideas” (Obituary for Emmy Noether, 1935). Most of us today wouldn’t use words like “language” and “poetry” to describe mathematics. Yet, as I will argue, we should. And moreover, we should start thinking of—and teaching—math as a language.

Oscar E. Fernandez is assistant professor of mathematics at Wellesley College and the author of The Calculus of Happiness: How a Mathematical Approach to Life Adds Up to Health, Wealth, and Love. He also writes about mathematics for the Huffington Post and on his website,