Archives for January 2017

Statement on immigration order from AAUP/ARL

The Association of American University Presses along with the Association of Research Libraries has released the following joint statement, re-posted here in full from the AAUP website.

Research Libraries, University Presses Oppose Trump’s Immigration Order

January 30, 2017—President Trump’s recent executive order temporarily barring entry into the US by individuals from seven countries is contrary to the values held by libraries and presses, and the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and the Association of American University Presses (AAUP) stand unequivocally opposed to this immigration ban.

The order blocks some members of our communities as well as students, researchers, authors, faculty, and their families from entering or returning to the United States if they are currently abroad or leave the country, even if they hold the required visas. The ban will diminish the valuable contributions made to our institutions and to society by individuals from the affected countries. This discriminatory order will deeply impact the ability of our communities to foster dialogue, promote diversity, enrich understanding, advance the progress of intellectual discovery, and ensure preservation of our cultural heritage.

The work we do—particularly the books we publish and collect—illuminates the past and sheds new light on current conversations; informed by this work we believe that the rationale for the ban both ignores history and places assumptions ahead of facts. More importantly, this decision will greatly harm some of the world’s most vulnerable populations. The United States should not turn its back on refugees who are fleeing their war-torn homes and have already endured long, extensive screening procedures in the relocation process.

Finally, while temporary, the ban will have a long-term chilling effect on free academic inquiry. This order sends a clear message to researchers, scholars, authors, and students that the United States is not an open and welcoming place in which to live and study, conduct research, write, and hold or attend conferences and symposia. The ban will disrupt and undermine international academic collaboration in the sciences, the humanities, technology, and global health.

ARL and AAUP have longstanding histories of and commitments to diversity, inclusion, equity, and social justice. As social institutions, research libraries, archives, and university presses strive to be welcoming havens for all members of our communities and work hard to be inclusive in our hiring, collections, books and publications, services, and environments. The immigration ban in its current form is antithetical to notions of intellectual freedom and free inquiry fundamental to the missions of libraries and presses. By serving as inclusive communities, research libraries, archives, and university presses have deeply benefited from the contributions of students, faculty, staff, and scholars of all backgrounds and citizenships.

ARL and AAUP support all members of their communities and all students, researchers, authors, and faculty who are impacted by this executive order. The two associations urge President Trump to rescind this order and urge Congress to intervene on behalf of those affected by the immigration ban.

Media Contact
John Michael Eadicicco
jeadicicco@aaupnet.org
+1 917 244-3859

About the Association of American University Presses
The Association of American University Presses (AAUP) is an organization of over 140 international nonprofit scholarly publishers. Since 1937, AAUP advances the essential role of a global community of publishers whose mission is to ensure academic excellence and cultivate knowledge. The Association holds integrity, diversity, stewardship, and intellectual freedom as core values. AAUP members are active across many scholarly disciplines, including the humanities, arts, and sciences, publish significant regional and literary work, and are innovators in the world of digital publishing.

About the Association of Research Libraries
The Association of Research Libraries (ARL) is a nonprofit organization of 124 research libraries in the US and Canada. ARL’s mission is to influence the changing environment of scholarly communication and the public policies that affect research libraries and the diverse communities they serve. ARL pursues this mission by advancing the goals of its member research libraries, providing leadership in public and information policy to the scholarly and higher education communities, fostering the exchange of ideas and expertise, facilitating the emergence of new roles for research libraries, and shaping a future environment that leverages its interests with those of allied organizations. ARL is on the web at ARL.org.

Lewis Glinert tells the story of Hebrew

Hebrew has existed for over 3,000 years, but if Moses were to walk along a Tel Aviv street, would he understand the conversation? According to Lewis Glinert, author of The Story of Hebrew, the answer is yes.

The first language of millions of Israelis today, the story of Hebrew’s origins and evolution is  extraordinary. Over the millennia, it attracted Kabbalists and humanists who sought philosophical truth, and Colonial Americans on a quest to shape their own Israelite political identity. The Story of Hebrew explores the hold that Hebrew has had on Jews and non-Jews alike, who have invested it with a symbolic power far beyond that of any other language in history. Preserved by the Jews across two millennia, Hebrew endured long after it ceased to be a mother tongue, resulting in one of the most intense textual cultures ever known. Recently, Glinert answered some questions about his book, Hebrew’s rebirth, and the elemental force driving this unique language.

GlinertIn an age where language is increasingly treated as a mere commodity—a ticket to a job or a mark of prestige—Hebrew is often described as a linguistic miracle. Can that really be so?

LG: Hebrew is certainly unique among languages in being reborn as a mother tongue after 2,000 years—reborn just a century ago, and spoken today by millions. I’ll leave the definition of miracles to philosophers. Even if we could be sure of the constellation of social, political and spiritual forces that made it happen—and we really aren’t—it was clearly an extraordinary event in human history. Could it be repeated? Perhaps. But it’s a tall order to recharge languages in decline even if they’re still spoken, let alone when all you have is written texts.

So how did the rebirth of Hebrew start? Was there a moment of conception?

LG: Yes, it was quite a romantic affair—at least as I heard it from a 91 year old lady, Dola Ben-Yehuda, when I interviewed her 25 years ago for a BBC documentary. She was the last living daughter of the man they called ‘the father of Modern Hebrew,’ Eliezer Ben-Yehuda. He was a fiery young Jewish nationalist, but deeply pessimistic for the future of Jewish cultural identity. So one day he resolved that the Jews must speak their own ancient tongue in their ancient homeland—and in 1881 he made a tryst with his bride that they and any offspring they might have would sail to Israel and speak only Hebrew. And they did! Her father, she told me, wouldn’t even send them to parties in case they picked up Yiddish or Arabic. So there’s your moment of conception…

So one family revived Modern Hebrew?

LG: Far from it. They had to get tens of thousands of people on board—and make it economically viable. Playgroups, schools, workplaces, newspapers, public institutions. They also had to coin an entire modern vocabulary. Pre-State Israel attracted waves of Zionists who loathed Yiddish and other Diaspora languages and loved Hebrew. Some of them, in fact, had already acquired Modern Hebrew in Europe, from newspapers and novels. And then in 1917 came the British, who at first supported Jewish statehood and actually financed the entire school system in Hebrew (standard colonial policy!).

“Let There be Hebrew” is the intriguing name of your first chapter. Does Genesis portray Hebrew as the mother of all tongues?

LG: Not in so many words! But the opening chapters of Genesis explain several names of persons by what they mean in Hebrew. Thus Adam calls his wife Hava (Eve) because ‘she was the mother of all life’ (hay). So, yes, Genesis seems to imply that Hebrew was the first language. But there’s much more to it than that: Genesis has God say ‘Let there be light.’ Did language transcend Creation? How? Religious philosophers and mystics have variously viewed Hebrew as inherently sacred or as a regular human language, or somehow as both. As for the rest of the world’s languages, everyone knows the story of the Tower of Babel and the Lord’s linguistic retribution, but wait—here again, the Bible is unclear: Perhaps there were different languages from the start, and the World Hebrew lost at Babel had just been an acquired lingua franca, a kind of World English ahead of its time.

If Moses were to walk along a Tel Aviv street, would he understand the conversation?

LG: If you gave him a dictionary and a few minutes to adjust to the accent, then yes, Moses would be taking it all in. It’s the same basic vocabulary and word structure as 3,000 years ago, with a streamlined European-style syntax. Kudos to the men and women a century ago who grafted the new Hebrew onto its ancient roots. An Israeli adult can readily open the Bible and start reading.

What about Jesus and his disciples?

LG: Yes, they’d also understand today’s Hebrew! In truth, most of them were more comfortable in Aramaic, which had largely supplanted Hebrew (Aramaic was the main lingua franca in the Near East). But they must all have been versed in reading the Torah and the other Hebrew Scriptures.

You devote considerable space to “Hebrew in the Christian Imagination.” What has Hebrew meant for Christians?

LG: At times a great deal, at times nothing. For centuries, Christians learned the Bible in Latin or Greek or whatever, but suddenly a cry would arise: “Our translations are false. Let us revisit the Hebrew!” And so you have the 4th century hermit Jerome mastering Hebrew and producing what became the standard Latin translation. And again with the humanists—Erasmus, Tyndale, and the authors of the King James version. Hebrew also provided the combustion in religious break-outs: Reformation, Puritanism, Mormonism, and endless but fruitless attempts to use it to convert the Jews. And here and there, a quest for deeper dimensions (Christian Kabbalah) and a new society (Colonial America), which gave us all those American Hebrew place names and perhaps even contributed to our distinctive laws and values.

If a language can maintain its integrity and identity across 3,000 years, is there some elemental force driving it?

LG: A marvelous question. I tried to shake it off (Western academia is uncomfortable with the metaphysical!), but it kept coming back to haunt me. Up to our own times, for a Jewish person to use Hebrew, even just the Alef-Bet, was a statement, and often a struggle. It was about perpetuating a heritage or studying sacred texts, or just connecting with other Jews. The rebirth of Modern Hebrew was perhaps the most intense twist in this elemental vortex. But now, paradoxically, for many Israelis using Hebrew is often an act without meaning. It’s just in the air, taken for granted. For many other Jews, though, the elemental force is still with them—in their language use, their language community, and in the language itself.

What false beliefs have people held about Hebrew?

LG: To name just a few:
“Hebrew letters and sounds have magical powers”.
Esoteric, yes—in the right hands. Magical, no. But once widely believed by simple folk and by Renaissance scholars.

“Native Americans are descended from the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, and spoke a garbled Hebrew.”
Wildly wrong, but some intelligent folk, especially millennialists, thought so—take Elias Boudinot, president of the Continental Congress in 1782.

“Hebrew was dead for 2,000 years until it was reborn.”
OK, it has been reborn in a sense, but it never ‘died.’ It was no longer a mother tongue but it went on being written and read (often aloud), sometimes creatively, and far more widely and intensively than Medieval Latin ever was.

“During those 2000 years, it was just a language of religion.”
Nonsense. It was the written language for European Jewish science, medicine, trade, all serious writing—until the 19th century.

Of all the great works that Hebrew has produced, which would you say are the ‘must reads?’

LG: Where does one begin! Genesis, Isaiah 1 and 11, Ecclesiastes, Psalms 120-134, David’s lament for Saul (2 Samuel 1), Ruth, the Song of Songs, Job. So much of the Bible was once part of the English canon (sigh). Dip into the Penguin Book of Hebrew Verse, Elie Wiesel’s Souls on Fire (Hasidic wisdom), the short stories of Nobel laureate S.Y.Agnon, and a ‘must hear:’ the enchanting songs of Naomi Shemer.

What moved you to write this book? And where do you fit into the story of Hebrew?

LG: Like so many Jewish children down the centuries, I was raised in postwar London on the classic religious texts of ancient Hebrew—Torah, Rashi, Mishnah, Talmud—but when my parents brought me to Israel as a ten-year old, I was enthralled to see people speaking it. I remember thinking: gosh, they have a word for ‘already’ that I never saw, and my father wants me to buy a ‘bus ticket’ in Hebrew! I vowed I would never take it for granted. And behold, my Ph.D. dissertation and my first book were about the syntax of this amazing new Hebrew—then almost uncharted territory. But as I learned from my mentors in Oxford and Jerusalem, Roy Harris and Chaim Rabin, there’s another, richer and even more complex dimension of language: How we use it and what it means for us. And in writing The Story of Hebrew, I hope I can be a tiny part of this story.

Lewis Glinert is Professor of Hebrew Studies at Dartmouth College, where he is also affiliated with the Program in Linguistics. He is the author of The Grammar of Modern Hebrew, The Joys of Hebrew, and The Story of Hebrew.

Announcing Red: The History of a Color

In Red: The History of a Color, Michel Pastoureau writes that to speak of the “color red” is almost a redundancy. The “archetypal color”—and the first that humans mastered and reproduced for painting and dyeing—red has conjured courtly love, danger, beauty, power, politics, and hell. From the paleolithic age through Greco-Roman antiquity to the present, red has represented many things, so many, in fact, that in several languages, the word means “beautiful” and “colorful” at once.

In this gorgeously illustrated book, Pastoureau, the acclaimed author of Blue, Black, and Green, now masterfully navigates centuries of symbolism and complex meanings to present the fascinating and sometimes controversial history of the color red. Take a tour of Red: The History of a Color, and read on about two upcoming giveaways.

For a chance to win one of three copies up for grabs, enter our Goodreads Valentine’s giveaway, which will be running from February 1 to February 28. And for a second chance to win, share your own creative red photos with us on Twitter and Instagram using the hashtag #PUPRed—we’ll be giving another book away to a random participant on Valentine’s day.

Bird Fact Friday – Weekly Warber: Northern parula

Welcome back to the warblers!

From page 366-367 in The Warbler Guide:

The northern parula is very small and active. It has bright yellow throat and breast, and green back patch surrounded by blue. It has broken eye-arcs, which look prominent on its plain bluish face, black lores, and white wing bars. The northern parula is an acrobatic feeder, often hanging upside down. Its bill is brightly bicolored, unlike most other warblers. It is featured on the book cover of The Warbler Guide!

The Warbler Guide
Tom Stephenson & Scott Whittle
Drawings by Catherine Hamilton
Warbler Guide App
Species Account Example: American Redstart Male

Warblers are amwarblerong the most challenging birds to identify. They exhibit an array of seasonal plumages and have distinctive yet oft-confused calls and songs. The Warbler Guide enables you to quickly identify any of the 56 species of warblers in the United States and Canada. This groundbreaking guide features more than 1,000 stunning color photos, extensive species accounts with multiple viewing angles, and an entirely new system of vocalization analysis that helps you distinguish songs and calls.

The Warbler Guide revolutionizes birdwatching, making warbler identification easier than ever before. For more information, please see the author videos on the Princeton University Press website.

Walter Scheidel on what really reduces inequality: Violent shocks

ScheidelWhat really reduces economic inequality? According to Walter Scheidel, the surprising answer is something nobody would wish for: mass violence and catastrophe. Tracing the global history of inequality from the Stone Age to today, Scheidel shows that inequality never dies peacefully—it consistently declines when carnage and disaster strike and increases when peace and stability return. The Great Leveler is the first book to chart the crucial role of violent shocks in reducing inequality over the full sweep of human history around the world. Recently, Scheidel took the time to answer some questions about his startling conclusions:

What is the great leveler?

Violence is the great leveler, expended in massive shocks that upend the established order and flatten the distribution of income and wealth. There are four major types of shocks, which I call the Four Horsemen. That’s a fitting image because they were just as terrible as the bringers of doom in the Revelation of John. The first of them is mass mobilization warfare, which reached its heyday during the two World Wars when enormous physical destruction, confiscatory taxation, aggressive government intervention in the economy, inflation, and the disruption of global flows of trade and capital wiped out elite wealth and redistributed resources on a massive scale. These struggles also served as a uniquely powerful catalyst for equalizing political reform, promoting extensions of the franchise, union membership, and the welfare state. The second is transformative revolution, which was also primarily a phenomenon of the twentieth century, when communists expropriated, redistributed and then collectivized, in the process matching the World Wars in terms of body count and human misery. The collapse of states is the third one, not uncommon in the more distant past: everyone suffered when law and order unraveled but the rich simply had more to lose. Plague rounds off this ghastly quartet. On a number of occasions, most famously during the Black Death of the Late Middle Ages, epidemics carried off so many people that labor became scare and real incomes of workers rose while the land and capital holdings of the upper class lost value.

Your book covers thousands of years. Surely things must have changed over time?

Of course they have, but less than you might think. It was the sources of inequality that experienced the biggest changes. The shift to farming and herding after the last Ice Age let our ancestors create material assets that could be passed on to future generations, allowing some families to pull away from the rest. Later, as states and empires appeared and grew in size and power, elites filled their pockets with profits from public office, corruption, coercion and plunder. While this continues to be common practice in some parts of the world, in the West gains from commerce and enterprise have gradually replaced those more archaic form of enrichment. But even as these changes unfolded over the long run of history, violent shocks remained the most potent mechanisms of leveling.

But what about the postwar decades? Didn’t the economy grow and the middle class prosper at the same time as inequality declined?

That’s true, and that’s why many people in America and Europe look back to this period as a time of great progress and welfare. Current ideas of “making America great again” owe a lot to this happy convergence of affluence and equality, and reflect the understandable desire to somehow bring it back. But we must not forget that it was the carnage and the perils of the Second World War that undergirded the entire process. After the New Deal had ushered in progressive policies, it was the war effort that gave rise to the many invasive regulations and taxes that ensured that future gains would be more equitably distributed. This benign fallout from the war faded over time until a new round of liberalization, competitive globalization and technological change allowed inequality to soar once again. Since the 1980s, the economy has continued to expand but a growing share of the pie has been captured by the much-quoted “one percent.”

That’s a sobering perspective. Aren’t there any other factors that can combat inequality and don’t involve bloodshed and misery?

Absolutely. But they often fall short one way or another. Economic crises may hurt the rich for a few years but don’t normally have serious long-term consequences. By reducing inequality and prompting progressive policies, the Great Depression in the U.S. was a bit of outlier compared to the rest of the world. Perhaps surprisingly, political democracy by itself does not ensure a more equal distribution of income and wealth. Nor does economic growth as such. Education undeniably plays an important role by matching skills with demand for labor: most recently, it helped lower the massive disparities that have long weighed down many Latin American countries. Even so, the historical record shows that all of these factors were at their most effective in the context or aftermath of major violent shocks, such as the World Wars. Successful land reform, which is of critical importance in agrarian societies, has likewise often been the product of war and revolution or the fear of violent conflict.

This doesn’t raise much hope for the future. What are the chances that we will be able to return to a fairer distribution of income and wealth?

That’s a good question, although few people will like my answer. The traditional mechanisms of major leveling, the Four Horsemen, currently lie dormant: technological progress has made future mass warfare less likely, there are currently no revolutions on the horizon, states are much more stable than they used to be, and genetics will help us ward off novel epidemics. That’s a good thing – nobody in their right mind should yearn for death and destruction just to create greater equality. But similarly powerful peaceful means of leveling have yet to be found. And to make matters worse, a number of ongoing developments may drive up inequality even further: the aging of Western societies, immigration’s pressure on social solidarity and redistributive policies, and the prospect of ever more sophisticated automation and genetic and cybernetic enhancement of the human body. Barring major disruptions or an entirely new politics of equality, we may well be poised to enter a long period of polarization, another Gilded Age that separates the haves from the have-nots.

ScheidelWalter Scheidel is the Dickason Professor in the Humanities, Professor of Classics and History, and a Kennedy-Grossman Fellow in Human Biology at Stanford University. The author or editor of sixteen previous books, he has published widely on premodern social and economic history, demography, and comparative history. He is the author of The Great Leveler: Violence and the History of Inequality from the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century.

Announcing the Warbler Guide App, Version 1.1

Everyone loves warblers, and we’re excited to announce the Warbler Guide App Version 1.1 designed for both Android & Apple devices, just in time for the coming spring migration!

Scott Whittle and Tom Stephenson revolutionized how birders study, find, hear, and see warblers with their acclaimed book, The Warbler Guide. Now, with higher-resolution, rotatable 3D models that zoom to feather-level detail, refined search criteria, and new help sections, the Warbler Guide App Version 1.1 is better than ever at using audio and visual clues to help you make rapid and confident warbler identifications. Intuitive audio and video filters, a full song library, and useful comparisons make this an exciting, multi-faceted tool for any birder to use. Take a peek.

Unique new app-only features:

  • High-resolution, zoomable, and rotatable 3D models of birds in all plumages, to match field experience of a birder
  • Intuitive, visual, and interactive finders with filters for possible species based on audio and visual criteria chosen by the user
  • Playback of all songs and vocalizations with sonograms makes study of vocalizations easy
  • Selectable finder sortings grouped by color, alphabetical order, song type, and taxonomic order
  • Interactive song finder using objective vocabulary for fast ID of unknown songs
  • Simultaneous visual and song finders makes identifying an unknown warbler even easier
  • Half-speed song playback allows for easier study of song structure
  • Comparison species with selectable side, 45 degree, and undertail views
  • Features 75 3D images
  • Covers 48 species and 75 plumages
  • Includes 277 vocalizations, 156 songs, 73 contact calls, and 48 flight calls
  • Detailed “how to use” tutorial screens

Britain’s Birds a perfect companion for RSPB’s Big Garden Birdwatch

Winter doldrums got you down? Try counting birds! The RSPB’s Big Garden Birdwatch is the world’s largest wildlife survey. Attracting more than half a million participants last year, it helped to build an incredibly detailed picture of garden wildlife across the UK. This year’s RSPB Big Garden Birdwatch will run from January 28th to 30th, so you might want to grab a copy of Britain’s Birds, sure to help with identification whether you’re a seasoned birdwatcher or on your first time out.

Britain’s BirdsHume et al. Britain's Birds
An Identification Guide to the Birds of Britain and Ireland
Rob Hume, Robert Still, Andy Swash, Hugh Harrop & David Tipling
Introduction

Britain’s Birds will be enjoyed, valued and constantly referred to by all birdwatchers—whether beginner, experienced or professional. This is the most comprehensive, up-to-date and practical bird book of modern times, featuring an unrivaled selection of photographs that show all the plumages you are likely to see. Focusing on identification, and containing maps, facts and figures on numbers and distributions, this breakthrough publication was devised by a team of lifelong birdwatchers, all with many years’ experience of showing people birds and producing user-friendly field guides.

 

David Alan Grier: The Light of Computation

by David Alan Grier

When one figure steps into the light, others can be seen in the reflected glow. The movie Hidden Figures has brought a little light to the contributions of NASA’s human computers. Women such as Katherine Goble Johnson and her colleagues of the West Area Computers supported the manned space program by doing hours of repetitive, detailed orbital calculations. These women were not the first mathematical workers to toil in the obscurity of organized scientific calculation. The history of organized computing groups can be traced back to the 17th century, when a French astronomer convinced three friends to help him calculate the date that Halley’s comet would return to view. Like Johnson, few human computers have received any recognition for their labors. For many, only their families appreciated the work that they did. For some, not even their closest relatives knew of their role in the scientific community.

GrierMy grandmother confessed her training as a human computer only at the very end of her life. At one dinner, she laid her fork on the table and expressed regret that she had never used calculus. Since none of us believed that she had gone to college, we dismissed the remark and moved the conversation in a different direction. Only after her passing did I find the college records that confirmed she had taken a degree in mathematics from the University of Michigan in 1921. The illumination from those records showed that she was not alone. Half of the twelve mathematics majors in her class were women. Five of those six had been employed as human computers or statistical clerks.

By 1921, organized human computing was fairly common in industrialized countries. The governments of the United States, Germany, France, Great Britain, Japan, and Russia supported groups that did calculations for nautical almanacs, national surveys, agricultural statistics, weapons testing, and weather prediction. The British Association for the Advancement of Science operated a computing group. So did the Harvard Observatory, Iowa State University, and the University of Indiana. One school, University College London, published a periodical for these groups, Tracts for Computers.

While many of these human computers were women, most were not. Computation was considered to be a form of clerical work, which was still a career dominated by men. However, human computers tended to be individuals who faced economic or social barriers to their careers. These barriers prevented them from becoming a scientist or engineer in spite of their talents. In the book When Computers Were Human, I characterized them as “Blacks, women, Irish, Jews and the merely poor.” One of the most prominent computing groups of the 20th century, the Mathematical Tables Project, hired only the impoverished. It operated during the Great Depression and recruited its 450 computers from New York City’s unemployment rolls.

During its 10 years of operations, the Math Tables Project toiled in obscurity. Only a few members of the scientific community recognized its contributions. Hans Bethe asked the group to do the calculations for a paper that he was writing in the physics of the sun. The engineer Philip Morse brought problems from his colleagues at MIT. The pioneering computer scientist John von Neumann asked the group to test a new mathematical optimization technique after he was unable to test it on the new ENIAC computer. However, most scientists maintained a distance between themselves and the Mathematical Tables Project. One member of the Academy of Science explained his reservations about the Project with an argument that came to be known as the Computational Syllogism. Scientists, he argued, are successful people. The poor, he asserted, are not successful. Therefore, he concluded, the poor cannot be scientists and hence should not be employed in computation.

Like the human computers of NASA, the Mathematical Tables Project had a brief moment in the spotlight. In 1964, the leader of the Project, Gertrude Blanch, received a Federal Woman’s Award from President Lyndon Johnson for her contributions to the United States Government. Yet, her light did not shine far enough to bring recognition to the 20 members of the Math Tables Project who published a book, later that year, on the methods of scientific computing. The volume became one of the most highly sold scientific books in history. Nonetheless, few people knew that it was written by former human computers.

The attention to Katherine Goble Johnson is welcome because it reminds us that science is a community endeavor. When we recognize the authors of scientific articles, or applaud the distinguished men and women who receive Nobel Prizes (or in the case of computer science, Turing Medals) we often fail to see the community members that were essential to the scientific work. At least in Hidden Figures, they receive a little of the reflected light.

David Alan Grier is the author of When Computers Were Human. He writes “Global Code” for Computer magazine and products the podcast “How We Manage Stuff.” He can be reached at grier@gwu.edu.

Cipher challenge #3 from Joshua Holden: Binary ciphers

The Mathematics of Secrets by Joshua Holden takes readers on a tour of the mathematics behind cryptography. Most books about cryptography are organized historically, or around how codes and ciphers have been used in government and military intelligence or bank transactions. Holden instead focuses on how mathematical principles underpin the ways that different codes and ciphers operate. Discussing the majority of ancient and modern ciphers currently known, The Mathematics of Secrets sheds light on both code making and code breaking. Over the next few weeks, we’ll be running a series of cipher challenges from Joshua Holden. The last post was on subliminal channels. Today’s is on binary ciphers:

Binary numerals, as most people know, represent numbers using only the digits 0 and 1.  They are very common in modern ciphers due to their use in computers, and they frequently represent letters of the alphabet.  A numeral like 10010 could represent the (1 · 24 + 0 · 23 + 0 · 22 + 1 · 2 + 0)th = 18th letter of the alphabet, or r.  So the entire alphabet would be:

 plaintext:   a     b     c     d     e     f     g     h     i     j
ciphertext: 00001 00010 00011 00100 00101 00110 00111 01000 01001 01010

 plaintext:   k     l     m     n     o     p     q     r     s     t
ciphertext: 01011 01100 01101 01110 01111 10000 10001 10010 10011 10100

 plaintext:   u     v     w     x     y     z
ciphertext: 10101 10110 10111 11000 11001 11010

The first use of a binary numeral system in cryptography, however, was well before the advent of digital computers. Sir Francis Bacon alluded to this cipher in 1605 in his work Of the Proficience and Advancement of Learning, Divine and Humane and published it in 1623 in the enlarged Latin version De Augmentis Scientarum. In this system not only the meaning but the very existence of the message is hidden in an innocuous “covertext.” We will give a modern English example.

Suppose we want to encrypt the word “not” into the covertext “I wrote Shakespeare.” First convert the plaintext into binary numerals:

   plaintext:   n      o     t
  ciphertext: 01110  01111 10100

Then stick the digits together into a string:

    011100111110100

Now we need what Bacon called a “biformed alphabet,” that is, one where each letter can have a “0-form” and a “1-form.”We will use roman letters for our 0-form and italic for our 1-form. Then for each letter of the covertext, if the corresponding digit in the ciphertext is 0, use the 0-form, and if the digit is 1 use the 1-form:

    0 11100 111110100xx
    I wrote Shakespeare.

Any leftover letters can be ignored, and we leave in spaces and punctuation to make the covertext look more realistic. Of course, it still looks odd with two different typefaces—Bacon’s examples were more subtle, although it’s a tricky business to get two alphabets that are similar enough to fool the casual observer but distinct enough to allow for accurate decryption.

Ciphers with binary numerals were reinvented many years later for use with the telegraph and then the printing telegraph, or teletypewriter. The first of these were technically not cryptographic since they were intended for convenience rather than secrecy. We could call them nonsecret ciphers, although for historical reasons they are usually called codes or sometimes encodings. The most well-known nonsecret encoding is probably the Morse code used for telegraphs and early radio, although Morse code does not use binary numerals. In 1833, Gauss, whom we met in Chapter 1, and the physicist Wilhelm Weber invented probably the first telegraph code, using essentially the same system of 5 binary digits as Bacon. Jean-Maurice-Émile Baudot used the same idea for his Baudot code when he invented his teletypewriter system in 1874. And the Baudot code is the one that Gilbert S. Vernam had in front of him in 1917 when his team at AT&T was asked to investigate the security of teletypewriter communications.

Vernam realized that he could take the string of binary digits produced by the Baudot code and encrypt it by combining each digit from the plaintext with a corresponding digit from the key according to the rules:

0 ⊕ 0 = 0
0 ⊕ 1 = 1
1 ⊕ 0 = 1
1 ⊕ 1 = 0

For example, the digits 10010, which ordinarily represent 18, and the digits 01110, which ordinarily represent 14, would be combined to get:

1 0 0 1 0
0 1 1 1 0


1 1 1 0 0

This gives 11100, which ordinarily represents 28—not the usual sum of 18 and 14.

Some of the systems that AT&T was using were equipped to automatically send messages using a paper tape, which could be punched with holes in 5 columns—a hole indicated a 1 in the Baudot code and no hole indicated a 0. Vernam configured the teletypewriter to combine each digit represented by the plaintext tape to the corresponding digit from a second tape punched with key characters. The resulting ciphertext is sent over the telegraph lines as usual.

At the other end, Bob feeds an identical copy of the tape through the same circuitry. Notice that doing the same operation twice gives you back the original value for each rule:

(0 ⊕ 0) ⊕ 0 = 0 ⊕ 0 = 0
(0 ⊕ 1) ⊕ 1 = 1 ⊕ 1 = 0
(1 ⊕ 0) ⊕ 0 = 1 ⊕ 0 = 1
(1 ⊕ 1) ⊕ 1 = 0 ⊕ 1 = 1

Thus the same operation at Bob’s end cancels out the key, and the teletypewriter can print the plaintext. Vernam’s invention and its further developments became extremely important in modern ciphers such as the ones in Sections 4.3 and 5.2 of The Mathematics of Secrets.

But let’s finish this post by going back to Bacon’s cipher.  I’ve changed it up a little — the covertext below is made up of two different kinds of words, not two different kinds of letters.  Can you figure out the two different kinds and decipher the hidden message?

It’s very important always to understand that students and examiners of cryptography are often confused in considering our Francis Bacon and another Bacon: esteemed Roger. It is easy to address even issues as evidently confusing as one of this nature. It becomes clear when you observe they lived different eras.

Answer to Cipher Challenge #2: Subliminal Channels

Given the hints, a good first assumption is that the ciphertext numbers have to be combined in such a way as to get rid of all of the fractions and give a whole number between 1 and 52.  If you look carefully, you’ll see that 1/5 is always paired with 3/5, 2/5 with 1/5, 3/5 with 4/5, and 4/5 with 2/5.  In each case, twice the first one plus the second one gives you a whole number:

2 × (1/5) + 3/5 = 5/5 = 1
2 × (2/5) + 1/5 = 5/5 = 1
2 × (3/5) + 4/5 = 10/5 = 2
2 × (4/5) + 2/5 = 10/5 = 2

Also, twice the second one minus the first one gives you a whole number:

2 × (3/5) – 1/5 = 5/5 = 1
2 × (1/5) – 2/5 = 0/5 = 0
2 × (4/5) – 3/5 = 5/5 = 1
2 × (2/5) – 4/5 = 0/5 = 0

Applying

to the ciphertext gives the first plaintext:

39 31 45 45 27 33 31 40 47 39 28 31 44 41
 m  e  s  s  a  g  e  n  u  m  b  e  r  o
40 31 35 45 46 34 31 39 31 30 35 47 39
 n  e  i  s  t  h  e  m  e  d  i  u  m

And applying

to the ciphertext gives the second plaintext:

20  8  5 19  5  3 15 14  4 16 12  1  9 14 
 t  h  e  s  e  c  o  n  d  p  l  a  i  n
20  5 24 20  9 19  1 20 12  1 18  7  5
 t  e  x  t  i  s  a  t  l  a  r  g  e

To deduce the encryption process, we have to solve our two equations for C1 and C2.  Subtracting the second equation from twice the first gives:


so

Adding the first equation to twice the second gives:


so

Joshua Holden is professor of mathematics at the Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology.

Bird Fact Friday – Weekly Warbler: Worm-eating

Welcome back to the warblers!

From page 460-461 in The Warbler Guide:

The worm-eating warbler can be identified by its mustard-colored head with four bold black stripes. It has long, pale, and slightly curved bill, and plain, dusky-olive back and wings. The male and female worm-eating warblers look the same in all seasons. The worm-eating warbler is deliberate and acrobatic in its explorations of the understory. It specializes in picking insects from hanging dead leaves.

The Warbler Guide
Tom Stephenson & Scott Whittle
Drawings by Catherine Hamilton
Warbler Guide App
Species Account Example: American Redstart Male

Warblers are amwarblerong the most challenging birds to identify. They exhibit an array of seasonal plumages and have distinctive yet oft-confused calls and songs. The Warbler Guide enables you to quickly identify any of the 56 species of warblers in the United States and Canada. This groundbreaking guide features more than 1,000 stunning color photos, extensive species accounts with multiple viewing angles, and an entirely new system of vocalization analysis that helps you distinguish songs and calls.

The Warbler Guide revolutionizes birdwatching, making warbler identification easier than ever before. For more information, please see the author videos on the Princeton University Press website.

The Brooklyn Nobody Knows: Flatbush

william helmreichSociologist William B. Helmreich’s urban walking guide, The Brooklyn Nobody Knows, details the beauty, diversity and history that combine to make Brooklyn what is arguably New York’s hottest borough. By simply walking around, talking to residents, and absorbing the borough’s rich history, Helmreich captures the essence and unique facets of Brooklyn. The book is filled with detailed facts and vivid imagery that will inspire a deeper look at these popular (and lesser-known) neighborhoods. We’ve been featuring a selection of these on our blog, with several more to come. Today we take a look at Flatbush.

Flatbush is made up of different subdivisions, each with a strong sense of community and its own identity. This diverse neighborhood is full of great places to shop, dine, see charming Victorian and Queen Anne style homes, and of course, shop:

At the intersection of Caton and Flatbush Avenues, I take a quick walk through the Flatbush Caton Market. It’s a small indoor mall, basically a large, high-ceilinged shed occupied mostly by specialty stores selling clothing, pocketbooks, jewelry, and what New Yorkers call ‘tchotchkes’ of every kind. Many of the stores emphasize ethnic themes, especially from Haiti, which is not surprising since there’s a large Haitian presence here.

Flatbush

The Chateau Frontenacis one of the most beautiful buildings to be found in Brooklyn

Brooklyn is home to numerous places of worship and located in Flatbush is a rare find: A Cambodian Buddhist temple.

At 26  Rugby Road, just off Caton Avenue, I discover a genuinely unusual place. It’s a Cambodian Buddhist temple in a large private home, one of only two Cambodian temples in the city, the other located in the Bronx. Religious and national flags flutter in the pleasant breeze on a bright, sunny Sunday morning…

One of the most architecturally beautiful buildings is located in Flatbush: Chateau Frontenac. The exterior and interior are visually pleasing and the building has attracted numerous famous individuals. A John Lennon documentary was filmed there and it was even the home for some of the Brooklyn Dodgers.

Walking south on Ocean to Tennis Court, I turn right, stop short, and behold, a stunning building on the right called the Chateau Frontenac. Built in 1929, its exterior is one of the prettiest in Brooklyn. It’s a red brick building trimmed with white stone, with emblems of the French royal court, like the heraldic salamander, carved into it. Note the beautiful pilasters that frame the arched entranceway and the graceful wrought-iron entrance to the inner courtyard.

William B. Helmreich is an award-winning author who has written many books including The New York Nobody Knows: Walking 6,000 Miles in the City (Princeton), where he wrote an analysis of all five of New York City’s boroughs. The book won him the inaugural 2014–15 Guides Association of New York Award for Outstanding Achievement in Book Writing. He is the professor of sociology at City College of New York’s Colin Powell School for Civic and Global Leadership and at CUNY Graduate Center. The Brooklyn Nobody Knows is the first of five planned walking guides, one for each borough of New York City.

Cipher challenge #2 from Joshua Holden: Subliminal channels

The Mathematics of Secrets by Joshua Holden takes readers on a tour of the mathematics behind cryptography. Most books about cryptography are organized historically, or around how codes and ciphers have been used in government and military intelligence or bank transactions. Holden instead focuses on how mathematical principles underpin the ways that different codes and ciphers operate. Discussing the majority of ancient and modern ciphers currently known, The Mathematics of Secrets sheds light on both code making and code breaking. Over the next few weeks, we’ll be running a series of cipher challenges from Joshua Holden. The first was on Merkle’s puzzles. Today’s focuses on subliminal channels:

As I explain in Section 1.6 of The Mathematics of Secrets, in 1929 Lester Hill invented the first general method for encrypting messages using a set of multiple equations in multiple unknowns.  A less general version, however, had already appeared in 1926, submitted by an 18-year-old to a cryptography column in a detective magazine.  This was Jack Levine, who would later become a prolific researcher in several areas of mathematics, including cryptography.

Levine’s system was billed as a way of encrypting two different messages at the same time.  Maybe one of them was the real message and the other was a dummy message–if the message was intercepted, the interceptor could be thrown off the scent by showing them the dummy message.  This sort of system is now known as a subliminal channel.

The system starts with numbering the letters of the alphabet in two different ways:

   a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h  i  j  k  l  m
  27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
   1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13
  
   n  o  p  q  r  s  t  u  v  w  x  y  z
  40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52
  14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Suppose the first plaintext, or unencrypted message, is “tuesday” and the second plaintext is “tonight.”  We use the first set of numbers for the first plaintext:

   t  u  e  s  d  a  y
  46 47 31 45 30 27 51

and the second set for the second plaintext:

   t  o  n  i  g  h  t
  20 15 14  9  7  8 20

The encrypted message, or ciphertext, is made up of pairs of numbers.  The first number in each pair is half the sum of the two message numbers, and the second number is half the difference:

    t       u        e       s       d       a        y
   46      47       31      45      30      27       51
  
    t       o        n       i       g       h        t
   20      15       14       9       7       8       20
  
33,13    31,16  22½,8½   27,18 18½,11½  17½,9½  35½,15½

To decrypt the first message, just take the sum of the two numbers in the pair, and to decrypt the second message just take the difference.  This works because if P1 is the first plaintext number and P2 is the second, then the first ciphertext number is

and the second is

Then the plaintext can be recovered from the ciphertext using

and

This system is not as secure as Hill’s because it gives away too much information.  For starters, the existence and nature of the fractions is a clue to the encryption process.  (The editor of the cryptography column suggested doubling the numbers to avoid the fractions, but then the pattern of odd and even numbers would still give information away.)  Also, the first number in each pair is always between 14 and 39 and is always larger than the second number, which is always between ½ and 25 ½.  This suggests that subtraction might be relevant, and the fact that there are twice as many numbers as letters might make a codebreaker suspect the existence of a second message and a second process.  Hill’s system solves some of these issues, but the problem of information leakage continues to be relevant with modern-day ciphers.

With those hints in mind, can you break the cipher used in the following message?

11 3/5, 15 4/5   10 4/5,  9 2/5   17,     11        14 1/5, 16 3/5
 9 4/5,  7 2/5   12 3/5,  7 4/5    9 2/5, 12  1/5   13 1/5, 13 3/5
18,     11       12 2/5, 14 1/5    8 4/5, 10  2/5   12 1/5,  6 3/5
15 4/5, 12 2/5   13 3/5, 13 4/5   12,     16        11 2/5,  8 1/5
 9 1/5, 16 3/5   14,     17       16 3/5, 12  4/5    9 4/5, 14 2/5
12 1/5,  6 3/5   11 3/5, 15 4/5   10,     11        11 4/5,  6 2/5
10 2/5, 14 1/5   17 2/5, 12 1/5   14 3/5,  9  4/5

Once you have the two plaintexts, can you deduce the process used to encrypt them?

 

Answer to Cipher Challenge #1: Merkle’s Puzzles

The hole in the version of Merkle’s puzzles is that the shift we used for encrypting is vulnerable to a known-plaintext attack. That means that if Eve knows the ciphertext and part of the plaintext, she can get the rest of the plaintext. In Cipher Challenge #1, she knew that the word “ten” is part of the plaintext. So she shifts it until she finds a ciphertext that matches one of the puzzles:

ten
UFO
VGP

“Aha!” says Eve. “The first puzzle starts with VGP, so it must decrypt to ten!” Then she decrypts the rest of the puzzle:

VGPVY QUGXG PVYGP VAQPG UKZVG GPUGX GPVGG PBTPU XSNHT JZFEB
whqwz rvhyh qwzhq wbrqh vlawh hqvhy hqwhh qcuqv ytoiu kagfc
xirxa swizi rxair xcsri wmbxi irwiz irxii rdvrw zupjv lbhgd
yjsyb txjaj sybjs ydtsj xncyj jsxja jsyjj sewsx avqkw mcihe
                             ⋮
qbkqt lpbsb kqtbk qvlkb pfuqb bkpbs bkqbb kwokp snico euazw
rclru mqctc lrucl rwmlc qgvrc clqct clrcc lxplq tojdp fvbax
sdmsv nrdud msvdm sxnmd rhwsd dmrdu dmsdd myqmr upkeq gwcby
tentw oseve ntwen tyone sixte ensev entee nzrns vqlfr hxdcz

So the secret key is 2, 7, 21, 16.

The hole can be fixed by using a cipher that is less vulnerable to known-plaintext attacks. Sections 4.4 and 4.5 of The Mathematics of Secrets give examples of ciphers that would be more secure.