FACT: “By 1636 the Cortes de Castilla had established the first tobacco monopoly, ‘the precious jewel’ among Spanish taxes copied in many European polities thereafter. Thanks to it, a Real Cedula exclaimed in 1684, ‘there is no monarch in the world who derives a comparable treasure.’ Cocoa and chocolate were taxed in many towns, too. In the northern regions discussions about he inclusion of maize in the tithe payments promptly emerged in the early seventeenth century. New World commodities became an almost instant success with consumers and tax collectors alike.”

Distant Tyranny: Markets, Power, and Backwardness in Spain, 1650-1800
by Regina Grafe

Spain’s development from a premodern society into a modern unified nation-state with an integrated economy was painfully slow and varied widely by region. Economic historians have long argued that high internal transportation costs limited domestic market integration, while at the same time the Castilian capital city of Madrid drew resources from surrounding Spanish regions as it pursued its quest for centralization. According to this view, powerful Madrid thwarted trade over large geographic distances by destroying an integrated network of manufacturing towns in the Spanish interior.

Challenging this long-held view, Regina Grafe argues that decentralization, not a strong and powerful Madrid, is to blame for Spain’s slow march to modernity. Through a groundbreaking analysis of the market for bacalao—dried and salted codfish that was a transatlantic commodity and staple food during this period—Grafe shows how peripheral historic territories and powerful interior towns obstructed Spain’s economic development through jurisdictional obstacles to trade, which exacerbated already high transport costs. She reveals how the early phases of globalization made these regions much more externally focused, and how coastal elites that were engaged in trade outside Spain sought to sustain their positions of power in relation to Madrid.

Distant Tyranny offers a needed reassessment of the haphazard and regionally diverse process of state formation and market integration in early modern Spain, showing how local and regional agency paradoxically led to legitimate governance but economic backwardness.

Distant Tyranny provides an illuminating discussion of the territorial division of political authority in Spain and market integration there, with an innovative focus on the market in cod. This book is a wonderful contribution to European political and economic history and to the emerging field of global history.”—Avner Greif, Stanford University

We invite you to read Chapter 1 here: