FACT: “Typically the party of a sitting president in midterm elections can count on dropping about twenty-five seats in the House of Representatives. On Election Day 1934, however, the Democrats made dramatic gains, winning twenty-three additional seats in the House and nineteen in the Senate. Included among the victorious were another ten leftward-leaning representatives, seven from the Wisconsin Progressive Party and three from the Minnesota Farmer-Labor Party. On the front page of the New York Times, Arthur Krock called the congressional results ‘the most overwhelming victory in the history of modern politics’ for a sitting president.”

When Movements Matter:
The Townsend Plan and the Rise of Social Security

by Edwin Amenta

When Movements Matter accounts for the origins of Social Security as we know it. The book tells the overlooked story of the Townsend Plan—a political organization that sought to alleviate poverty and end the Great Depression through a government-provided retirement stipend of $200 a month for every American over the age of sixty.

Both the Townsend Plan, which organized two million older Americans into Townsend clubs, and the wider pension movement failed to win the generous and universal senior citizens’ pensions their advocates demanded. But the movement provided the political impetus behind old-age policy in its formative years and pushed America down the track of creating an old-age welfare state.

Drawing on a wealth of primary evidence, historical detail, and arresting images, Edwin Amenta traces the ups and downs of the Townsend Plan and its elderly leader Dr. Francis E. Townsend in the struggle to remake old age. In the process, Amenta advances a new theory of when social movements are influential.

The book challenges the conventional wisdom that U.S. old-age policy was a result mainly of the Depression or farsighted bureaucrats. It also debunks the current view that America immediately embraced Social Security when it was adopted in 1935. And it sheds new light on how social movements that fail to achieve their primary goals can still influence social policy and the way people relate to politics.

We invite you to read the Introduction here: http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i8325.pdf

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