# Archives for February 2015

## Tracing proto-Indo-European

At a first glance, Indian, Iranian, English, and the European languages appear to have few similarities. Nevertheless, historical linguists have discovered the parallel between the languages, proto-Indo-European. This antiquated language has proven quite difficult to trace and has caused debates amongst linguists. Read more about the origins of modern languages in The New York Times. Delve deeper in this interesting topic by reading The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World by David W. Anthony. You can read the first chapter for free, here.

## Calculus predicts more snow for Boston

Are we there yet? And by “there,” we mean spring and all the lovely weather that comes with it. This winter has been a tough one, and as the New York Times says, “this winter has gotten old.”

[Photo Credit: John Talbot]

Our friends in Boston are feeling the winter blues after seven feet of precipitation over three weeks. But how much is still to come? You may not be the betting kind, but for those with shoveling duty, the probability of more winter weather may give you chills.

For this, we turn to mathematician Oscar Fernandez, professor at Wellesley College. Professor Fernandez uses calculus to predict the probability of Boston getting more snow, and the results may surprise you. In an article for the Huffington Post, he writes:

There are still 12 days left in February, and since we’ve already logged the snowiest month since record-keeping began in 1872 (45.5 inches of snow… so far), every Bostonian is thinking the same thing: how much more snow will we get?

We can answer that question with math, but we need to rephrase it just a bit. Here’s the version we’ll work with: what’s the probability that Boston will get at least s more inches of snow this month?

Check out the full article — including the prediction — over at the Huffington Post.

Math has some pretty cool applications, doesn’t it? Try this one: what is the most effective number of hours of sleep? Or — for those who need to work on the good night’s rest routine — how does hot coffee cool? These and other answers can be found through calculus, and Professor Fernandez shows us how in his book, Everyday Calculus: Discovering the Hidden Math All around Us.

This book was named one of American Association for the Advancement of Science’s “Books for General Audiences and Young Adults” in 2014. See Chapter One for yourself.

For more from Professor Fernandez, head over to his website, Surrounded by Math.

Photo Credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/laserstars/.

## Win a copy of The Original Folk & Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm

In anticipation of Cinderella‘s movie release on March 13, we are giving away a copy of The Original Folk & Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm. The total value of this prize is \$35.00.

How to win? There are three ways to enter: visit The Original Folk & Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm’s Facebook page; email us at blog@press.princeton.edu; or follow @PrincetonUPress on Twitter. Just follow the steps in the Rafflecopter box below. The winner will be selected on March 5, 2015.

a Rafflecopter giveaway

[Update: This giveaway has concluded and the winner has been notified, 3/4/15]

 The Original Folk and Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm: The Complete First Edition Jacob & Wilhelm Grimm, Translated and edited by Jack Zipes Illustrated by Andrea Dezsö

## Christopher Prendergast – Mirages and Mad Beliefs: Proust the Skeptic is the winner of the 2015 R. Gapper Prize, Society for French Studies

The R. Gapper Prize is “awarded by the [UK-based] Society for a book published in the field of French studies, appearing for the first time in the previous calendar year. The award commends books of critical and scholarly distinction which have a clear impact on the wider critical debate. It includes a cash prize of £2000.” The winner is “a scholar based in an institution of higher education in the United Kingdom or Ireland. The award is usually made in February of each year and is presented to the winner at the annual conference of the Society for French Studies.”

Prendergast is the only repeat winner of the Gapper Prize – he also won it in 2008 for The Classic. Sainte-Beuve and the Nineteenth-Century Culture Wars (Oxford University Press).

Congratulations to Christopher Prendergast!

 Mirages and Mad Beliefs: Proust the Skeptic Christopher Prendergast

## #NewBooks released February 17, 2015

 The Locust and the Bee: Predators and Creators in Capitalism’s Future Updated edition Geoff Mulgan With a new afterword by the author “Geoff Mulgan’s The Locust and the Bee is an important contribution to this field.” –John Lloyd, Financial Times

## Association of American University Presses Book, Jacket & Journal Show 2015

“Judging for the 2015 AAUP Book, Jacket and Journal Show took place January 22-24 at the AAUP Central Office in New York City. The jurors selected 46 books, 32 jackets and covers, 1 journal, and 3 digital publications as the very best examples from this pool of excellent design. The 2015 Show will premiere at the AAUP Annual Meeting in Denver, June 18-20, 2015. Afterward, the show will be exhibited at member presses around the country from September 2015 through May 2016.”

The full list can also be found on the AAUP website.

Tom Stephenson & Scott Whittle – The Warbler Guide App
2015 AAUP Book, Jacket & Journal Show Selected Entry in Digital Publications, Association of American University Presses
Designer: Tom Stephenson, Scott Whittle, and 100 Robots
Developer: 100 Robots

Nigel Dodd – The Social Life of Money
2015 AAUP Book, Jacket & Journal Show Selected Entry in Trade Typographic, Association of American University Presses
Designer: Chris Ferrante
Production Coordinator: Betsy Litz
Project Editor: Terri O’Prey

Aristotle (Editors, Jonathan Barnes & Anthony Kenny) – Aristotle’s Ethics: Writings from the Complete Works, Revised Edition
2015 AAUP Book, Jacket & Journal Show Selected Entry in Reference, Association of American University Presses
Designer: Jason Alejandro
Production Coordinator: Betsy Litz
Project Editor: Natalie Baan

Christopher Bail – Terrified: How Anti-Muslim Fringe Organizations Became Mainstream
2015 AAUP Book, Jacket & Journal Show Selected Entry in Jackets & Covers, Association of American University Presses
Designer: Amanda Weiss
Production Coordinator: Betsy Litz
Art Director: Maria Lindenfeldar

Congratulations!

## Best Sellers

These are the best-selling books for the past week.

 Alan Turing: The Enigma, The Book That Inspired the Film The Imitation Game by Andrew Hodges The Original Folk and Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm edited by Jack Zipes Irrational Exuberance: Revised and Expanded Third edition by Robert J. Shiller 1177 BC: The Year Civilization Collapsed by Eric H. Cline Telsa: Inventor of the Electrical Age by W. Bernard Carlson How to Solve It: A New Aspect of Mathematical Method by G. Polya The Age of the Vikings by Anders Winroth The I Ching or Book of Changes Edited by Hellmut Wilhem Mastering ’Metrics: The Path from Cause to Effect by Joshua D. Angrist & Jörn-Steffen Pischke The Age of the Crisis of Man: Thought and Fiction in America, 1933-1973 by Mark Greif

## PUP author Nicholas Humphrey wins international Mind and Brain Prize

Nicholas Humphrey, author of Soul Dust: The Magic of Consciousness has won the 2015 Mind and Brain Prize. The award was created by the University of Turin to acknowledge outstanding achievement in the Cognitive Science field. Read more about the award, here. Be sure to read the first chapter of Soul Dust for free, here.

Congratulations to Nicholas Humphrey!

 Soul Dust: The Magic of Consciousness Nicholas Humphrey

## Leah Wright Rigueur on the state of the Republican Party

Last Wednesday, the Republican National Committee Black Republican Trailblazers awards took place in Washington D.C.. The event honored black Republicans both past and present, and this year the awards celebrated the largest class of black Republicans in Congress since Reconstruction. Leah Wright Rigueur, author of The Loneliness of the Black Republican:Pragmatic Politics and the Pursuit of Power commented on the state of the Republican Party to All Things Considered. Read what Rigueur said and learn more about the awards, here.

Be sure to read the introduction to The Loneliness of the Black Republican: Pragmatic Politics and the Pursuit of Power, here.

## Q&A with Lily Geismer, author of Don’t Blame Us: Suburban Liberals and the Transformation of the Democratic Party

Recently Princeton University Press had the opportunity to interview Lily Geismer about her book, Don’t Blame Us: Suburban Liberals and the Transformation of the Democratic Party. Read the introduction for free, here.

Why did you write this book?

LG: The answer to that question changed the longer I worked on the project. I set out to add to and complicate the literature of political and urban history. However, the longer I worked on it I realized that my other goal has been to make readers, especially people who engage in knowledge-based work and who live in suburbs, develop a more comprehensive understanding of the role of policies in shaping their lives and choices. Hopefully, it will help all readers think more critically about their political outlook and decisions.

What inspired you to get into your field?

LG: I was always really interested in contemporary politics and policy and questions of inequality in the United States. I realized as an undergraduate that the best way to explore these contemporary questions came from studying recent American history. When I entered graduate school, I did not intend to study these issues in one particular place or at the local level. However, it became clear that my questions about national political realignment, racial inequality, economic restructuring and the contradictions and transformation of American liberalism were best suited to a study of one particular place and picked to focus on Boston where I am from. The more I worked on the project, I came to understand that many of my questions were unconsciously informed by my experience growing up in Boston and were issues that had interested me since I was a kid and thus were what had pushed me toward the study of history in the first place.

LG: The best piece of advice I received while I was writing the book came from Thomas Sugrue who told me to write the book as if the audience was my undergraduate students at the Claremont Colleges and I had to explain the concepts to them. This advice really helped me figure out to make the writing clearer and more accessible. The other advice that proved very influential came from the Author’s note at the beginning of by J. Anthony Lukas’s Common Ground about the three families he followed through the Boston busing crisis. Lukas explained, “At first, I thought I read clear moral geographies of their intersecting lives, but the more time I spent with them, the harder it became to assign easy labels of guilt or virtue. The realities of urban America when seen through the lives of actual city dwellers, proved far more complicated than I had imagined.” I found myself returning to this statement repeatedly as I sought to make sense of the politics and point of view of the suburban residents I study.

How did you come up with the title or jacket?

LG: The title for the book is a variation on the famous bumper sticker declaring “Don’t Blame Me, I’m from Massachusetts,” which circulated after George McGovern won only the state of Massachusetts in the 1972 election against Richard Nixon and again around Watergate. I thought it provided a way to capture and explore the dimensions of individualist and exceptionalist attitudes of many people who live in Massachusetts. It also provided a point of departure for me to provide a new examination of the McGovern campaign and show how it was not the failure it is often depicted to be, but a precursor to types of campaigns Democratic candidates would increasingly come to run on in an effort to appeal to suburban knowledge workers.

The design for the book jacket is inspired by a highway sign from Route 128, the high-tech corridor outside of Boston on which the book focuses. I am indebted to the wonderful and creative jacket designer Chris Ferrante at Princeton University Press for the cover design, which far exceeded my expectations. I know that you are not supposed to judge a book by the cover, but, in this case, I hope people will!

LG: My next project grew out of Don’t Blame Us, especially the final chapter on Michael Dukakis and the Democratic Party’s pursuit of public-private partnerships and high-tech growth and I wanted to look at these questions more at the national level and into the 1990s. Although still at the very early stages, my new project examines the bi-partisan promotion of market-based solutions to problems of social inequality and privatization of public policy from the Great Society to the Clinton Foundation. I am focusing on the network that emerged as individuals and ideas have increasingly moved between government, academia, and business and how this movement connected and contributed to the economic, health care, education, environmental, housing and urban policies that emerged in the Clinton administration as well the development of public-private, non-profit programs like Teach for America; the popularity of microfinance, both in foreign and domestic contexts; and, the decision of college graduates across the political spectrum to seek employment in the private sector and non-government organizations. The project aims to complicate and challenge prevailing ideas about neoliberalism and show how the Democratic Party and its allies both embody and have influenced the pervasiveness of individualist and entrepreneurial-focused ideology in American policy, culture, and society.

What are you reading right now?

LG: One of the best parts of the book’s release has been that it coincided with the publication of books of members of my graduate school cohort and friends in the field, many of which were also published by Princeton University Press. I just finished Andrew Needham’s Power Lines: Phoenix and the Making of the Modern Southwest (Princeton, 2014) and Nathan Connolly’s A World More Concrete: Real Estate and the Remaking of Jim Crow South Florida (Chicago, 2014). Next up are Leah Wright Rigueur’s The Loneliness of the Black Republican: Pragmatic Politics and the Pursuit of Power (Princeton, 2015) and Kathryn Brownell’s Showbiz Politics: Hollywood in American Political Life (North Carolina, 2014). I have been hearing about these projects for years and it has been so exciting to read them in their finished form.

## A Fairy Tale Romance – Aschenputtel/Cinderella

The Original Folk & Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm have captivated readers for hundreds of years, inspiring numerous television, film, and theme park replications. Most recently is the live-action film Cinderella, scheduled for release on March 13.

In 1812, the Brothers Grimm wrote a tale that had been passed around through different cultures for centuries, Aschenputtel (Cinderella). Many people are surprised to find out that the romantic Disney version of the classic tale is not the whole story. The premise of both tales is the same: finding true love changed Cinderella and the Prince’s life. But some of the most notable differences between the Brothers Grimm tale and Disney’s adaption are not as romantic:

• There is no fairy Godmother. Instead, Cinderella receives her attire from a wishing tree.
• The Prince hosts three balls to find his future bride.
• The Prince tried to capture the runaway Cinderella by putting black pitch on the stairs.
• The evil stepmother demanded her daughters to squeeze their foot into the shoe, even if that meant cutting pieces of their feet off.

To view a complete collection of the Brothers Grimm stories and compare them to the Disney version, check out The Complete First Edition of the Original Folk & Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm translated and edited by Jack Zipes.

Stay tuned for a giveaway of The Original Folk and Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm by following Princeton University Press on Twitter and Facebook.

 The Original Folk and Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm: The Complete First Edition Jacob & Wilhelm Grimm, Translated and edited by Jack Zipes

## The Failure of Islamic Democracy, by John Owen, author of CONFRONTING POLITICAL ISLAM: Six Lessons from the West’s Past — Op-Ed Original

The Failure of Islamic Democracy
By John M. Owen IV

The recent jihadist horrors in France, Pakistan, Nigeria, Iraq, and Syria have lured our attention away from political conditions in the Middle East that indirectly helped produce them. In Turkey and Egypt “Islamic democracy” failed in 2014, and that failure will likely have long and deep repercussions for the entire region.

From northwest Africa to South Asia, majorities of Muslims routinely tell pollsters that they believe their country should either adopt literal Sharia, law derived from Islam’s holy texts, or at least follow the principles of those texts. The secularism that authoritarian Muslims imposed on their peoples from the 1920s through the 1970s is simply not popular over this vast region.

At the same time, the late Arab Spring made clear that Middle Eastern Muslims want governments that are accountable to them. The only resolution for most countries in the region, then, is some kind of Islamic democracy.

The very phrase “Islamic democracy” seems incoherent the Western ear, and indeed any Islamic democracy could not be liberal, in the individualist and secularist sense that we mean by that term today.

What, then, is Islamic democracy? Since it took power in 2002, Turkey’s ruling AK (Justice and Development) Party has invited the world to watch it build just such a system (although its leaders insist on the term “conservative democracy”). The early years of AK Party government under Recep Tayyip Erdoğan looked promising, as the economy grew, negotiations with Kurdish separatists progressed, and Turkey even moved toward membership in the European Union. The AK Party fairly won several elections.

The unraveling began in 2013 with a crackdown on protests, and in 2014 it continued with corruption charges against Erdoğan allies, media censorship, politicization of the judiciary, and arrests of political rivals. Elected President in August after twelve years as Prime Minister, Erdoğan has made clear his determination to expand the powers of that office.

Then there is Egypt. Its stirring 2011 revolution ousted the authoritarian secular regime of Hosni Mubarak, and free elections in 2012 produced an Islamist president, Mohamed Morsi, and an Islamist majority in parliament. Openly admiring of the Turkish model, the new Egypt was poised to exemplify an Arab Islamic democracy.

But in November 2012 Morsi assumed extraordinary powers. Mounting public protests against Morsi’s power grab were followed by his ouster by Egypt’s military in July 2013, led by General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi. In 2014 al-Sisi ran nearly unopposed for President, and while in office he has suppressed the Muslim Brotherhood and all other dissenters. Egypt appears where it was before 2011, only with a different former army general in charge.

Turkey’s Erdoğan has bested his opponents; Egypt’s Morsi was destroyed by his. But in both countries the experiment with Islamic democracy has failed. Each elected leader confronted powerful elites and large segments of the public who did not trust him to remain a democrat. Relations deteriorated, factions polarized, and both countries are settling into sultanism.

These depressing stories are not only about Turkey and Egypt. They are about the future of Islamic democracy itself. For nearly a century the entire Middle East has been passing through a legitimacy crisis, or a struggle over the best way to order society. The West and other regions have passed through legitimacy crises of their own in past centuries – most recently, the twentieth-century struggle between communism and liberal democracy. Prolonged spasms like these scramble political loyalties and generate unrest, revolution, and foreign interventions.

In the Muslims’ current crisis the original contenders in the struggle were secularism, pioneered by Atatürk, founder of the Turkish Republic; and Islamism, formulated by thinkers such as the Sunni Hassan al-Banna and the Shia Ruhollah Khomeini. Many Muslim and non-Muslim scholars, journalists, and politicians lately have touted Islamic democracy as a hybrid solution to this long struggle.

Western history shows that long international ideological contests are played out in the policies and performances of real countries. And they end only when a large, influential state that exemplifies one contending ideology manifestly outperforms large states exemplifying the alternative ideologies.

Consider the Cold War, a struggle between the liberal democracy and communism that played out in the competition between the United States and Soviet Union. By the 1980s America’s economic, technological, and military superiority was clear. Societal elites the world over concluded that communism did not work after all. Country after country abandoned state socialism, and liberal democracy enjoyed a period of predominance over much of the globe.

In 2011 and 2012 it appeared that the Middle East was heading for a similar resolution, with Turkey showing the superiority of Islamic democracy, Egypt following its example, and elites in neighboring societies adopting this new hybrid regime as the wave of the future. As 2015 begins, things look nearly the opposite. Tunisia, which recently held fair elections and a peaceful transfer of power, provides some hope. But if history is a good guide, Tunisia is too small and peripheral to be an exemplar or inspire imitation.

We can continue to argue over whether the retreat of Islamic democracy was inevitable or caused by other factors. We can argue over whether Islamic democracy’s time has passed, or not yet arrived. What is clear is that the Middle East’s legitimacy crisis continues, with an end no longer in sight.

John M. Owen IV is Professor of Politics, and a faculty fellow at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Culture, at the University of Virginia and author of CONFRONTING POLITICAL ISLAM.